Produces adhesins which bind to membrane- associated lipids and carbohydrates and help its adhesion to epithelial cells



Yüklə 518 b.
tarix26.02.2017
ölçüsü518 b.





Produces adhesins which bind to membrane- associated lipids and carbohydrates and help its adhesion to epithelial cells

  • Produces adhesins which bind to membrane- associated lipids and carbohydrates and help its adhesion to epithelial cells

  • Breaks down urea (NH2CONH2) to NH4+ and CO2

  • Stomach acidity 

  • Possible for H. pylori to survive



Highly successful human microbial pathogen

  • Highly successful human microbial pathogen

  • classified as a class I carcinogen

  • cellular and molecular signalling pathways are used during H. pylori infection to promote epithelial hyperproliferation and transformation

  • Gastric inflammation

  • Chronic gastritis

  • peptic ulcers

  • gastric cancer

  • gastric adenocarcinoma

  • mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

  • gastric epithelial hyperproliferation.























H. pylori is a genomically diverse pathogen and several bacterial virulence factors, are considered to have a key role in disease pathogenesis

  • H. pylori is a genomically diverse pathogen and several bacterial virulence factors, are considered to have a key role in disease pathogenesis

  • Only strains containing the cag PAI trigger signalling cascades in gastric epithelial cells, resulting in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activation and multiple associated changes in epithelial gene expression



Apoptosis and cell cycle control are processes required for the regulation of cellular homeostasis

  • Apoptosis and cell cycle control are processes required for the regulation of cellular homeostasis

  • chronic imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation is the first step of gastric carcinogenesis, as in all tumours.

  • H. pylori infection could lead to an overall increase in cellular turnover and persistence of mutated cells, which will favour the development of neoplasia

  • The cell cycle, the programme for cell growth and division (proliferation), consists of four phases that are known as G1 and G0, S, G2 and M. The important protein families used during this cycle include the cyclins, the cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks), the Cdk inhibitors and the tumour-supressor genes (in particular, Rb and p53)



The H. pylori toxin VacA induces gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, suggesting that differences in levels of gastric mucosal apoptosis among infected persons might result from strain-dependent variations in VacA structure.

  • The H. pylori toxin VacA induces gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, suggesting that differences in levels of gastric mucosal apoptosis among infected persons might result from strain-dependent variations in VacA structure.

  • In another study, apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells was mediated by elevated levels of Smad5 as a result of cag PAI-dependent H. pylori infection.



Exposure of epithelial cells to H. pylori alters cell cycle control both in vitro and in vivo. Mucosal expression of cyclin D1, the tumour-suppressor p53 and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 was significantly higher in H. pylori- infected patients with intestinal metaplasia

  • Exposure of epithelial cells to H. pylori alters cell cycle control both in vitro and in vivo. Mucosal expression of cyclin D1, the tumour-suppressor p53 and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 was significantly higher in H. pylori- infected patients with intestinal metaplasia

  • A clear effect of H. pylori on cell cycle progression has been described in infected patients with intestinal metaplasia that overexpress cyclin D2 and show reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27





The ability of a cell to respond to its extracellular environment involves a complex and highly organized series of events referred to as cellular signalling.

  • The ability of a cell to respond to its extracellular environment involves a complex and highly organized series of events referred to as cellular signalling.

  • These signalling processes regulate fundamental cellular responses and their abrogation can lead to the development of various human diseases, such as cancer.





  • Cancer could arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation..

  • The physical contact between H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells leads to the activation of signal transduction pathways

  • Muropeptides (GM) translocated by the T4SS of H. pylori are recognized by the intracellular receptor molecule NOD1, which directs activation of the transcription factor NF-кB.

  • In addition, H. pylori-induces the kinases PAK1, NIK and the IKK complex leading to the phosphorylation of IкB molecules and nuclear translocation of active NF-кB.

  • Activation of the transcription factor AP-1 is triggered by PAK1 which activates an unknown MAP 3 kinase (MKKK), MKK4 and JNK. In addition, p38 kinase is strictly induced by H. pylori strains carrying a T4SS.





The T4SS of H. pylori translocates CagA, an effector protein which becomes tyrosine phosphorylated by Src kinases.

  • The T4SS of H. pylori translocates CagA, an effector protein which becomes tyrosine phosphorylated by Src kinases.

  • CagA may disrupts epithelial tight junction in a process which comprises co-localisation of CagA with JAM molecules and the scaffolding protein ZO-1.

  • Further, CagA directly binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the phosphorylated and active c-Met receptor and enhances the motogenic response (cell scattering). In addition, CagA recruits PLCץ to the c-Met receptor.



The cell scattering involves Cdc42 and Rac1 which are activated in a cag PAI-dependent manner as well as the activity of MEK and ERK which are cag PAI independently activated.

  • The cell scattering involves Cdc42 and Rac1 which are activated in a cag PAI-dependent manner as well as the activity of MEK and ERK which are cag PAI independently activated.

  • The phosphatase SHP-2 associates with phosphorylated CagA, and in an autoregulatory loop the interaction between CagA and the kinase CSK stimulates phosphorylation and inactivation of Src kinases leading to less phosphorylation of CagA.



Cell growth and differentiation in response to extracellular stimuli is mediated through various intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  • Cell growth and differentiation in response to extracellular stimuli is mediated through various intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  • The mitogen-activated proteinkinase (MAPK) pathway is a major player in this kinase signalling cascade from growth factors to the cell nucleus.

  • The pathway involves kinases at two levels:

  • 1. MAP kinases,also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases(ERKs); and

  • 2.MAP kinase kinases, also known as MEKs or MAPK–ERK kinases.

  • MEK is activated by the phosphorylation of two serine residues by upstream kinases, MEK catalyzes the phosphorylation of threonine and tyrosine residues of ERK.



The activated ERK then phosphorylates and activates transcription factors in the nucleus, such as the ternary complex factor (TCF)Elk-1, which regulate early genes including c-myc, fos and jun.

  • The activated ERK then phosphorylates and activates transcription factors in the nucleus, such as the ternary complex factor (TCF)Elk-1, which regulate early genes including c-myc, fos and jun.

  • MEK and ERK enzymes are known to be essential for normal cell proliferation and differentiation, deregulation (overexpression, hyperactivity or gene mutation) of the MAPK signal transduction pathway might lead to proliferative diseases, cancer Therefore, cancer can be considered as a disease of communication at the molecular level.



  • Tyrosine kinase receptors have an important role in gastric carcinogenesis .

  • Recent studies have demonstrated that H. pylori activates EGFR, HER2–Neu (ErbB-2) and c-Met in gastric epithelial cells .

  • EGFR activation is dependent on extracellular transmembrane metalloprotease cleavage of proheparin binding epidermal growth factor (proHB-EGF) and signalling by mature HB-EGF.



The upregulation of HB-EGF gene transcription by H. pylori requires metalloprotease, EGFR and MEK1 activities , indicating the involvement of the ‘triple membrane-passing signal’ (TMPS) for EGFR transactivation .

  • The upregulation of HB-EGF gene transcription by H. pylori requires metalloprotease, EGFR and MEK1 activities , indicating the involvement of the ‘triple membrane-passing signal’ (TMPS) for EGFR transactivation .

  • Disruption of epithelial tight junctions by the interaction of translocated CagAwith the scaffolding protein ZO-1 and VacA-mediated phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1 (Git1)probably promotes binding of EGF ligands to the EGFR located on basolateral membranes of the epithelial cells .







Decreased cell–cell or cell–matrix interactions are common in gastric cancer and might be related to the tendency to produce metastasis.

  • Decreased cell–cell or cell–matrix interactions are common in gastric cancer and might be related to the tendency to produce metastasis.

  • In polarized epithelial cells H. pylori affects the scaffolding protein ZO-1 and the tight junctional adhesion protein (JAM) in a CagA-dependent manner, and disrupts junction-mediated epithelial barrier functions .

  • Among the many types of adhesion molecules, E-cadherin serves as a prime mediator of cell–cell adhesion within the zonula adherens junctions. Downregulation of E-cadherin in antral biopsies of H. pylori- infected patients has been described .

  • The cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin interact with catenins(a and b), and alterations in this system have been ascribed an important role in tumour initiation and progression





A characteristic of H. pylori infection in humans is gastritis, which persists for decades without causing serious damage in most cases.

  • A characteristic of H. pylori infection in humans is gastritis, which persists for decades without causing serious damage in most cases.

  • The clinical complications of H. pylori infection, such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, appear to represent an imbalance in gastric homeostasis.



The induction of the motogenic response by H. pylori in epithelial cells represents an example of how a human microbial pathogen can activate growth-factor receptor tyrosine kinases, and modify signal transduction in the cell using translocated bacterial proteins.

  • The induction of the motogenic response by H. pylori in epithelial cells represents an example of how a human microbial pathogen can activate growth-factor receptor tyrosine kinases, and modify signal transduction in the cell using translocated bacterial proteins.

  • It will be essential to deepen our understanding of receptor crosstalk in H. pylori- infected epithelium and its contribution to EGFR, Her2–Neu and c-Met activation.

  • The study of signalling pathways that regulate EGFR, Her2–Neu and c-Met expression and activity in H. pylori infection may identify promising therapeutic targets for suppression of transformation, and offer novel potential targets for the treatment and/or prevention of malignancies .

  • To down regulate the expression of anti-apoptotic genes is another potential therapeutic approach.






Yüklə 518 b.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©www.azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə