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Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 7.August  2009

V. M. Jadhav  et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1212-1219

1212-1219

Review  Article

ISSN: 0974-6943

 

          Herbal medicine :  Syzygium cumini :A Review

V.M. Jadhav*, S.S. Kamble , V.J. Kadam .

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector 08, CBD Belapur, Navi-

Mumbai – 400614, India, 

2

Y.  M. T. Ayurvedic Medical College,.

Received on 12-04-2009; Accepted on: 03-07-2009

ABSTRACT

      Plants have provided mankind with herbal remedies for many diseases for many centuries and even to day. They continue to play a major

role in primary healthcare as therapeutic remedies in developing countries. In India herbal medicines have been the bases of treatment and

cure for various diseases in traditional methods practiced such as Ayurveda,  Unani and Sidha . Syzygium cumini ( syn.Eugenia Jambolana

) commonly know as a “ Jamun ” having promising therapeutic value with its various phytoconstituents such as Tannins, Alkaloids, Steroids,

Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Fatty acids, Phenols, Minerals, Carbohydrates and Vitamins. Its pharmacological actions like hypoglycaemic,

diuretics, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplaque, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoel, antioxidant,gastro-protective and astringent to bowels proven

on animal models. Most importantly the studies have shown that it protects against the radiation induced DNA damage and it has signifi-

cantly decreases the fertilizing capacity of the male albino rats, some clinical trial reports are also available for its antidiabetic activity.

Keywords: Syzygium cumini, Myrtaceae, Phytochemistry, Antidiabetic.

*Corresponding author.

Dr. (Mrs.) Varsha M. Jadhav

HOD and Professor

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,

Sector 8, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai.

Tel.: + 91-(022) 27722919, 09869046618

Telefax: +91-(022) 27722919

E-mail:

 drvmjadhav_bvcop@rediffmail.com



INTRODUCTION

India is one of the nation blessed with a rich heritage of traditional

medical systems and rich biodiversity to complement the herbal needs

of the treatment administered by these traditional medical systems.

The recognized Indian Systems of Medicine are Ayurveda,

Siddha and Unani, which use herbs and minerals in the formulations.

India, which has 15 agro-climatic zones, 47000 plant species of which

15000 are reported to have medicinal properties varying degrees. The

World Health Organization( 1980 ) has also recommended the evalu-

ation of the effectiveness of plants in conditions where there is lack

of safe synthetic drugs.

1

             Syzygium cumini ( L.) synonyms such as Syzygium cumini (



L. ) Druce,  Eugenia jambolana Lam.,Syzygium jambolanum DC.

2

belonging to the family Myrtaceae, is a large evergreen tree up to 30



m height and a girth of 3.6 m with a bole upto 15 m found throught

India upto an altitude of 1,800 m.

3

 Most of the plant parts of  E.



jambolana are used in

traditional system of medicine in India.



BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION :

             A smooth tree of the Myrtaceae family , 4-15 meters in height.

Leaves leathery oblong-ovate to elliptical or obovate and 6-12 cm

long , the tip being broad and shortly pointed. The panicles are borne

mostly from the branchlets below the leaves , often being

axillary or terminal and 4-6 cm long. The flowers are numerous,

scented,pink or nearly white, without stalks, and borne in crowed

fascicles on the ends of the branchlets. The calyx is funnel shaped,

about 4 mm long,and 4 toothed. The petals cohere and fall together as

a small disk . The stamens are very numerous and as long as the calyx.

Fruit is oval to elliptic;1.5-3.5 cm long, dark purple or nearly black,

luscious, fleshy and edible; it contains single large seed.

4

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION : 

5

Kingdom           :  Plantae



Unranked          :  Angisperms

Unranked          :   Eudicots

Unranked          :   Rosids

Order                :   Myrtales

Family              :   Myrtaceae

Genus               :   Syzygium

Species             :   Cumini

Binomial name :   Syzygium cumini (L) Skeels.



PARTS USED  : seeds, leaves ,fruits , bark.

6

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES  : 

3-6

Rasa   -  Kasaya , Madhura ,Amla.



Virya  - Sita

Guna  - Laghu, Ruksa.

Vipala - Madhura , Katu.

Karma – Vatala, Pittahara, Kaphahara, Vistambhi, Grahi.

 

 

Photographs of Syzygium  cumini



Available online through

www.jpronline.info

Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 8.August 2009

V. M. Jadhav  et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1212-1219

1212-1219

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION :

             The original home of Syzygium cumini is India or the East

Indies. It is found in Thailand, Philippines, Madagascar and some

other countries. The plant has been successfully introduced into many

other tropical countries such as the West Indies, East and West Af-

rica and some sub tropical regions including Florida, California, Alge-

ria and Israel.

4

SYNONYMS  : 

3

Sansk.  : Mahajambu, Ksudrajambu



Assam. : Jam

Beng.   : Jaam , Kalajam

Eng.    :  Jambul tree

Guj       : Gambu,Jamun

Hindi    :  Jamuna

Mar.      :  Jambul

Mal.      :  Njaval

Ori.       :  Jamu

Punj.     :  Jaamun

Tam.     :   Naval

Urdu.    :   Jamun

MICROSCOPY  : 

3

Syzygium cumini seed :

           Shows  cotyledons  consisting  of  single  layered  epidermis,

mesophyll composed  of  isodiametric  thin-walled, parenchymatous

cells  fully  packed with  simple  starch  grains,

oval ,rounded  measuring  7-28 µ in diameter a few  schizogenous

cavities  are  also  found.

Syzygium cumini seed  powder :

             Brown  coloured;  shows  a  few  parenchymatous  cells  and

numerous  oval, rounded  starch grains,  measuring 7-28 µ  in  diam-

eter.


Syzygium cumini stem  bark :

              Mature  bark  shows  a  wide  zone  cork  differentiated  into

upper  and  lower  cork  zones, forming  a  rhytidoma; cork  consisting

of  tangentially  elongated  rectangular cells, upper  few  layers  thick,

stratified  and  reddish  brown, having  groups  of 2-4  stone  cells  and

crushed  elements  of  phloem;  lower  cork  thin  and  colourless;  cork

cambium  not  distinct;  secondary  phloem  composed  of sieve

elements, and  phloem  rays; phloem parenchyma thin  walled  and

polyhedral  in  shape ; stone cells  ,oval  to  angular, elongated

fibres aseptate; both  stone  cells  and  fibres  single  or  in  groups

present  throughout  this

region; phloem  rays  1-4  cells  wide; reddish  brown  content ,rosette

crystals  of  calcium  oxalate and simple ,round to oval  starch  grains,

measuring  5-11 µ in diameter.



Syzygium cumini stem  bark  powder :

              Light brown;  shows  fragments  of  thin-  walled  cork  cells,

aseptate  fibres; single or  in  groups, oval  to  angular, elongated,

stone  cells; rosette and  prismatic  crystals  of  calcium oxalate and

simple  round  to  oval  starch  grains, measuring  5-11 µ  in  diameter.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY :

           ‘ Phyto’ is the Greek word for plant. There are many families of

phytochemicals and they help the human body in a variety of ways.

Phytochemicals may protect human from a host of diseases.

Phytochemicals are non nutritive plant chemicals that have protec-

tive or disease preventive properties.

            Fruit of Syzygium cumini contains Malic acid is the major acid

( 0.59 of the wt of fruit), a small quantity of oxalic acid is also reported

to be present. Gallic acid and tannins account for astringency of the

fruit. The purple colour of the fruit is due to presence of cyanidin

diglycosides.

7

 Fruit contain sugar (8.09%), nonreducing sugar (9.26%)



and sulfuric acid (1.21%).

Glucose, Fructose, mannose and galactose



are the principal sugars 

9

 The mineral constituents reported to be



present ( mg/100g of edible pulp ) are Ca, 15, Mg, 35: P,15 (phytin P,2);

Fe, 1.2 ( ionisable Fe, o.1) ; Na, 26.2; K 55; Cu, 0.23; S,13 and    Cl,8. The

vitamins present ( in 100g. edible pulp) are vit.A, 80 IU; thiamine,0.03

mg, riboflavin,0.01mg; nicotinic acid ,0.2 mg; vit.C, 18 mg; choline,7

mg; Folic aid, 3 µg.

7

           Seed contains a glucoside jamboline, a new phenolic substance,



a trace of pale yellow essential oil, chlorophyll, fat, resin, albumen,

10

tannins (19%),



7

 Phenolic such as ellagic acid, gallic acid (1-2%), caf-

feic and ferulic acids and derivaties, guaicol, resorcinol dimethyl ether

and corilaginin.

9

 The seeds are fairly rich in protein and calcium.



7

Monoterpenoids like ß-pinene, ?-terpinene, terpinolene, borbeneol,

ß-phellandrene,a-terpineol and eugenol

9

 and flavonoid   such as ru-



tin, quercetin.

11

 ß-sitosterol also present syzygium cumini seed.



12

 Oil


of Syzygium cumini found to contain lauric (2.8%), myristic (31.7%),

palmitic (4.7%), stearic (6.5%), oleic (32.2%),linoleic (16.1%), malvalic

(1.2%) and vernolic (3%) acids.

13

 Novel compounds such as 5,6



dihydroxy-3-[(4-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-di[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-

(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2h 2pyranyl)oxy]2-methoxy-10,13

dimethylperhydrocyclopenta [a] phenanthren-17-yl (phenyl) methyl

acetate,


14

 3,15- dihydroxy ?

3

 androstene [16, 17-C](6’methyl , 2’-1,3-



dihydroxy-1-propene) 4H pyran and 3-hydroxy androstane [16,17-

C](6’methyl, 2’-1-hydroxy –isopropene-1-yl) 4,5,6 H pyran.

15

         Stem bark of Syzygium cumini contains betulinic acid, ß-sito-



sterol, friedelin, epi-friedelanol,

7

 and new ester of epi-friedelanol



(eugenin).

16

 It also contains ß-sitosterol-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-o



glucoside, quercetin,

17

 myricetin, astragalin and gallic acid.



9

          Gupta and Sharma isolated sitosterol,betulinic acid and

crategolic (maslinic)acid and also detected n-hepatcosane, n-

nonacosane, n-hentriacontane ,n-octacosanol, n-triacontanol and n-

dotricontanol by GLC and sugars – glucose, fructose ,acids-

oxalic,citric,glycolic acids and aminoacids – glycine, alanine, tyrosine

and leucine by co-paper chromatography in the leaves of  E.

jambolana.

18

 Quercetin (0.0085%), myricetin ( 0.023%), myricitrin



(0.009%),myricetin 3-0-( 4”-acetyl ) –a-L-rhamnopyranoside (0.059%)

Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 7.August  2009

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1212-1219

also found to contain in E.jambolana leaves.

19

 A complicated mixture



of polyphenols such as gallic acid, methylgallate, kaempferol, ellagic

acid, 3-0-methylellagic acid, myricetin 4’-methyl ether 3-0-a-L

rhamnopyroside (querecet), kaempferol 3-0-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside,

myricetin 3-0-ß-D-glucaronopyranoside, ellagitannin,nilocitin and two

acylated flavonol glycosides such as mearnsetin 3-0-(4’’-O-acetyl )-

a-L rhamnopyranoside and myricetrin 4’’-0- acetyl-2’’-0-gallate re-

ported in E. jambolana leaves.

20

 Steam distillation of leaves give an



essential oil with pleasant odour. The oil contains terpenes, 1-limonene

and dipentene.

7

             Oleanolic acid, erategolic acid  ( maslinic acid ), flavonoids -



isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin  were found in the

flowers of Syzygium cumini.

21

Structure of some isolated phytoconstituents :

 

 



Myricetin 3-O-(4”- acetyl)-a-L-rhamnopyranosides.

 

ß-sitosterol



 

Oleanolic acid

 

Quercetin



 

Kaempferol R= H

 Myricetin    R = OH

TRADITIONAL AND MEDICINAL USES  :

           Entire plant of Syzygium cumini such as seed, fruit, leaves,

flower, bark used in folk medicine. Charaka used seeds, leaves and

fruits in decoctions for diarrhoea and the bark as an astringent.

          Sushruta prescribed the fruit internally in obesity, in vaginal

discharges and menstrual disorders, cold infusion in intrinsic

haemorrhage.

22

 The bark is astringent, its juice is given



( 56-112 ml ) doses in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, menorrhagia. De-

coction of the bark is an efficacious mouth-wash and gargle for treat-

ing spongy gums, stomatitis, relaxed throat and other diseases of

mouth. Bark also used for inflammation of skin.

23

 The bark is used in



dyeing and tanning and for colouring fishnets. According  to

Ayurveda, its bark  is  acrid, sweet, digestive, astringent to the bow-

els, anthelmintic and in  good  for sore throat, bronchitis , asthma ,

thirst, biliousness, dysentery, blood impurities and to cure  ulcers.

24

          The juice of Jambu, Amra and Amalaka leaves mixed with goat



milk and honey prescribed in diarrhoea with blood.

22

 Leaf juice is



taken orally to treat diabetes. The juice is taken mixed with milk every

morning. Fresh leaf juice is taken orally for stomach pain.

25

           A syrup prepared from the juice of the ripe fruit is a very pleas-



ant drink. Syrup or vinegar prepared from the ripe fruit is useful in

spleen enlargement and efficient astringent in chronic diarrhoea.

1 0

Hot water extract of dried fruits is used for stomach ulcers,



26

 reduce


acidity and for diabetes.

27

          The ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini seeds decreased blood



sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

28

 Seed powdered in com-



bination with mango kernels were administered with card to over-

come problems of diarrhoea and dysentery, enlargement of spleen



Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 8.August 2009

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1212-1219

and as diuretic in scanty or suppressed urine

29

 and seed also having



antibacterial activity.

14

PHARMACOLOGY :



           Syzygium cumini having pharmacological activity like anti-

diarrhoel, antioxidant, gastroprotective, antiallergic, astringent, anal-

gesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplaque, antimicrobial but the most im-

portant activity is anti-diabetic.

1. Anti-diabetic Activity :

           Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting a major popu-

lation world wide . A sustained reduction in hyperglycaemia will de-

crease the risk of developing micro vascular diseases and reduce

their complications.

30

 The conventional therapies for diabetes may



have many shortcomings, such as side effects and high rate of sec-

ondary failure. On the other hand herbal extracts are expected to have

similar efficacy, without side effects, to that of conventional drugs.

            A number of scientific studies in animals have substantiated

the role of jambul in the management of diabetes.

31

 According to



Khan et al., decoction of aerial parts, taken orally by adults at a dose

(500mg/ person) was active as an anti-hyperglycemic agent.

3 2

Sigogneau-Jagodzin-ski et al., showed constituents isolated from



ethanolic extract had hypoglycemic effect on alloxan induced diaetic

rats.


33

 Jain et al. studied antidiabetic effect of hot water extract of

dried fruit pulp of  S. cumini (5 gm) when administered by gastric

intubation.

34

 According to Ratsimamanga et al., the ethanolic extract



of bark of jamun decrease blood sugar level by 21% after one hour in

hyperglycaemic rabbits in a dose corresponding to 10 gm/kg.

35

 Bansal


et al., reported hypoglycaemic activity of oral administration of

E.jambolana seed due to the  increasing activity of cathepsin B.

36

Achrekar et al.,reported the oral administration of pulp extract of fruits



of S. cumini to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  exhibited

hypoglycaemic effect in 30 minutes which was possibly due to the

stimulation of insulin secretion.

37

             According to Prince et al.,increased activity of hexokinase and



decreased activity of aqueous seed extract (2.5g/kg, b.w. for one

month) to alloxan diabetic rats. Aqueous seed extract (2.5 & 5g/kg,

b.w. for 6 weeks) has been observed to produce hypoglycemic activ-

ity, in rats.

38

 Alcoholic seed extract injection (20mg, intraperitoneally)



reduced the blood sugar level to 37.17% at 3 hour and 46.68% at 6

hour of administration in alloxan diabetic mice along with enhanced

insulin secretion.

39

 According to Grover et al., daily administration of



lyophilized powder of E. jambolana seeds (200 mg/kg)showed maxi-

mum reduction of blood glucose level to 73.51, 55.62 and 48.81% as

compared to their basal value in mild (21 days), moderate (120 days)

and severe (60 days) in diabetic condition in rats. In addition the

treatment also partially restored altered hepatic and skeletal muscle

glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-

phosphate and phospho-fructokinase levels.

40 


Pepato et al., treated

streptozotocin diabetic rats for 17 days with decoction of E.jambolana

leaves  (15 % w/v) as a substitute for water and reported that,  E.

jambolana leaf decoction had no antidiabetic activity.

41

 Vats et al.,



has reported that treatment with aqueous extracts of E. jambolana at

400 mg per day for 15 days substantially prevented hyperglycaemia

and hyperinsulinemia induced by high fructose diet in rats.

42 


Pandey

et al., observed that the hypoglycaemic effect of  S. cumini seeds is

due to water-soluble gummy fiber and not because of water insoluble

neutral detergent fiber and other constituents of the seeds.

43

                 Ravi et al., evaluated hypoglycaemic activity of different



parts of E. jambolana seeds such as whole seed, kernel and seed coat

on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic

extract of kernel at a concentration 100mg/kg of body weight signifi-

cantly decreased the levels of blood glucose , blood urea and choles-

terol, increased glucose tolerance and levels of total proteins and

liver glycogen and decreased the activities of glutamate oxaloacetate

transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in experimental

diabetes rats. Whole seed showed a moderate hypoglycaemic effect

and seed coat did not show any hypoglycaemic effect. The

hypoglycaemic efficacy was compared with that of glibenclamide, a

standard hypoglycaemic drug.

44

 Saravanan G.,reported that ip. ad-



ministration of streptozotocin to normal rats effectively induced dia-

betes as reflected by glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and body weight

loss and after treatment with. S. cumini bark extract exhibited potent

blood glucose lowering property both in normal and diabetic rats.

45

Shankar et al., studied antidiabetic activity of novel  androstane  de-



rivatives from etanolic extract of seeds of  S. cumini. Pitchai et al.

studied a novel compound 5,6 dih ydroxy-3-[ (4-hydroxy-6-(

hydroxymethyl)-3,5-di[3,4,5 trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl ) tetrahydro-

2h-2pyranyl] oxy tetrahydro-2h-2-pyranyl)oxy] -2-methoxy-10, 13

dimethylperhydrocyclopenta [a] phenanthren-17-yl (phenyl) methyl

acetate from  Syzygium cumini  having antidiabetic effect.

15

 Accord-


ing to the Singh and Gupta ethanolic extract of seed of  S.  cumini

decreased blood sugar level and increased body weight after 30 days

feeding of extract .They also showed definite improvement in the

histopathology of islets and the important finding is that the blood

sugar level , which once dropped to normal levels after extract feeding

was not elevated when extract feeding was discontinued for 15 days.

28

Sharma et al., studied antihyperglycaemic activity of flavonoid rlch



extract of seed of E. jambolana.

11

                Bose et al., proved the clinical effectiveness of the E



jambolana seeds in diabetes.

46

 Karnick et al., reported a polyherbal



preparation containing E.jambolana to be clinically effective in the

treatment of diabetes.

47

Kohli et al., has carried out clinical trial of E.



jambolana seed powder in NIDDM. 

48

Mitra observed  the effect of



composite  of tulsi (Ocimum  Sanctum) leaves, bitter ground

(Momordica  charantia) , Amla(Emblica



officinalis),Gurmur(Gymnema sylvestre)leaves and jamun (Syzygium

cumini) fruit  and  its  seed on mild diabetic patients  application  of

the composite  results in reduction of fasting blood  sugar.

49

Mechanism of action :

             Many scientist studied probable mechanism of action of S.



cumini . According to Achrekar et al., extract of jamun fruit pulp of E.

jambolana showed hypoglycaemic activity through stimulation of

insulin secretion.

37

 Bansal et al. reported that the increase in plasma



insulin brought about by seeds of  S. cumini may be attributed to

proinsulin to insulin conversion possibly by pancreatic cathepsin B

and or its secretion.

36

 S. cumini exerts a dual effect namely a combina-



tion of mechanism of action of sulfonylurea and biguanids.

40

 B. Sharma



et al. showed that anti–hyperglycaemic effect of flavonoid rich ex-

tract of S. cumini seed due its direct insulinotropic action.

11

 In vivo


study using Goto-kakizaki (GK) rats, Shinde et al. studied , the ac-

etone extract was potent inhibitor of alpha glucosidase hydrolysis of



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1212-1219

maltose when compared to untreated control animals. Therefore this

result point to the inhibition of alpha glucosidase as a possible mecha-

nism.


50

 Kumar et al., isolated mycaminose from methanol extract of S.

cumini seed having antidiabetic activity. The possible mechanism of

action may be due to the potentiation of insulin effect  of plasma by

increasing either pancreatic secretion of insulin from ß-cells of islets

of Lagerhans or its release from the bound form. Mechanism of

mycaminose similar  to the glibenclamide.

51

Effect on Diabetic Complication :

                Grover et al., observed plasma glucose concentration in

streptozotocin induced diabetic mice were reduced by administration

of extract of E. jambolana by 20.84% . E. jambolana treatment signifi-

cantly prevented the rise in urinary albumin level from 0-40 , polyuria

and renal hypertrophy compared to diabetic control.

52

 Rathi et. al.,



concluded efficacy of lyophilized aqueous extract of E. jambolana to

200 mg/ kg in the prevention of murine alloxan diabetic cataract. Al-

loxan was used as a diabetogenic agent. Cataract examined in the rat

with both naked eye and through slit lamp. After two months of treat-

ment of E. jambolana, 59.85% cataract was prevented.

53

 Chirvan- Nia



et.al., have reported regression of cataract and hyperglycaemia in

diabetic rats having received an extract of  E. jambolana.

54

 In


streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Pepato et.al., concluded that

fruit pulp extract of  E. jambolana 50 mg/ day for 41 days showed no

observable difference in body weight, food or water intake, urine

volume, glycaemia, urea and glucose level in urine, hepatic glycogen

and serum level of total cholesterol, as compared to untreated con-

trols.


55

 Retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy are major compli-

cations which make diabetes more severe . Accumulation of sorbitol

in different organs due to higher activity of aldose reductase is main

cause of these complications.

56

  Therefore inhibition of aldose  reduc-



tase  activity can provide better recovery from diabetes related com-

plications. In this respect aldose reductase expression level in kidney

and there was a clear decrease in its expression in diabetic treated

mice with seeds of E. jambolana compared to diabetic mice.

11

2. Antiallergic Activity :



            According  Brito et al., Syzygium cumini  skeels shows anti-

allergic effect and indicate that its edematogenic effect is due to the

inhibition of mast cell degranulation and of histamine and serotonin

effects where as the inhibition of eosinophil accumulation in the aller-

gic pleurisy model is probably due to an impairment of CCL11/ eotaxin

and IL-5 production.

57

3. Gastroprotective  Activity :



            Chaturvedi et al., studied effect of ethanolic extract of seed E.

jambolana against gastric ulcers induced by 2 h cold restraint stress,

pylorus ligation-ethanol and aspirin induced gastric ulcers in rats.

The ulcer protective activity of Eugenia jambolana may be due to its

effects on both offensive and defensive factors. The antioxidant prop-

erties of Eugenia jambolana contribute towards its activity.

58

4. Antioxidant Activity :



             Food rich in antioxidant plays essential role in the prevention

of diseases. Banerjee et al., reported antioxidant activity of the fruit

skin with the use of different assay such as hydroxyl radical scaveng-

ing assay, based on the benzoic acid hydroxylation method, superox-

ide radical –scarening assay, based on photochemical reduction of

nitroblue tetrazolium ( NBT) in the presence of a riboflavin light –NBT

system, DPPH radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation assay,

using egg yolk as the lipid rich source the antioxidant property of the

fruit skin may come in part from the antioxidant vitamins, phenolics or

tannins and anthocynins present in the fruit.

59

 Zhi Ping Ruan et al.,



studied  antioxidant activity of leaves of Syzygium cumini  using 2,2

diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric

–reducing antioxidant power (FRA) assays. The methanolic extract

and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane fraction

were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The ethyl

acetate fraction were had stronger antioxidant activity than other ones.

HPLC data indicated that Syzygium cumini leaf extract contained phe-

nolic compounds such as ferulic acid and catechin responsible for

antioxidant activity.

60

5. CNS  Activity :



              De Lima et al. studied, different extracts, fractions and

subfractions from the seeds of Syzygium cuminii Linn. Skeels, for

behavioural effects in mice, particularly in relation to their sedative

and anticonvulsant actions. Oral treatment with the hydroalcoholic

extract showed an anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazol- and

maximal electroshock-induced convulsions, besides a hypothermic

effect.. The ethyl acetate fraction and its subfractions enhanced la-

tency and duration of the first convulsion induced by pentylenetetra-

zol. S. cuminii has some active principles with central depressant prop-

erties, and some of them also present an anticonvulsant action.

6 1

Kumar et al., reported the seed extracted with ethyl acetate and metha-



nol investigated on albino mice in rota rod and actophotometer at a

dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg exihibited significant CNS activity.

The significant CNS activity due to  the presence of saponins.

62

6. Anti-inflammatory  Activity :



            Muruganandan et.al.,reported the ethanolic extract of bark of

S.cumini was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity. The extract

did not show any sign of toxicity up to a dose of 10-125 g/kg.i.p. in

mice. This study demonstrated S. cumini bark extract has a potent

anti-inflammatory activity against different phase of inflammation

without any side effect to gastric mucosa.

63

7. Antihyperlipidemic  Activity



             Abnormalities in lipid profile are one of the most common com-

plication in diabetes mellitus, which is found in about 40% diabetics.

Kasiappan et al., showed oral administration ethanolic extract of E.

jambolana-kernel ( 100mg/kg body weight ) antihyperlipidermic activ-

ity on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and standard drug was

glibenclamide.

64

8. Antifertility Activity :



               Rajasekaran et al., has revealed antifertility effect of oleanolic

acid isolated from the flowers of E.  jambolana significant decreased

the fetilizing capacity of the male albino rats without any significant

change in body or reproductive organ weights. It causes significant

reduction in conversion of spermatocytes to spermatides and arrest

of spermatogenesis at the early stages of meiosis leading to decrease

in sperm count without any abnormality to spermatogenic cells, leyding

interstitial cells and sertoli cells.

65

9. Anti-diarrhoeal activity :



                Mukherjee et al., evaluated  antidiarrhoeal activity of etha-

nol extract of Syzygium  cumini against different experimental models



Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 8.August 2009

V. M. Jadhav  et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1212-1219

1212-1219

of diarrhoea in rats. It produced significant inhibition of castor oil

induced diarrhoea and PGE- induced entero - pooling and a signifi-

cant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal tests in

rats.

66

10.Antiplaque activity:



               Namba et,al.,  have studied aqueous ,methanolic and metha-

nol-water(1:1) extracts of the bark were able to suppress  plaque  for-

mation in vitro. All were active against Streptococcus  mutans at

260,120 and 380 µg per ml respectively.

67

11.Antipyretic activity :



               According to Chaudhari et al., chloroform extracts of dried

seeds showed antipyretic activity

68

 and Mahapatra et al., studied



methanol extracts of dried seeds administered intraperitoneally to  rats

at doses of 50 mg per kg were  active versus yeast induced  pyrexia.

69

12.Antispasmodic activity:



                According to Dhawan et al.,ethanol-water(1:1)extract of the

aerial parts was  inactive in guinea pig  ileum vs. acetyl choline and

histamine  induced spasms.

70

 Mokkhasmit et. al., studied ethanol water



(1:1) of dried bark of a concentration of  0.01 gm  per ml ,was active on

guinea pig ileum.

71

13.Antihistamine  activity :



                Mahapatra et al., found the methanol extract of dried seeds,

administered  intraperitoneally  to rats was active  vs. histamine  in-

duced  pedal edema .

69

14.Antiviral activity :



                According to Rana et al., ethanol water (1:1) extract of dried

entire plant ,at a  concentration  of  0.1 mg/ml in cell culture ,was

inactive on Ranikhet virus and  vaccinia  virus. For Ranikhet virus ,

infected chorioallantoic membrane  viral  titre decreased 10%  and for

vaccinia virus  0% . The extract when injected into chick embryo at a

dose of 1.0 mg/animal was  inactive  on Ranikhet  and  vaccinia  vi-

ruses .Infected  chick embryo viral titre decreased  10% and 0%, re-

spectively.

72

 Dhawan  et al., reported ethanol/water (1:1) extract  of the



aerial parts at a concentration of  50.0 mcg/ml  in cell culture was

inactive  on Ranikhet and  vaccinia  viruses.

70

 Singh et al., studied



water extract of the bark was  active  on potato X virus.

73

15. Antibacterial activity :



                 Shaikh et al.,have investigated  antibacterial activity of

ethanolic extracts of Eugenia jambolana against gram positive and

gram negative organisms.

74

 Bhuiyan et al., reported antibacterial ac-



tivity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds of  E.

jambolana at a concentration of 200 µg/disc against five Gram posi-

tive bacteria ( Bacillus creus, B. subtalis, B.megateriun , Steptococcus

ß – haemolyticus, S. aureus )and  nine Gram negative bacteria ( Shi-

gella dysenteriae, Sh. Shiga, Sh. boydii,Sh. flexneriae, Sh.sonnei, E.

coli, S. typhi B, S. typhi B- 56 and Klebsicella species) by disc diffu-

sion method.

75

 Shafi et al.has , reported good antibacterial action from



essential oil of E. jambolana leaves.

76

 Pitchai Daisy et al.,  have worked



on the antibacterial activity of the extract of Syzygium cumini by disc

diffusion method using extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)

producing bacteria. Methanol, acetone and hexane extract of Syzygium

cumini seeds were examined for antibacterial activity on Aeromonas

hydrophila, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, E. coli,

Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas

aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis. Methanol extract of Syzygium cumini

seeds exhibited significant antibacterial activity against bacteria.

14

Other Uses :

               Ganesh et.al., studied radioprotective activity of

hydroalcoholic extract of jamun seed on different doses of gamma

radiation. The drug was more effective when administered through

the i.p. route at equimolar doses than oral route. The presence of

flavonoids and ellagic acid in S. cumini extract might have been re-

sponsible for its radioprotective activity. The Syzygium cumini extact

treatment protected mice against the gastrointestinal as well as bone

marrow deaths.

77

 Krikorian et.al., found anorexigenic power of  E.



jambolana which was approximately equal to that of amphetamine.

78

DOSES :

8

             Juice             -   56-112 ml.



            Bark powder  -   0.5-1 gm.

            Seed powder  -   1-3     gm.



IMPORTANT FORMULATION : Pusyanuga Curna, Usirasava

3

PRECAUTIONS AND ADVERSE REACTION : 

23

              No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction



with proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages.

CONCLUSION :

                 Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned

herbal remediation for a number of human ailments.

Syzygium cumini commonly known as ‘jamun’also having various

pharmacological activity such as antidiarrhoeal,astringent, digestive,

antibacterial, antioxidant,antiviral but most important activity is

antidiabetic.Most of the herbal formulations example, Diabecon,

Jambalsava containg Syzygium cumini as main ingredient for

diabetes.Although most of the studies of  Syzygium cumini as an-

tidiabetic agent with its possible mechanism of action and delaying

complications of diabetes such as cataract, neuropathy have been

conducted but detailed research on isolation of bioactives through

clinical trials followed by standardisation is seriously required to know

potential of plant .Most of the pharmacological work was carried out

on seeds of  Syzygium cumini but the pharmacological potential of

other parts also required to be explore.

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