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Contents

w
TUFLOW (and
ESTRY) User Manual

GIS Based 2D/1D Hydrodynamic Modelling
May 2005
ww.tuflow.com


Contents

How to Use This Manual

Chapters

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Appendices
New Features

.tcf File Commands

.ecf File Commands

.tgc File Commands

.tbc File Commands
Command Indexes
Glossary & Notation

Contents




Contents i

How to Use This Manual i

About This Manual i

Chapters ii

Table of Contents iii

Appendices vi

List of Figures ix

List of Tables x

Glossary & Notation xiii


How to Use This Manual

This manual is designed for both hardcopy and digital usage. It was created using Microsoft Word 2000, and has not been tested in its digital mode in other platforms.

Section, table and figures references are hyperlinked (click on the Section, Table or Figure number in the text to move to the relevant page).

Similarly, and most importantly, text file commands are hyperlinked and are easily accessed through the lists at the back (see .tcf File Commands; .ecf File Commands; .tgc File Commands and .tbc File Commands). There are also command hyperlinks in the text (normally blue and underlined). Command text can be copied and pasted into the text files.

Some useful keys to navigate backwards and forwards are Alt Left / Right arrow to go backwards / forwards to the last locations. Ctrl Home returns to the front page, which contains useful hyperlinks. Also, Ctrl End provides quick access to the end pages, which contain all the hyperlinks to the text file commands.

Any constructive suggestions are very welcome (mailto:tuflow@wbmpl.com.au).

About This Manual

This manual is a User Manual for the TUFLOW.exe (and ESTRY.exe) hydrodynamic computational engines. These engines are driven through a DOS Window and rely on third party software to provide the interface to the user. These software are typically a text editor (eg. UltraEdit), GIS platform (eg. MapInfo), 3D surface modelling software (eg. Vertical Mapper) and result viewing (eg. SMS). Please refer to the user documentation or help for the third party software you have chosen to use in addition to this manual.


Chapters

1 Introduction 1

2 Overview 1

3 The Modelling Process 1

Data Input 1



4 Running TUFLOW 1

5 2D/1D Model Development 1

6 Data Output 1

7 Quality Control 1

8 Troubleshooting 1

9 New Features and Changes 1

10 References 1

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 TUFLOW 4

1.2 ESTRY 4

2 Overview 1

2.1 Software Structure 4

2.2 Data Input 5

2.3 Performing Simulations 15

2.4 Data Output 15

2.5 Limitations and Recommendations 16

3 The Modelling Process 1

3.1 Is a 2D or 2D/1D Model Feasible? 4

3.2 Linking 1D and 2D Domains 5

3.3 Data Requirements 8

3.4 Calibration and Sensitivity 8

3.5 Model Resolution 9

3.6 Computational Timestep 10

3.7 Eddy Viscosity 11

Data Input 1



3.8 Control Files – Rules and Notation 4

3.9 Simulation Control Files 6

3.10 GIS Layers 10

3.11 2D Domains (.tgc File) 12

3.12 1D Domains (Networks) 19

3.13 1D Topography 32

3.14 Hydraulic Structures and Supercritical Flow 42

3.15 Time-Series Output Locations 56

3.16 Initial Water Levels (IWL) and Restart Files 61

3.17 Boundary Conditions and Linking 2D/1D Models 63

3.18 Presenting 1D Domains in 2D Output (1d_wll) 85

3.19 Data Processing Heirachy 88

3.20 UltraEdit 90

4 Running TUFLOW 1

4.1 Installing a Dongle 4

4.2 TUFLOW.exe and TUFLOW_LINK.dll 8

4.3 via Right Mouse Button in Microsoft Explorer 9

4.4 From UltraEdit 10

4.5 Batching Simulations using a Batch File 12

4.6 From a DOS Window 14

4.7 The DOS Window Does Not Appear! 14

5 2D/1D Model Development 1

5.1 Setting up a New Model 4

6 Data Output 1

6.1 General 4

6.2 Check Files 8

6.3 2D Domains 13

6.4 1D Domains 18

7 Quality Control 1

7.1 Check List 4

8 Troubleshooting 1

8.1 General Comments 4

8.2 Suggestions and Recommendations 4

8.3 Identifying the Start of an Instability 5

8.4 Why Do I Get Different Results? 6

9 New Features and Changes 1

9.1 Build 2005-05-AN 1

9.2 Build 2004-06-AC to 2001-03-AA 7

10 References 1


Appendices

1 Introduction 1

1.1 TUFLOW 4

1.2 ESTRY 4

2 Overview 1

2.1 Software Structure 4

2.2 Data Input 5

2.3 Performing Simulations 15

2.4 Data Output 15

2.5 Limitations and Recommendations 16

3 The Modelling Process 1

3.1 Is a 2D or 2D/1D Model Feasible? 4

3.2 Linking 1D and 2D Domains 5

3.3 Data Requirements 8

3.4 Calibration and Sensitivity 8

3.5 Model Resolution 9

3.6 Computational Timestep 10

3.7 Eddy Viscosity 11

Data Input 1



3.8 Control Files – Rules and Notation 4

3.9 Simulation Control Files 6

3.10 GIS Layers 10

3.11 2D Domains (.tgc File) 12

3.12 1D Domains (Networks) 19

3.13 1D Topography 32

3.14 Hydraulic Structures and Supercritical Flow 42

3.15 Time-Series Output Locations 56

3.16 Initial Water Levels (IWL) and Restart Files 61

3.17 Boundary Conditions and Linking 2D/1D Models 63

3.18 Presenting 1D Domains in 2D Output (1d_wll) 85

3.19 Data Processing Heirachy 88

3.20 UltraEdit 90

4 Running TUFLOW 1

4.1 Installing a Dongle 4

4.2 TUFLOW.exe and TUFLOW_LINK.dll 8

4.3 via Right Mouse Button in Microsoft Explorer 9

4.4 From UltraEdit 10

4.5 Batching Simulations using a Batch File 12

4.6 From a DOS Window 14

4.7 The DOS Window Does Not Appear! 14

5 2D/1D Model Development 1

5.1 Setting up a New Model 4

6 Data Output 1

6.1 General 4

6.2 Check Files 8

6.3 2D Domains 13

6.4 1D Domains 18

7 Quality Control 1

7.1 Check List 4

8 Troubleshooting 1

8.1 General Comments 4

8.2 Suggestions and Recommendations 4

8.3 Identifying the Start of an Instability 5

8.4 Why Do I Get Different Results? 6

9 New Features and Changes 1

9.1 Build 2005-05-AN 1

9.2 Build 2004-06-AC to 2001-03-AA 7

10 References 1


List of Figures


Figure 2.1 TUFLOW Data Input and Output Structure 6

Figure 3.2 Example of a Poor Representation of a Narrow Channel in a 2D Model 5

Figure 3.3 1D/2D Linking Mechanisms 6

Figure 3.4 Modelling a Pipe System in 1D underneath a 2D Domain 7

Figure 3.5 Modelling a Channel in 1D and the Floodplain in 2D 7

Figure 4.6 Location of Zpts and Computation Points 15

Figure 4.7 Setting FC Parameters for a Bridge Structure 47

Figure 4.8 1D Inlet Control Culvert Flow Regimes 53

Figure 4.9 1D Outlet Control Culvert Flow Regimes 54

Figure 4.10 Interpretation of PO Objects and SMS Output 60

Figure 4.11 Examples of 2D HX Links to 1D Nodes 73

Figure 7.12 Viewing Time-Series Data in MapInfo – Checking Flow Balance in a 2D/1D Model 21

List of Tables




Table 2.1 Recommended Sub-Folder Structure 7

Table 2.2 List of Most Commonly Used File Types 9

Table 2.3 GIS Input Data Layers and Recommended Prefixes 13

Table 4.4 Reserved Characters – Text Files 4

Table 4.5 Notation Used in Command Documentation – Text Files 5

Table 4.6 TUFLOW Interpretation of MIF Objects 11

Table 4.7 Cell Codes 13

Table 4.8 2D Zpt Commands 14

Table 4.9 1D Channel Types 21

Table 4.10 1D Model Network (1d_nwk) Attribute Descriptions 23

Table 4.11 1D Model Network (1d_nwk) OPTIONAL Attribute Descriptions 29

Table 4.12 Channel Cross-Section Hydraulic Properties 33

Table 4.13 1D Table Links (1d_ta) Attributes 36

Table 4.14 Hydraulic Structure Modelling Approaches 43

Table 4.15 Flow Constriction (FC) Attribute Descriptions 44

Table 4.16 1D Culvert Flow Regimes 53

Table 4.17 Time-Series (PO) Data Types 56

Table 4.18 Plot Output (PO) Attribute Descriptions 58

Table 4.19 2d_iwl Attributes 62

Table 4.20 1D Initial Water Level (1d_iwl) Attributes 62

Table 4.21 BC Database Keyword Descriptions 64

Table 4.22 1D Boundary Condition and Link Types 74

Table 4.23 1D Boundary Conditions (1d_bc) Attribute Descriptions 76

Table 4.24 2D Boundary Condition Types and Links to 1D Nodes 77

Table 4.25 2D Boundary Conditions (2d_bc) Attribute Descriptions 81

Table 4.26 2D Source over Area (2d_sa) Attribute Descriptions 84

Table 4.27 1D WLL (1d_wll) Attributes 86

Table 4.28 1D WLL Point (1d_wllp) Attributes 87

Table 7.29 Types of Check Files 9

Table 7.30 Other Check Files 12

Table 7.31 SMS (Map) Output Files 13

Table 7.32 Channel and Node Regime Flags (.eof File) 18

Table 8.33 Quality Control Check List 4

Table 9.34 Possible Reasons for Different Results in Reverse Chronological Order 6

Table 10.35 New Features and Changes for Build 2005-05-AN 1

Table 10.36 New Features Since March 2001 in Reverse Chronological Order 7

Glossary & Notation








attribute

Data attached to a GIS object. For example, an elevation is attached to a point using a column of data named “Height”. The “Height” of the point is an attribute of the point.

Build

The TUFLOW Build number is in the format of year-month-xx where xx is two letters starting at AA then AB, AC, etc for each new build for that month. The Build number is written to the first line in the .elf and .tlf log files so that it is clear what version of the software was used to simulate the model. The first Build was 2001-03-AA. Prior to that, no unique version numbering was used.

cell

Square shaped computational element in a 2D domain.

centroid

The centroid of a region or polygon.

channel

Flow/velocity computational point in a 1D model.

CnM

CnM is a Chezy C, Manning’s n or Manning’s M bed resistance value.

code

Code refers to the code assigned to cells to indicate a cell’s status. It must have a value of one of the following.

  • -1 for a null cell

  • 0 for a permanently dry cell

  • 1 for a possibly wet cell

  • 2 for an external boundary cell

command

Instruction in a control file.

control file

Text file containing a series of commands (instructions) that control how a simulation proceeds or a 1D or 2D domain is built.

DTM

Digital Terrain or Elevation Model

element

An element in a finite element mesh as written by TUFLOW for viewing the 2D grid and results in SMS.

fixed field

Lines of text in a text file that are formatted to strict rules regarding which columns values are entered in to.

In previous versions of ESTRY and TUFLOW all text input was in fixed field format. These formats are still supported, and are still used in a few instances as documented in this manual. Refer to previous manuals for the full documentation on fixed field input.

The following notation is used to define the type and width of the columns. “A” indicates a text (character string), “I” an integer, “F” a decimal or real number and “X” an unused single character space. For example, (A2, 3A1, 2I5, 5X, F10.0), indicates that input along the line starting at column 1 is a two character text (A2) followed by three single characters, then two integers over five columns each, five unused spaces and finally a decimal number over the next ten columns.

The location of the text, integer or decimal number can occur anywhere within the columns designated.



fric

The field used to store bed friction information. This may be the material type or ripple height.

GIS

Geographic Information System that can import/export files in MIF/MID format.

grid

The mesh of square cells that make up a TUFLOW model.

h-point

Computational point located in the centre of a 2D cell.

invert

The elevation of the base (bottom) of a culvert or other structure.

IWL

Initial Water Level

land cell

A land cell is one that will never wet, ie. an inactive cell.

layer

A GIS data layer (referred to as a “table” in MapInfo).

line

A GIS object defining a straight line defined by two points. See also, polyline (Pline).

MAT

Material type.

Material

Term used to describe a bed resistance category. Examples of different materials are: river, river bank, mangroves, roads, grazing land, sugar cane, parks, etc.

MI

“MI” indicates input or output is in the MIF/MID format. Two files, the .mif and .mid files as written by a GIS, are opened or saved.

MID

“MID” indicates input or output is in the format of a .mid file as written by a GIS. This format is a comma delimited format and is commensurate with the .csv format used by Microsoft Office. The input file can have any extension (eg. .csv). These files can be opened in a text editor, Microsoft Excel and other software.

MIF/MID

MapInfo Industry standard GIS import/export format.

node

Water level computation point in a 1D domain.

Node in a finite element mesh used for viewing 2D results in SMS. The nodes are located at the cell corners.



Node is also used by MapInfo to refer to vertices along a polyline or a region (polygon).

null cell

A null cell is an inactive 2D cell used for defining the inactive side of an external boundary.

obvert

The elevation of the underside (soffit) of a culvert or other structure.

pit

A node with attributes that are used to define a pit channel.

pit channel

A small channel inserted at a pit typically used to convey water from overland 2D domains to 1D pipe networks.

point

GIS object representing a point on the earth’s surface. A point has no length or area.

polygon

See region.

polyline (or Pline)

A GIS object representing one or more lines connected together. A polyline has a length but no area.

polyline segment

One of the lines that make up a polyline.

region

A GIS object representing an enclosed area, ie. a polygon. A region has a centroid, perimeter and area.

SMS

Surface Water Modelling Software distributed by BOSS international for viewing TUFLOW results.

snap

When geographic objects are connected exactly at a point or along a side. For example, use the “snap” feature in MapInfo. The snap tolerance can be changed using Snap Tolerance.

u-point

Computational point, midway along the right hand side of a 2D cell, where the velocity in the X-direction is calculated. The cell’s left hand side also has a u-point belonging to the neighbouring cell to the left.

v-point

Computational point, midway along the top side of a 2D cell, where the velocity in the Y-direction is calculated. The cell’s bottom side also has a v-point belonging to the neighbouring cell to the bottom.

vertice or vertex

Digitised point on a line, polyline or region (polygon).

WrF

Weir calibration factor for upstream controlled weir flow.

ZC

A “C” Zpt located at the cell centre.

ZH

A “H” Zpt located at the cell corners.

Zpt or Zpts

Points where ground/bathymetry elevations are defined. These are located at the cell centres, mid-sides and corners.

ZU

A “U” Zpt located at the right and left cell mid-sides.

ZV

A “V” Zpt located at the top and bottom cell mid-sides.






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