Review of the ecological and conservation implications and potential management options. Mitchell et al



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Supplementary material for manuscript “Ash dieback in the UK: A review of the ecological and conservation implications and potential management options.” Mitchell et al.
Table A1. Methods used to assess level of species associated with ash.

Species group


Data sources and criteria used to assess association

Lichens

For all lichen species which had been confirmed as recorded on F. excelsior within the British Lichen Society database (1960-2010), the number of times that each species had been recorded on F. excelsior as a proportion of the total number of all records across all substrata (including corticolous, terricolous and saxicolous records, etc) was calculated. The ‘level of association’ for a species was considered obligate if 100% of records were from F. excelsior, high if >50% of records were from F. excelsior, partial if >11.16% of records are from F. excelsior, and cosmopolitan if the number of records from F. excelsior trees <11.16%.

Bryophytes

The British Bryological Society (BBS) records and the bryophyte atlases (Hill et al., 1991, 1992 and 1994).

Fungi

The species assessed was limited to the fungal taxa in The Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI) http://www.fieldmycology.net/FRDBI/FRDBI.asp which matched the criteria: more than 10 records with an associated organism of which 25% or more were with F. excelsior, or had a species epithet suggesting a strong affinity with F. excelsior. The degree of association with F. excelsior of these taxa falling within this criteria was assessed as: obligate – 95% or more of the records were with F. excelsior; highly dependent – 50-95% records were with F. excelsior, the remaining taxa were considered to be partially dependent on F. excelsior.

Invertebrates

Initial species selection was guided by Stubbs (2012) together with reference to the Database of Insects and their Food Plants (http://www.brc.ac.uk/DBIF/homepage.aspx). Some species were discounted where the association with F. excelsior was from old references and this association had not been repeated in more recent and comprehensive reviews of the species. References to use of F. excelsior solely in captive rearing situations were also discounted. The initial list of invertebrate species identified was then supplemented from a wider literature search and consultation with some species group experts.

Mammals

The handbook of British Mammals (Harris and Yalden, 2008). Retrieved from http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=w_UJNAAACAAJ

was used as the main information source regarding the association of mammals with F. excelsior, supplemented with additional literature searches.



Birds

The assessment of birds associated with F. excelsior trees was primarily based on online searches of peer reviewed literature. Further information was sought from unpublished reviews on the habitat associations and requirements for woodland birds.

Vascular Plants

In order to identify which vascular plant species are highly associated with F. excelsior woodlands we used the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) types originally identified by Rodwell (1991) and the more recently updated floristic tables (http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-4265) to identify woodland communities and sub communities where F. excelsior is frequently found (a frequency of IV or V as described by Rodwell, 1991). Within these communities plant species that are more frequently found in these F. excelsior dominated woodlands than in any other community were identified. In addition we searched the Ancient Woodland Indicator Species (AWIS) lists (Kirby et al., 2012; Rose 1999) to assess whether any of the species on these lists were preferentially found in in ‘F. excelsior dominated woodlands’.

Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D., Smith, A.J.E., Eds. 1991. Atlas of the bryophytes of Britain and Ireland. Volume 1 Liverworts (Hepaticae and Anthocerotae). Colchester: Harley Books.

Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D., Smith, A.J.E., eds. 1992. Atlas of the bryophytes of Britain and Ireland. Volume 2 Mosses (except Diplolepideae). Colchester: Harley Books.

Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D., Smith, A.J.E., eds. 1994. Atlas of the bryophytes of Britain and Ireland. Volume 3 Mosses (Diplolepideae). Colchester: Harley Books.

Kirby, K.J., Pyatt, D.G., Rodwell, J. 2012. Characterization of the woodland flora and woodland communities in Britain using Ellenberg Values and Functional Analysis. Proceedings of Sheffield conference.

Rodwell, J.S., 1991. British Plant Communities, Volume 1, Woodlands and Scrub. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Rose, F., 1991. Indicators of ancient woodland – The use of vascular plants in evaluating ancient woods for nature conservation. British Wildlife, April 1999, 241-251.

Stubbs, A. 2012.Invertebrates associated with Ash. http://www.buglife.org.uk/Resources/Buglife/Invertebrates associated with Ash .pdf.
Table A2. Conservation designation used to class the species as being of conservation importance.

Species group

Conservation designation

Reference

Mammal

UK BAP species

http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-5717

Birds

classified as red or amber in the birds of conservation concern

Eaton et al., 2009

Fungi

Red data book

Evans et al., 2006

Invertebrate

Red data book

Kirby, 1992; Conrad et al., 2006; Davis, 2012

Vascular plants

Red data book

Cheffings and Farrel, 2006

Lichens

Classified as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Near Threatened or Vulnerable using IUCN criteria

Woods and Coppins, 2012

Bryophytes

Classified as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Near Threatened or Vulnerable using IUCN criteria

Hodgetts, 2011

Cheffings, C., Farrell, L. 2006. The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain. http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-3354

Conrad, K.F., Warren, M.S., Fox, R., Parsons, M.S., Woiwod, I.P. 2006. Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis. Biological Conservation 132: 279–291.

Davis, T. 2012. A Review of the Status of Microlepidoptera in Britain. Wareham.

Eaton M.A., Brown A.F., Noble D.G., Musgrove A.J., Hearn, R., Aebischer, N.J., Gibbons D.W., Evans, A., Gregory, R.D. (2009) Birds of Conservation Concern 3: the population status of birds in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. British Birds 102, 296–341.

Evans, S., Henrici A., Ing, B. 2006 The Red Data List Of Threatened British Fungi.

Hodgetts, N.G. 2011. A revised Red List of bryophytes in Britain. Field Bryology103: 40-49.

Kirby, P. 1992. A Review of the Scarce and Threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Woods, R.G., Coppins, B.J. 2012. A Conservation Evaluation of British Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Table A3 Species classified as Red-coded with respect to ash dieback.



Species Group

Species - Latin

Species - English

Bryophyte

Habrodon perpusillus

Lesser squirrel-tail moss

Bryophyte

Lejeunea mandonii

Atlantic pouncewort

Bryophyte

Orthotrichum obtusifolium

Blunt-leaved bristle-moss

Bryophyte

Orthotrichum pallens

Pale bristle-moss

Bryophyte

Orthotrichum pumilum

Dwarf bristle-moss

Bryophyte

Rhynchostegium rotundifolium

Round-leaved feather-moss

Fungi

Botryodiplodia fraxini




Fungi

Cryptosphaeria eunomia




Fungi

Diaporthe samaricola




Fungi

Gloeosporidiella turgida




Fungi

Hypoxylon cercidicola




Fungi

Macrophoma fraxini




Fungi

Mycosphaerella fraxini




Fungi

Phoma samararum




Fungi

Phyllactinia fraxini




Fungi

Phyllosticta fraxinicola




Fungi

Venturia fraxini




Fungi

Chlorencoelia versiformis




Fungi

Geastrum berkeleyi

Berkeley's Earthstar

Invertebrate

Aceria fraxini




Invertebrate

Aceria fraxinivora

Ash flower gall mite

Invertebrate

Aculus fraxini




Invertebrate

Aeolothrips melaleucus




Invertebrate

Anthocoris amplicollis




Invertebrate

Arthrocnodax fraxinella




Invertebrate

Astiosoma rufifrons




Invertebrate

Atethmia centrago

Centre-barred sallow

Invertebrate

Aulagromyza heringii




Invertebrate

Clinodiplosis botularia




Invertebrate

Dasineura acrophila




Invertebrate

Dasineura fraxinea




Invertebrate

Dasineura fraxini




Invertebrate

Lipsothrix nigristigma

Scarce yellow splinter

Invertebrate

Lithophane semibrunnea

Tawny Pinion

Invertebrate

Lonchaea fraxina




Invertebrate

Lonchaea mallochi




Invertebrate

Lonchaea nitens




Invertebrate

Macrolabis pavida




Invertebrate

Oxythrips halidayi




Invertebrate

Pammene suspectana




Invertebrate

Prays fraxinella




Invertebrate

Psallus flavellus




Invertebrate

Psallus lepidus




Invertebrate

Pseudoloxops coccineus




Invertebrate

Psyllopsis fraxini




Invertebrate

Psyllopsis fraxinicola




Invertebrate

Taeniothrips inconsequens




Invertebrate

Tomostethus nigritus

Ash sawfly

Invertebrate

Cercobelus jugaeus




Invertebrate

Cryptophagus ruficornis




Invertebrate

Hylesinus orni




Invertebrate

Prociphilus bumeliae




Invertebrate

Prociphilus fraxini




Invertebrate

Pseudochermes fraxini




Invertebrate

Psyllopsis discrepans




Invertebrate

Psyllopsis distinguenda




Lichen

Leptogium hildenbrandii




Lichen

Lithothelium phaeosporum




Lichen

Ochrolechia bahusiensis




Lichen

Thelenella modesta




Lichen

Bacidia auerswaldii




Lichen

Caloplaca flavorubescens




Lichen

Catapyrenium psoromoides




Lichen

Collema nigrescens




Lichen

Fuscopannaria ignobilis




Lichen

Leptogium cochleatum




Lichen

Leptogium saturninum




Lichen

Vezdaea stipitata




Lichen

Wadeana dendrographa




Table A4 Species classified as Amber-coded with respect to ash dieback.



Species group

Species - Latin

Species - English

Bird

Muscicapa striata

Spotted flycatcher

Bird

Poecile Palustris

Marsh tit

Bird

Pyrrhula pyrrhula

Bullfinch

Bryophyte

Dendrocryphaea lamyana

Multi-fruited cryphaea

Bryophyte

Myrinia pulvinata

Flood-moss

Bryophyte

Orthotrichum speciosum

Showy bristle-moss

Fungi

Botryosphaeria stevensii

none

Fungi

Crepidotus calolepis

none

Fungi

Crocicreas dolosellum

none

Fungi

Cucurbitaria obducens

none

Fungi

Daldinia concentrica

King Alfred's Cakes / Cramp Balls

Fungi

Diaporthe scobina

None

Fungi

Episphaeria fraxinicola

None

Fungi

Hymenoscyphus albidus

None

Fungi

Hypoxylon intermedium

None

Fungi

Hypoxylon petriniae

None

Fungi

Hypoxylon rubiginosum

Rusty Woodwart

Fungi

Hysterographium fraxini

None

Fungi

Inonotus hispidus

Shaggy Bracket

Fungi

Kavinia alboviridis

None

Fungi

Nitschkia confertula

None

Fungi

Peniophora limitata

None

Fungi

Valsa cypri

None

Fungi

Ramariopsis pulchella

Lilac Coral

Invertebrate

Abdera biflexuosa

 

Invertebrate

Acrocormus semifasciatus

 

Invertebrate

Aculus epiphyllus

 

Invertebrate

Aderus populneus

 

Invertebrate

Aeolothrips gloriosus

 

Invertebrate

Amiota alboguttata

 

Invertebrate

Ampedus cardinalis

 

Invertebrate

Ampedus rufipennis

 

Invertebrate

Anisoxya fuscula

 

Invertebrate

Anthocoris simulans

 

Invertebrate

Aprostocetus balasi

 

Invertebrate

Asterodiaspis minus

 

Invertebrate

Brachyopa insensilis

 

Invertebrate

Brachypalpus laphriformis

 

Invertebrate

Bracon caudatus

 

Invertebrate

Bracon ratzeburgi

 

Invertebrate

Caloptilia cuculipenella

 

Invertebrate

Cepphis advenaria

Little Thorn

Invertebrate

Cerocephala cornigera

 

Invertebrate

Cerylon fagi

 

Invertebrate

Contarinia marchal

 

Invertebrate

Cossus cossus

Goat Moth

Invertebrate

Craniophora ligustri

The Coronet

Invertebrate

Cryptarcha strigata

 

Invertebrate

Dendrothrips degeeri

 

Invertebrate

Dorcatoma substriata

 

Invertebrate

Dryocoetinus alni

a bark or ambrosia beetle

Invertebrate

Eledona agricola

 

Invertebrate

Enicmus brevicornis

 

Invertebrate

Enicmus rugosus

 

Invertebrate

Ennomos fuscantaria

Dusky Thorn

Invertebrate

Eudonia delunella

 

Invertebrate

Eulophus larvarum

 

Invertebrate

Eupachygaster tarsalis

Scarce black

Invertebrate

Eupithecia innotata

Angle-barred Pug

Invertebrate

Euthyneura halidayi

 

Invertebrate

Euzophera pinguis

 

Invertebrate

Gyrophaena lucidula

 

Invertebrate

Gyrophaena manca

 

Invertebrate

Hallomenus binotatus

 

Invertebrate

Helina vicina

 

Invertebrate

Hylesinus crenatus

Large Ash Bark Beetle

Invertebrate

Hylesinus fraxini

 

Invertebrate

Ischnodes sanguinicollis

 

Invertebrate

Lathridius consimilis

 

Invertebrate

Lepidosaphes conchyformis

 

Invertebrate

Limoniscus violaceus

Violet click beetle

Invertebrate

Lissodema cursor

 

Invertebrate

Lissodema denticolle

 

Invertebrate

Lonchaea peregrina

 

Invertebrate

Lucanus cervus

Stag beetle

Invertebrate

Lyctus linearis

 

Invertebrate

Lytta vesicatoria

Spanish fly

Invertebrate

Medetera melancholica

 

Invertebrate

Melandrya caraboides

 

Invertebrate

Mycetobia pallipes

 

Invertebrate

Nossidium pilosellum

 

Invertebrate

Oecophora bractella

 

Invertebrate

Orchesia micans

 

Invertebrate

Orthotylus tenellus

 

Invertebrate

Pammene ignorata

 

Invertebrate

Pandivirilia melaleuca

 

Invertebrate

Periscelis annulata

 

Invertebrate

Phaonia exoleta

 

Invertebrate

Phenacoccus aceris

 

Invertebrate

Phloiotrya vaudoueri

a false darkling beetle

Invertebrate

Platycis minutus

 

Invertebrate

Platyrhinus resinosus

 

Invertebrate

Platystomos albinus

 

Invertebrate

Pocota personata

 

Invertebrate

Prionychus ater

a darkling beetle

Invertebrate

Pseudargyrotoza conwagana

 

Invertebrate

Quadraspidiotus zonatus

 

Invertebrate

Rhopalomesites tardyi

 

Invertebrate

Scaphidema metallicum

 

Invertebrate

Siphoninus phillyreae

 

Invertebrate

Strigocis bicornis

 

Invertebrate

Symbiotes latus

 

Invertebrate

Tachypeza fuscipennis

 

Invertebrate

Tanyptera nigricornis

 

Invertebrate

Thecla betulae

Brown Hairstreak

Invertebrate

Theocolax formiciformis

 

Invertebrate

Tipula selene

 

Invertebrate

Trichopteryx polycommata

Barred Tooth-striped

Invertebrate

Trigonophora flammea

Flame Brocade

Invertebrate

Tropidosteptes pacificus 

 

Invertebrate

Xyleborus dispar

 

Invertebrate

Xyloterus domesticum

 

Invertebrate

Zelleria hepariella

 

Lichen

Gyalecta derivata

 

Lichen

Mycobilimbia epixanthoides

 

Lichen

Pyrenula chlorospila

 

Lichen

Strigula taylorii

 

Lichen

Acrocordia cavata

 

Lichen

Agonimia opuntiella

 

Lichen

Anaptychia ciliaris subsp. ciliaris

 

Lichen

Arthonia anglica

 

Lichen

Arthonia zwackhii

 

Lichen

Bacidia subincompta

 

Lichen

Biatoridium delitescens

 

Lichen

Biatoridium monasteriense

 

Lichen

Calicium abietinum

 

Lichen

Caloplaca herbidella

 

Lichen

Caloplaca virescens

 

Lichen

Chaenotheca chlorella

 

Lichen

Chaenotheca laevigata

 

Lichen

Collema fasciculare

 

Lichen

Collema fragrans

 

Lichen

Collema occultatum

 

Lichen

Collema subnigrescens

 

Lichen

Cryptolechia carneolutea

 

Lichen

Eopyrenula leucoplaca

 

Lichen

Fuscopannaria sampaiana

 

Lichen

Gomphillus calycioides

 

Lichen

Gyalecta flotowii

 

Lichen

Lecania chlorotiza

 

Lichen

Lecanora cinereofusca

 

Lichen

Lecanora horiza

 

Lichen

Lecanora sublivescens

 

Lichen

Lecidea erythrophaea

 

Lichen

Leptogium hibernicum

 

Lichen

Megalospora tuberculosa

 

Lichen

Menegazzia subsimilis

 

Lichen

Opegrapha viridis

 

Lichen

Pachyphiale fagicola

 

Lichen

Parmeliella testacea

 

Lichen

Parmelina carporrhizans

 

Lichen

Phlyctis agelaea

 

Lichen

Physcia clementei

 

Lichen

Physcia tribacioides

 

Lichen

Polychidium dendriscum

 

Lichen

Pseudocyphellaria intricata

 

Lichen

Pyrenula acutispora

 

Lichen

Ramonia dictyospora

 

Lichen

Rinodina biloculata

 

Lichen

Schismatomma graphidioides

 

Lichen

Teloschistes flavicans

 

Lichen

Wadeana minuta

 

Mammal

Barbastella barbastellus

Barbastelle

Mammal

Myotis bechsteinii

Bechstein's Bat

Mammal

Nyctalus noctula

Common Noctule

Mammal

Pipistrellus pygmaeus

Soprano Pipistrelle

Mammal

Plecotus auritus

Brown Long-eared Bat

Mammal

Rhinolophus hipposideros

Lesser Horseshoe Bat

Mammal

Sciurus vulgaris

Red squirrel

Table A5. The traits collated for ash and alternative tree species.



Database

Trait

Possible Value

Coding*

Definitions

Barkman 1958

Bark acidity

Sub neutral

Categorical

Sub neutral bark







Intermediate




Intermediate bark







Acidic




Acidic bark

Harley & Harley 1987

Mycorrhizae

Arbuscular

0 or 1

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi




Ectomycorrhizae

0 or 1

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Bioflora1

Diaspore type

aggregate fruit (syncarpous)

Categorical

Made up of several fruitlets but formed from a single flower







fruit with appendage




Woody endocarp of a single carpel of an aggregated fruit which contains one seed and is connected with further parts of a plant







infructescence




The inflorescence at the time when the seeds ripen; it still forms and looks like a single functional unit but contains several fruits







fruit




Part of the plant that developed from the ovary and contains the ripe seeds (excluding the previous two categories)







mericarp




One segment of a fruit that breaks at maturity into units derived from the individual carpels







seed




Embryo of a plant produced from fertilisation of the ovule by pollen, enclosed in an outer coat, contains often additional nutrients




Duration of flowering

Number

Numeric

Number of months of flowering




Floral rewards

nectar

0 or 1

nectar as flora reward







pollen

0 or 1

pollen as flora reward




Fruit type

capsule

Categorical

Dehiscent, fruit with multiple carpels; may open in various ways splitting down two sides







drupe




Indehiscent, with fleshy epicarp and mesocarp, woody endocarp; testa not woody







missing




Fruits are not developed as ovule are not enclosed in carpels, but are open (i.e. ferns, gymnosperms).







nut




Indehiscent, with dry pericarp







pome




Fleshy indehiscent; fruit (apple like) with a thin skin, not formed from the ovary but from another part of the plant (receptacle)







schizocarp




Dry fruit that splits up into separate fruitlets due to true septae across the carpel margins




Leaf form

acicular

Categorical

Slender, rigid, needle-shaped leaves which are equally wide across most of the length and often have a stiff tip.







full




Simple leaves, either orbicular, cordate, rhombic or polygonal; width >50% of length







lobate




Leaves with lobed divisions up to 1/4-1/3 of the leave.







pinnate




Compound leaves with leaflets arising in opposite pairs along the midrib (rhachis)







simple




Oval or elliptic leaves; width 25-50% of length




Leaf persistence

summer green

0 or 1

Green leaves only in the warm season (1) Evergreen (0)




Pollen vector

insects

0 or 1

Pollination by insects







selfing

0 or 1

Spontaneous pollination within a flower







wind

0 or 1

Pollination by wind

PlantAtt2

Height

Number

Numeric

Height of tree




Ellenberg light

Number

1 to 9

1= deep shade, 9=full light




Ellenberg moisture

Number

1 to 12

1=extreme dryness, 12=submerged plant




Ellenberg reaction

Number

1 to 9

Reaction = soil pH. 1 = extreme acidity, 9 = basic




Ellenberg nitrogen

Number

1 to 9

1=extreme infertile site, 9=extremely rich situations

LEDA3

LDMC

Number

Numeric

Leaf dry matter content (LDMC), a measure of tissue density, is the ratio dry leaf mass to fresh leaf mass and is expressed in mg/g




Leaf size

Number

Numeric

Leaf size is the one-sided projected surface area of an individual leaf or lamina expressed in mm2. For compound leaves it is the size of the leaflet




Seed mass

Number

Numeric

seed weight in mg




Release height

Number

Numeric

The difference between the elevation of the highest fruit or seed and the base of the plant (m)




Specific leaf area

Number

Numeric

Specific leaf area (SLA) is the ratio of fresh leaf area to leaf dry mass: SLA =leaf area / leaf dry mass, expressed in mm2 mg-1

*1=present (the species has this trait), 0 = absent (the species does not have this trait)
1BiolFlor: Derived from Klotz, S., Kühn, I. & Durka, W. (2002) BIOLFLOR – Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Budesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn – Bad Godesberg. http://www2.ufz.de/biolflor/index.jsp

2PlantAtt Derived from those published in Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D. & Roy, D.B. (2004) PLANTATT - attributes of British and Irish Plants: status, size, life history, geography and habitats. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Huntingdon. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/9535/

3LEDA. A database on the life history traits of the Northwest European flora http://www.leda-traitbase.org/LEDAportal/




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