Psy 261 Assignment Due Thursday 7/17 15 Points Chapter 5 discusses neo-Freudian theories, one of which is Erik Erikson’s theory involving stages in the lifespan. Read about Erikson in Chapter 5 on pages 110-117



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Psy 261 Assignment Due Thursday 7/17 15 Points
Chapter 5 discusses neo-Freudian theories, one of which is Erik Erikson’s theory involving stages in the lifespan. Read about Erikson in Chapter 5 on pages 110-117.

Next, read the information in the following paragraph, after which you then complete the 20 item survey. The scoring instructions are included. Write a 3-4 paragraph reaction to this survey that will reflect what you learned about your self in this process. This can be handwritten.
Classroom Exercise: Erikson’s Stages
Handout 4–12 contains selected items from Rhona Ochse and Cornelis Plug’s self-report questionnaire assessing the personality dimensions associated with Erikson’s first seven stages of psychosexual development. It can serve to make the stages personally relevant to students and thus provides a good introduction to his theory.

Erikson suggested that personality development follows a fixed sequence of stages, each being critical for the development of a certain bipolar dimension of personality. In each stage, conflict arises between newly emerging personality needs and social demands and culminates in a crisis, not in the sense of a catastrophe but rather represents a turning point in development. One is better able to cope with future conflicts if past crises have had a positive outcome. Erikson noted, however, that all the personality components develop to some extent throughout life, even before their critical stages. To some extent, they may develop in parallel and are interdependent even before the relevant crises are resolved.

Items on the handout were derived from Erikson’s statements about each stage. Scores for each subscale range from 0 to 15, with high scores reflecting greater strength on a particular personality dimension.

The response to item 1 should be reversed (0 = 3, 1 = 2, 2 =1, 3 = 0) and then added to the numbers given in response to items 2, 3, 4, and 5 to obtain a trust score. Responses to items 7, 8, and 9 should be reversed and added to items 6 and 10 to assess autonomy. Answers to 12 and 15 should be reversed and added to items 11, 13, and 14 to measure initiative. Answers to 16, 18, and 19 should be reversed and then added to 17 and 20 to calculate industry. Responses to 21 and 25 must be reversed and added to 22, 24, and 25 to obtain a measure of identity. Answers to 26, 28, and 30 are reversed and added to 27 and 29 to give intimacy. Responses to 31 and 33 are reversed and added to 32, 34, and 35 to provide a generativity score. In both sexes, the authors found that the scores on each dimension were related to an independent measure of well-being.

Handout 4–12

Erikson’s Stages

Indicate how often each of these statements apply to you by using the following scale:
0 = never applies to you

1 = occasionally or seldom applies to you

2 = fairly often applies to you

3 = very often applies to you


Trust Versus Mistrust

1. I feel pessimistic about the future of humankind.

2. I feel the world’s major problems can be solved.

3. I am filled with admiration for humankind.

4. People can be trusted.

5. I feel optimistic about my future.
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt

6. When people try to persuade me to do something I don’t want to, I refuse.

7. After I have made a decision, I feel I have made a mistake.

8. I am unnecessarily apologetic.

9. I worry that my friends will find fault with me.

10. When I disagree with someone, I tell them.
Initiative Versus Guilt

11. I am prepared to take a risk to get what I want.

12. I feel hesitant to try out a new way of doing something.

13. I am confident in carrying out my plans to a successful conclusion.

14. I feel what happens to me is the result of what I have done.

15. When I have difficulty in getting something right, I give up.
Industry Versus Inferiority

16. When people look at something I have done, I feel embarrassed.

17. I get a great deal of pleasure from working.

18. I feel too incompetent to do what I would really like to do in life.

19. I avoid doing something difficult because I feel I would fail.

20. I feel competent.

Handout 4–12 (continued)
Identity Versus Identity Diffusion

21. I wonder what sort of person I really am.

22. I feel certain about what I should do with my life.

23. My worth is recognized by others.

24. I feel proud to be the sort of person I am.

25. I am unsure as to how people feel about me.
Intimacy Versus Isolation

26. I feel that no one has ever known the real me.

27. I have a feeling of complete "togetherness" with someone.

28. I feel it is better to remain free that to become committed to marriage for life.

29. I share my private thoughts with someone.

30. I feel as though I am alone in the world.
Generativity Versus Stagnation

31. I feel that I have done nothing that will survive after I die.

32. I help people to improve themselves.

33. I feel my life is being wasted.

34. I have a good influence on people.

35. I enjoy guiding young people.

Source: Ochse, R., & Plug, C. (1986). Cross-cultural investigation of the validity of Erikson’s theory of personality development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1240–1252. (Scale items appear on pages 1251–1252.) Copyright © 1986 by the American Psychology Association. Reprinted with permission.
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