Supplementary information 10. Fossil distribution of Elephas spp. in south and southeast Asia (based on Chakravarty 1935, 1938, Colbert 1943, Hooijer 1955, Prasad and Daniel 1968, Maglio 1973, Medway 1973, Joshi et al. 1978, 1981, Barry et al. 1982, Badam 1979, 1981, 1988, 2002, Badam et al. 1984, Kale and Rajaguru 1987, Ranga Rao et al. 1988, Deraniyagala 1992, Hussain et al. 1992, Agarwal et al. 1993, Rajaguru et al. 1993, Van den Bergh et al. 1996, 2001, Sonakia and Biswas 1998, Van den Bergh 1999, Corvinus and Rimal 2001, Tougard 2001, Nanda 2002, in press, Basu 2004, Dennell et al. 2006, Chauhan in press). Dotted lines indicate rare occurrences or fossils of doubtful age. In addition to the more common species shown here, other species that have been unearthed in south and southeast Asia are the dwarfed forms, E. celebensis, from the Early/Middle Pleistocene of the island of Sulawesi and one location in Java, E. beyeri, from a single location Luzon in the Phillipines, and E. indonesicus, from a single location Bumiayu in Java, and a normal-sized species, E. platycephalus from the Early Pleistocene of the Amilee Creek near Siswan (in Punjab), India. The non-Elephas proboscideans that were present as part of the Pinjor Fauna in the Siwalik Hills are Anancus (=Pentalophodon) sivalensis, Stegolophodonstegodontoides, and Stegodonpinjorensis. Anancus and Stegolophodon are not found in the Post-Siwalik fauna of Peninsular India.
* The fossil record of Indonesia is largely based on that of Java as the other areas do not have detailed records.
Agarwal, R. P., Nanda, A. C., Prasad, D. N. & Dey, B. K. 1993 Geology and biostratigraphy of the Upper Siwalik of Samba area, Jammu foothills. J. Himalayan Geol.4, 227-236.
Badam, G. L. 1979 Pleistocene Fauna of India. Pune: Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute.
Badam, G. L. 1981. Fresh Data on the biostratigraphy of the Central Godavari Valley, India. In Proceedings IX Indian Colloquium on Micropalaeontology and Stratigraphy pp. 225–234.
Badam, G. L. 1988. Quaternary faunal succession of India. Geol. Surv. India, Spec.Publ.2, 277–304.
Badam, G. L. 2002. Quaternary vertebrate paleontology in India: fifty years of research. In Indian Archeology in Retrospect - Archaeology and Interactive Disciplines, Vol. 3. (eds. S. Settar & R. Korisettar), pp. 209-246. New Delhi: Manohar and Indian Council of Historical Research.
Badam, G. L., Sathe, V. & Ganjoo, R. 1984. New fossil finds from the Manjra valley, Central Godavari Basin, India. J. Geol. Soc. India25, 245–251.
Barry, J. C., Lindsay, E. H. & Jacobs, L. L. 1982. A biostratigraphic zonation of the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 37, 95–130.
Basu, P. K. 2004 Siwalik mammals of the Jammu Sub-Himalaya, India: an appraisal of their diversity and habitats. Quat. Int.117, 105-118.
Chakravarty, D. K. 1935. On the discovery of a prehistoric fossil elephant in the Allahabad district. Curr. Sci. 3, 364–365.
Chakravarty, D. K. 1938. On a Palaeoloxodonnamadicus mandible. Q.J. Geol., Mining, Metall. Soc.India10, 143–149.
Chauhan, P. R. In press Large mammal fossil occurrences and associated archaeological evidence in Pleistocene contexts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Quat. Int. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2007.06.034.
Colbert, E. H. 1943 Pleistocene vertebrates collected in Burma by the American Southeast Asiatic expedition. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. New Series32, 395–429.
Corvinus, G. & Rimal, L. N. 2001 Biostratigraphy and geology of the Neogene Siwalik Group of the Surai Khola and Rato Khola areas in Nepal. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 165: 251-279.
Dennell, R., Coard, R. & Turner, A. 2006 The biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity zonation of the Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan: an Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene fluvial sequence. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 234, 168-185.
Deraniyagala, S. U. 1992 The Prehistory of Sri Lanka: an Ecological Perspective. Colombo: Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka.
Hooijer, D. A. 1955 Fossil proboscidea from the Malay Archipelago and India. Zool.Verh. 28, 1-146.
Hussain, S. T., Van den Bergh, G. D., Steensma, K. J., De Visser, J. A., De Vos, J., Arif, M., Van Dam, J., Sondaar, P. Y., Malik, S. B. 1992 Biostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments (Upper Siwaliks) of the Mangla-Samwal Anticline, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Wetenschappen 95, 65-80.
Joshi, R. V., Badam, G. L. & Pandey, R. P., 1978 Fresh data on the Quaternary animal fossils and stone age cultures from the central Narmada Valley, India. AsianPerspect.21, 164–181.
Joshi, R. V., Chitale, S. V., Rajaguru, S. N., Pappu, S. N. & Badam, G. L. 1981 Archaeological studies in Manjra Valley, Central Godavari Basin. Bull. Deccan College Postgrad. Res. Inst. 40, 67–94.
Kale, V. S. & Rajaguru, S. N. 1987 Late Quaternary alluvial history of the northwestern Deccan upland region. Nature325, 612-614.
Maglio, V. J. 1973 Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.63, 1-149.
Medway, L. 1973 The Quaternary mammals of Malesia: a review. In Transactions of the Second Aberdeen-Hull Symposium on Malesian Ecology (eds. P. Ashton & M. Ashton), pp. 63-98. Miscellaneous Series No. 13, Department of Geography, University of Hull.
Nanda, A. C. 2002 Upper Siwalik mammalian faunas of India and associated events. J. Asian Earth Sci.21, 47-58.
Nanda, A. C. In press Comments on the Pinjor Mammalian Fauna of the Siwalik Group in relation to the post-Siwalik faunas of Peninsular India and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Quat. Int. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2007.06.022.
Prasad, K. N. & Daniel, J. A. 1968 On the occurrence of Hypselephas hysudricus in the Pleistocene deposits of Tirunelveli valley, Madras State. Curr.Sci.37, 516–517.
Rajaguru, S. N, Kale, V. S. & Badam, G. L. 1993 Quaternary fluvial systems in Upland Maharashtra. Curr. Sci.64, 817-822.
Ranga Rao, A., Agarwal, R. P., Sharma, U. N., Bhalla, M. S. & Nanda, A. C. 1988 Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and vertebrate palaeontology of the Upper Siwalik Subgroup of Jammu Hills, India. J. Geol. Soc. India31, 361–385.
Sonakia, A. & Biswas, S. 1998 Antiquity of Narmada Homoerectus, the early man of India. Curr. Sci. 75, 391–393.
Tougard, C. 2001 Biogeography and migration routes of large mammal faunas in South–East Asia during the Late Middle Pleistocene: focus on the fossil and extant faunas from Thailand. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 168, 337–358.
Van den Bergh, G. D. 1999 The Late Neogene elephantoid-bearing faunas of Indonesia and their palaeozoogeographic. A study of the terrestrial faunal succession of Sulawesi, Flores and Java, including evidence for early hominid dispersal east of Wallace’s Line implications. ScriptaGeol. 117, 1-419.
Van den Bergh, G. D., Sondaar, P. Y., De Vos, J. & Aziz, F. 1996 The proboscideans of the South-East Asian islands. In The Proboscidea: evolution and palaeoecology of elephants and their relatives (eds. J. Shoshani & P. Tassy), pp. 240-248. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Van den Bergh, G. D., de Vos, J., Aziz, F. & Morwood, M. J. 2001 Elephantoidea in the Indonesian region: new Stegodon findings from Flores. In Proceedings of the conference on The World of Elephants - First International Elephant Congress, pp. 623-627. Rome: The World of Elephants - First International Elephant Congress.