Supplementary information 10. Fossil distribution of

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Supplementary information 10. Fossil distribution of Elephas spp. in south and southeast Asia (based on Chakravarty 1935, 1938, Colbert 1943, Hooijer 1955, Prasad and Daniel 1968, Maglio 1973, Medway 1973, Joshi et al. 1978, 1981, Barry et al. 1982, Badam 1979, 1981, 1988, 2002, Badam et al. 1984, Kale and Rajaguru 1987, Ranga Rao et al. 1988, Deraniyagala 1992, Hussain et al. 1992, Agarwal et al. 1993, Rajaguru et al. 1993, Van den Bergh et al. 1996, 2001, Sonakia and Biswas 1998, Van den Bergh 1999, Corvinus and Rimal 2001, Tougard 2001, Nanda 2002, in press, Basu 2004, Dennell et al. 2006, Chauhan in press). Dotted lines indicate rare occurrences or fossils of doubtful age. In addition to the more common species shown here, other species that have been unearthed in south and southeast Asia are the dwarfed forms, E. celebensis, from the Early/Middle Pleistocene of the island of Sulawesi and one location in Java, E. beyeri, from a single location Luzon in the Phillipines, and E. indonesicus, from a single location Bumiayu in Java, and a normal-sized species, E. platycephalus from the Early Pleistocene of the Amilee Creek near Siswan (in Punjab), India. The non-Elephas proboscideans that were present as part of the Pinjor Fauna in the Siwalik Hills are Anancus (=Pentalophodon) sivalensis, Stegolophodon stegodontoides, and Stegodon pinjorensis. Anancus and Stegolophodon are not found in the Post-Siwalik fauna of Peninsular India.

* The fossil record of Indonesia is largely based on that of Java as the other areas do not have detailed records.


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