Of the United States of America d e c e m b e r 2 0 1 7


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We will establish national-level strategic intelli-

gence and planning capabilities 

to improve the ability of agen-

cies to work together to combat 

TCOs at home and abroad.


We will 

deny TCOs the ability to harm 

Americans. We will support 

public health efforts to halt the 

growth of illicit drug use in the 

United States, expand national 

and community-based preven-

tion efforts, increase access to 

evidenced-based treatment for 

addiction, improve prescrip-

tion drug monitoring, and provide training on 

substance use disorders for medical personnel. 

D E F E N D I N D E P T H : 

U.S. agencies and foreign 

partners will target TCO leaders and their sup-

port infrastructure. We will assist countries, par-

ticularly in the Western Hemisphere, to break 

the power of these organizations and networks. 


 We will use sophisti-

cated investigative tools to disrupt the ability of 

criminals to use online marketplaces, crypto-

currencies, and other tools for illicit activities. 

Th e United States will hold countries accountable 

for harboring these criminals. 

Keep America Safe 

in the Cyber Era

America’s response to the challenges and oppor-

tunities of the cyber era will determine our future 

prosperity  and security . For most of our history, the 

United States has been able to protect the home-

land by controlling its land, air, space, and mari-

time domains. Today, cyberspace offers state and 

non-state actors the ability to wage campaigns 

against American political, economic, and secu-

rity interests without ever physically crossing 

our borders. Cyberattacks offer adversaries low-

cost and deniable opportunities 

to seriously damage or disrupt 

critical infrastructure, cripple 

American businesses, weaken 

ou r Federa l net works, a nd 

attack the tools and devices that 

Americans use every day to com-

municate and conduct business. 

Critical infrastructure keeps our 

food fresh, our houses warm, 

our trade flowing, and our cit-

izens productive and safe. The 

vulnerability of U.S. critical 

infrastructure to cyber, phys-

ical, and electromagnetic attacks means that 

adversaries could disrupt military command and 

control, banking and fi nancial operations, the elec-

trical grid, and means of communication. 

Federal networks also face threats. Th ese networks 

allow government agencies to carry out vital func-

tions and provide services to the American peo-

America’s response 

to the challenges and 

opportunities of the cyber 

era will determine 

our future prosperity  

and security . 


P I L L A R   I :   P RO T E C T   T H E   A M E R I C A N   P E O P L E ,   T H E   H O M E L A N D ,   A N D   T H E   A M E R I C A N   WAY   O F   L I F E

ple. The government must do a better job of pro-

tecting data to safeguard information and the 

privacy of the American people. Our Federal net-

works must be modernized and updated. 

In addition, the daily lives of most Americans rely 

on computer-driven and interconnected technolo-

gies. As our reliance on computers and connectiv-

ity increases, we become increasingly vulnerable 

to cyberattacks. Businesses and individuals must 

be able to operate securely in cyberspace.

Security was not a major consideration when the 

Internet was designed and launched. As it evolves, 

the government and private sector must design 

systems that incorporate prevention, protec-

tion, and resiliency from the start, not as an after-

thought. We must do so in a way that respects free 

markets, private competition, and the limited but 

important role of government in enforcing the 

rule of law. As we build the next generation of dig-

ital infrastructure, we have an opportunity  to put 

our experience into practice. 

The Internet is an American invention, and it 

should reflect our values as it continues to trans-

form the future for all nations and all genera-

tions. A strong, defensible cyber infrastructure 

fosters economic growth, protects our liberties, 

and advances our national security. 

Priority  Actions 


To improve the secu-

rity and resilience of our critical infrastruc-

ture, we will assess risk across six key areas: 

national security , energy and power, banking and 

finance, health and safety, communications, and 

transportation. We will assess where cyberat-

tacks could have catastrophic or cascading con-

sequences and prioritize our protective efforts, 

capabilities, and defenses accordingly. 


We will 

use the latest commercial capabilities, shared ser-

vices, and best practices to modernize our Federal 

information technology. We will improve our abil-

ity  to provide uninterrupted and secure communi-

cations and services under all conditions. 


The Federal Government will ensure that those 

charged with securing critical infrastructure have 

the necessary authorities, information, and capa-

bilities to prevent attacks before they affect or 

hold at risk U.S. critical infrastructure. Th e United 

States will impose swift and costly consequences 

on foreign governments, criminals, and other 

actors who undertake signifi cant malicious cyber 

activities. We will work with allies and friends to 

expand our awareness of malicious activities. A 

stronger and more resilient critical infrastructure 

will strengthen deterrence by creating doubt in our 

adversaries that they can achieve their objectives. 

I M P R OV E  I N F O R M AT I O N  S H A R I N G  A N D  S E N S I N G :

The U.S. Government will work with our critical 

infrastructure partners to assess their informa-

tional needs and to reduce the barriers to informa-

tion sharing, such as speed and classification lev-

els. We will also invest in capabilities that improve 

the ability of the United States to attribute cyber-

att acks. In accordance with the protection of civil 

liberties and privacy, the U.S. Government will 

expand collaboration with the private sector so that 

we can bett er detect and att ribute att acks. 


Since threats transit 

globally, passing through communications back-

bones without challenge, the U.S. Government will 

work with the private sector to remediate known 

bad activities at the network level to improve 

the security of all customers. Malicious activ-

ity must be defeated within a network and not be 

passed on to its destination whenever possible. 

N A T I O N A L   S E C U R I T Y   S T R A T E G Y


Promote American


Despite our best efforts, our government cannot 

prevent all dangers to the American people. We 

can, however, help Americans remain resilient in 

the face of adversity. Resilience includes the abil-

ity to withstand and recover rapidly from delib-

erate attacks, accidents, natural disasters, as well 

as unconventional stresses, shocks, and threats 

to our economy and democratic system. In the 

event of a disaster, Federal, state, and local agen-

cies must perform essential functions and have 

plans in place to ensure the continuation of our 

constitutional form of government. 

Reducing risk and building more resilient com-

munities are the best ways to protect people, prop-

erty, and taxpayer dollars from loss and disrup-

tion. Through risk-informed investments, we will 

build resilient communities and infrastructure 

to protect and benefi t future generations. 

Should tragedy strike, the U.S. Government will 

help communities recover and rebuild. Citizens 

must be confi dent in our government, but also rec-

ognize that response and recovery begins with 

individuals and local communities. In difficult 

times, the true character of the American peo-

ple emerges: their strength, their love, and their 

resolve. Our fi rst responders selfl essly run toward 

danger, and volunteers rally to the aid of neigh-

bors when disaster strikes. 

A democracy is only as resilient as its people. An 

informed and engaged citizenry is the fundamen-

tal requirement for a free and resilient nation. For 

generations, our society has protected free press, 

free speech, and free thought. Today, actors such 

as Russia are using information tools in an att empt 

to undermine the legitimacy of democracies. 

Adversaries target media, political processes, fi nan-

cial networks, and personal data. The American 

public and private sectors must recognize this and 

work together to defend our way of life. No exter-

nal threat can be allowed to shake our shared 

commitment to our values, undermine our sys-

tem of government, or divide our Nation.

Priority  Actions 


 The United States will 

improve its ability to assess the threats and haz-

ards that pose the greatest risks to Americans 

and will prioritize resources based on the high-

est risks. 


 This Admin-

istration will take steps to build a culture of pre-

paredness, informing and empowering commu-

nities and individuals to obtain the skills and 

take the preparatory actions necessary to become 

more resilient against the threats and hazards 

that Americans face.


 State and local governments 

must conduct realistic exercises that test exist-

ing plans to make sure that they are sound and 

can be executed. Agencies from all levels of gov-

ernment must coordinate bett er and apply lessons 

learned from exercises to pinpoint the areas and 

capabilities that require improvement. 


 To improve the 

coordination among the private sector and all lev-

els of government that is needed to improve resil-

ience, we must make a stronger commitment to 

protecting sensitive information so that all part-

ners actively identify and share vulnerabilities 

and work collaboratively to reduce them. 



P I L L A R   I I 

Promote American Prosperity

“Economic security  is national security .”

P R E S I D E N T   D O N A L D   J .   T R U M P  


  N O V E M B E R   2 0 1 7




strong economy protects the American 

people, supports our way of life, and sus-

tains American power. American work-

ers thrive when they are free to innovate, develop 

and access our abundant natural resources, and 

operate in markets free from excessive regula-

tions and unfair foreign trade practices. A grow-

ing and innovative economy allows the United 

States to maintain the world’s most powerful mili-

tary and protect our homeland.

We must rebuild our economic strength and 

restore confidence in the American economic 

model. Over decades, American factories, com-

panies, and jobs moved overseas. After the 2008 

global fi nancial crisis, doubt replaced confi dence. 

Risk-aversion and regulations replaced investment 

and entrepreneurship. Th e recovery produced ane-

mic growth in real earnings for American workers. 

Th e U.S. trade defi cit grew as a result of several fac-

tors, including unfair trading practices. 

For 70 years, the United States has embraced a 

strategy premised on the belief that leadership 

of a stable international economic system rooted 

in American principles of reciprocity, free mar-

kets, and free trade served our economic and 

security interests. Working with our allies and 

partners, the United States led the creation of 

a group of financial institutions and other eco-

nomic forums that established equitable rules 

and built instruments to stabilize the interna-

tional economy and remove the points of friction 

that had contributed to two world wars. 

That economic system continues to serve our 

interests, but it must be reformed to help American 

workers prosper, protect our in novation

and reflect the principles upon which that sys-

tem was founded. Trading partners and inter-

national institutions can do more to address 

trade imbalances and adhere to and enforce the 

rules of the order.

Today, American prosperity and security are 

challenged by an economic competition play-

ing out in a broader strategic context. The United 

States helped expand the liberal economic trad-

ing system to countries that did not share our val-

ues, in the hopes that these states would liber-

alize their economic and political practices and 

provide commensurate benefits to the United 

States. Experience shows that these countries dis-

torted and undermined key economic institu-

tions without undertaking significant reform of 

their economies or politics. Th ey espouse free trade 

rhetoric and exploit its benefits, but only adhere 

selectively to the rules and agreements.

We welcome all economic relationships rooted in 

fairness, reciprocity , and faithful adherence to the 

rules. Th ose who join this pursuit will be our clos-

est economic partners. But the United States will 

no longer turn a blind eye to violations, cheating, 

or economic aggression. We must work with like-

N A T I O N A L   S E C U R I T Y   S T R A T E G Y


minded allies and partners to ensure our princi-

ples prevail and the rules are enforced so that our 

econom ies prosper. 

The United States will pursue 

an economic strategy that reju-

venates the domestic economy, 

benefits the American worker, 

revitalizes the U.S. manufactur-

ing base, creates middle-class 

jobs, encourages innovation, pre-

serves technological advantage, 

safeguards the environment, 

and achieves energy dominance. 

Rebuilding economic strength 

at home and preserving a fair 

and reciprocal international 

economic system will enhance 

our security and advance pros-

perity and peace in the world.

Rejuvenate the 

Domestic Economy

Economic challenges at home demand that we 

understand economic prosperity as a pillar of 

national security. Despite low unemployment 

rates and stock market gains, overall economic 

growth has, until recently, been anemic since 

the 2008 recession. In the past five years, gross 

domestic product (GDP) growth hovered barely 

above two percent, and wages stagnated. Taxes 

increased, and health insurance and prescrip-

tion drug costs continued to rise, albeit at a slower 

pace. Education costs climbed at rates far above 

inflation, increasing student debt. Productivity 

growth fell to levels not seen in decades. 

Signifi cant government intrusion in the economy 

slowed growth and job creation. Regulatory and 

corporate tax policies incentivized businesses to 

invest overseas and disadvantaged American com-

panies against foreign competitors. Excessive reg-

ulation burdened small businesses. Banking regu-

lations squelched new bank formation and caused 

hundreds of small banks to close. Regulation 

decreased credit availability to 

consumers and decreased prod-

uct choice. Excessive environ-

mental and infrastructure reg-

ulations impeded American 

energy trade and the devel-

opment of new in frastruc-

ture projects. 

Moreover, the poor state of our 

physical infrastructure stulti-

fied the economy, reduced the 

profitability of American small 

businesses, and slowed the pro-

ductivity of American workers. 

America’s digital infrastructure 

also fell behind. Improvements 

in bandwidth, better broadband connectiv-

ity, and protection from persistent cyberattacks 

are needed to support America’s future growth. 

Economic and personal transactions are depen-

dent upon the “.com world,” and wealth creation 

depends on a reliable, secure Internet. 

The Administration is dedicated to rejuvenat-

ing the U.S. economy, unleashing the potential of 

all Americans, and restoring confidence in our 

free market system. Promoting American pros-

perity makes America more secure and advances 

American infl uence in the world.

Priority  Actions 


Departments and 

agencies will eliminate unnecessary regulations 

that stifl e growth, drive up costs for American busi-

nesses, impede research and development, dis-

courage hiring, and incentivize domestic busi-

nesses to move overseas. We will balance our 

reduction in regulations with adequate protec-

tions and oversight. 

Rebuilding economic 

strength at home and 

preserving a fair and 

reciprocal international 

economic system will 

enhance our security  and 

advance prosperity  and 

peace in the world.


P I L L A R   I I :   P R O M O T E   A M E R I C A N   P R O S P E R I T Y


This Administration will 

work with the Congress to create a simpler, fairer, 

and pro-growth tax code that encourages the 

creation of higher wage jobs and gives middle-

income families tax relief. Reduced business 

tax rates and a territorial system for foreign sub-

sidiary earnings will improve the competitive-

ness of American companies and encourage their 

return to the United States. 


 Federal, state, 

and local governments will work together with pri-

vate industry to improve our airports, seaports 

and waterways, roads and railways, transit sys-

tems, and telecommunications. Th e United States 

will use our strategic advantage as a leading natu-

ral gas producer to transform transportation and 

manufacturing. We will improve America’s digital 

infrastructure by deploying a secure 5G Internet 

capability nationwide. These improvements will 

increase national competitiveness, benefi t the envi-

ronment, and improve our quality  of life.



The national 

debt, now over $20 trillion, pres-

ents a grave threat to America’s 

long-term prosperity and, by 

extension, our national security . 

By restraining Federal spending, 

making government more effi-

cient, and by modernizing our 

tax system and making our busi-

nesses globally competitive, our 

economy will grow and make the 

existing debt more serviceable. 

S U P P O R T   E D U C A T I O N   A N D 

A P P R E N T I C E S H I P   P R O G R A M S : 

We will support apprenticeships and work-

fo r c e   d e ve lo p m e n t   p r o g r a m s   t h a t   p r e -

p a r e   A m e r i c a n   wo r k e r s   f o r   h i g h - w a g e 

manufacturing and science, technology, engi-

neering, and mathematics (STEM) jobs of the 

21st  century.

Promote Free, Fair, 

and Reciprocal Economic 


For decades, the United States has allowed unfair 

trading practices to grow. Other countries have 

used dumping, discriminatory non-tariff barri-

ers, forced technology transfers, non-economic 

capacity, industrial subsidies, and other support 

from governments and state-owned enterprises to 

gain economic advantages. 

Today we must meet the challenge. We will address 

persistent trade imbalances, break down trade 

barriers, and provide Americans new opportuni-

ties to increase their exports. The United States 

will expand trade that is fairer so that U.S. work-

ers and industries have more opportunities to 

compete for business. We oppose closed mercan-

tilist trading blocks. By strengthening the inter-

national trading system and incentivizing other 

countries to embrace mar-

ket-friendly policies, we can 

enhance our prosperity .

Th e United States distinguishes 

between economic competition 

with countries that follow fair 

and free market principles and 

competition with those that act 

with little regard for those prin-

ciples. We will compete with 

like-minded states in the eco-

nomic domain—particularly 

where trade imbalances exist—

while recognizing that compe-

tition is healthy when nations 

share values and build fair and reciprocal rela-

tionships. The United States will pursue enforce-

ment actions when countries violate the rules 

to gain unfair advantage. The United States will 

engage industrialized democracies and other like-

minded states to defend against economic aggres-

Th e Administration is 

dedicated to rejuvenating 

the U.S. economy, 

unleashing the potential 

of all Americans, and 

restoring confi dence in our 

free market system.

N A T I O N A L   S E C U R I T Y   S T R A T E G Y


sion, in all its forms, that threatens our com-

mon prosperity and security.

Priority  Actions

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