O. bourquin, consultant collections manager : cnmi invertebrate collection crees northern marianas college, saipan



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INVERTEBRATES RECORDED FROM THE NORTHERN MARIANAS ISLANDS

STATUS 2002


O. BOURQUIN, CONSULTANT
COLLECTIONS MANAGER : CNMI INVERTEBRATE COLLECTION

CREES - NORTHERN MARIANAS COLLEGE, SAIPAN

DECEMBER 2002

02 April 2013, Ed. Version, APASEEM.org website. (JFF)
Ed. notes. A little over ten years ago Dr. Bourquin individually accomplished this incredible 365 page cataloging of the CNMI insects--later to be expanded to include all CNMI terrestrial invertebrates--collection being conserved on the NMC campus, Saipan. Dr. Bourquin hoped the catalog would be published, however, this has not yet occurred (April 2013). As a backup, Dr. Bourquin provided certain individuals with digital and hard copy versions of his work, JFF being amongst these. APASEEM was established after Dr. Bourquin moved to Montana State on the US mainland. As part of our website's Local Organism Identification goals, APASEEM is pleased to make this important (minimally-edited) catalog available.

CONTENTS



Page



Introduction 3



Procedures 3


Problems and recommendations 5
Acknowledgements 11
Appendix 1 Policy and protocol for

Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas (CNMI)

invertebrate collection 12
Appendix 2 Taxa to be included in the CNMI collection 15
Appendix 3 Biodiversity of CNMI and its representation

in CNMI collection 19


References 365




INTRODUCTION

This report is based on work done under contract from March 1st 2001 to December 1st, 2002 on the CNMI Invertebrate collection, Northern Marianas College, Saipan. The collection was started by Dr. L.H. Hale during 1970, and was resurrected and expanded from 1979 due to the foresight and energy of Dr “Jack” Tenorio, who also contributed a great number of specimens. Originally the collection was intended as an insect collection to assist identification of insects affecting agriculture, horticulture and silviculture in the Northern Marianas, and to contribute to the ability of pupils and students to learn more about the subject. During 2001 the collection was expanded to include all terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates, and a collection management protocol was established (see Appendices 1 and 2).


The collection was originally owned by the CNMI Department of Land and Natural Resources, and was on loan to the NMC Entomology Unit for curation. During 2001 it was transferred to the NMC by agreement with Dr. “Jack” Tenorio, who emphasized the need to maintain separate teaching material as well as identified specimens in the main collection. As can be seen in Appendix 3, the collection serves the interests of farmers, landowners, teachers, students and researchers and indeed anybody with an interest in any aspect of invertebrates (whether benign or antagonistic !).
The page layout of Appendix 3 has been designed to give information on species known to be present in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam (together called the Mariana Islands), as well as indicating which species are actually represented in the collection, and as such it was considered appropriate that the report was linked to the concept of biodiversity.
The report for each group is started at the top of a fresh page, so that future changes or additions can be made without disturbing the rest of the text.



PROCEDURES




  1. The collection was examined and all specimens without labels, or which had dried up

in containers and were damaged, or which were otherwise damaged so as to make their identification impossible, were discarded.




  1. The general taxonomic arrangements given in Hickman et al 1979 and Borror et al

1989 were followed (except where more recent updating had changed such sequences), to arrange the drawers in sequence prior to attending to species arrangements.





  1. All locally available literature was used to establish species present in the Mariana

Islands, including Guam. Sources included, in particular "Insects of Micronesia",

"Insects of Guam", "Pacific Insects" and “Pacific Insects Monographs". From these

and other sources Species lists were compiled and these were used for the final

arrangement of species in the drawers. Spaces were left for each species known to

occur in the Northern Marianas, except for most of those animals, which were to be

stored as wet specimens.




  1. Field collecting was carried out, mainly on Saipan, but also during a trip to Sarigan,

to add to and update the collection.
5. Various individuals outside the college were contacted in attempts to solicit specimens (for example from mosquito and termite control groups and the Veterinary Department), none have so far been forthcoming.
6. Identifications were made using keys available in the references, by comparison with specimens in the Guam University collection, and by scanning websites, particularly of Museum holdings, which sometimes provided illustrations and descriptions.
7. Specimens were sent to appropriate workers for identification, or identification confirmation. These included Dr. M. Saaristo (University of Turku, Finland - spiders), Dr. D Plisko (Natal Museum, South Africa - earthworms) and Dr. D.Otte (Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, USA – grasshoppers and crickets).
8. With some assistance from Mr. E. Benjamin and Dr L. Eavy, all specimens collected were preserved and labeled.
9. A report format was designed and used for the main body of the report (Appendix 3). Time constraints and a lack of available literature and expertise have led to obvious deficiencies in the lists. The decision as to whether a species was endemic, indigenous or alien to the Marianas was often arbitrary and in may cases was simply a guess based on known distribution – if a species was widely distributed it was likely to have been introduced. General information on the arthropods was derived in great part from Borror et al 1989. Where other sources were used these are indicated in the references.

PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS



Continuity

The curatorship of the collection has, over the past, fallen to the lot of people employed to do other things as well. Since the work involved (such as identification) can be very time consuming (or very expensive) this tended to be neglected, as did the regular checking of wet and dry preserved specimens. Up-dating the collection and the database, and rearranging specimens as more species are found is also an onerous but necessary task.
Recommendation – options in my order of preference.

  1. A part time (4-5 hours per day) curator is employed whose function is entirely tied to collection and database management of the collection at NMC.

  2. The collection from Guam University is amalgamated with that of the CNMI to form a Marianas collection, and is managed by a full-time curator – locality of the collection needs to be determined.

  3. A Natural History Museum for the Marianas Islands is established to service the needs of research, education and public awareness, incorporating invertebrates as part of

the system and managed professionally.
Biodiversity Conservation

Although surveys of vertebrates such as mammals, birds and reptiles have been done to a fair to good degree, most of the freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates have been poorly surveyed in the Northern Mariana Islands. Before any real conservation steps can be taken the presence, distribution and population status of the species need to be known. Given that for smaller invertebrate species this is very difficult, time-consuming and in many cases costly to achieve, there are nevertheless some steps that can be taken to at least attempt to maintain populations of indigenous, and especially endemic species.

Recommendations.

Collect from specific areas known to represent the various habitats identified on the islands. In general terms, different vegetation complexes provide a good indication of different habitats – as do geological/soil maps, and altitude and aspect differences. It would be well worthwhile to identify and map these differences prior to doing intense collecting. One of the factors is the presence of large areas of transformed landscapes and vegetation complexes – this will help narrow down specific collecting sites.



  1. Sites so identified will probably represent areas which should be conserved from development, these need to be carefully judged, and a conservation policy established which, as much as possible, bears the good will of the people. Identify important species (all endemic species, for example) and attempt to establish, at least, their continued presence in the type locality and in other areas. Information on their habitats and habits is required to make this a practicable venture. Publicize results.

  2. Identify experts in the identification of invertebrates, and solicit their help in building up a good database for use in education, science and natural biodiversity conservation.

  3. Ensure the maintenance and development of the collection and the databases connected to it.


Teaching material

Surplus preserved and named specimens are available for teaching or awareness purposes. These are housed in a cupboard with the main collection, and several approaches have been made for material. Groups of schoolchildren cannot be accommodated in the laboratory, since there is a space problem, and because the laboratory is to be used, in part, for test requiring sterile conditions and dealing with potentially harmful drugs.


Recommendation

Teaching material should be housed in another, more accessible area and controlled by a full-time teacher (such as an environmental or biology teacher) with whom the schools can establish liaison and who can ask the collection curator for any further required material, either surplus or on a temporary loan basis.



Specimen identification

The large number of organisms involved in the collection, the taxonomic changes which result from the international taxonomic and systematic efforts and the probability that new species will probably be collected, demand that the curator has access to appropriate taxonomists or institutions dealing with taxonomy. The curator will not be able to identify all the species, except perhaps for a few readily identifiable taxa and with access to up-to-date keys. Under some circumstances, the identification of species is tied to high costs (paying for the expertise, paying for postage), and the packing and sending of delicate specimens required some commitment to the task. However, having correctly named specimens is of critical importance to the value of the collection from, inter alia, agricultural and scientific points of view.

Recommendation


Institutions and individuals should be approached to enquire if they would be prepared to act as identification centers in exchange for specimens from the Marianas,

provided that at least one named specimen from each batch sent to them is sent back for incorporation into the collection. Getting such a reciprocal arrangement in place will benefit not only the Marianas, but the International scientific community as well. In addition, much valuable information, including some identifications, is accessible on the international electronic websites, and these should be checked regularly for updated information.



Materials and equipment

Although most needed materials and equipment are available at present, there is a lack of some basic chemicals (e.g. formalin and materials to slide-mount very small and microscopic specimens). Extra cupboards will in all likelihood also be needed in the future. At present the finances cover a wide variety of items, some of which may take precedence over the needs of the collection.
Recommendation

A budget for the collection needs to be established so that needed items can be purchased as required. Use of this budget would have to include authorization by the curator.



Species representation

A large number of species recorded from the CNMI are not represented in the collection, and many islands have been poorly collected.

Recommendation

Deliberate targeting of needed species is required, and each poorly collected island needs to be surveyed for a minimum of one week, preferably two weeks during the beginning of the rainy period.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I thank my colleagues at CREES for their help and support, especially Dr. Hugh Smith, Edwin Benjamin, David Attao and Dr. Lee Eavey; Dr. Ross Miller at the University of Guam for his help, Dr. Michael Saaristo (Finland), Dr. Neal Evenhuis, Dr. A. Samuelson and Mr. T. Gonsalves (all of Bishop Museum, Honolulu), Dr. R. H. Cowie (Honolulu), Dr. Dan Otte (USA), Dr. Christian Thompson (USDA), and staff in other overseas Universities and Museums, David Cooper for his great help with computerized programs and his support and advice, Dr. “Jack” Tenorio for his helpfulness and encouragement, and all those individuals who have helped me in one way or another in gathering information. To my wife Michelle, I express my heartfelt thanks for her support and love.


APPENDIX 1
POLICY AND PROTOCOL FOR CNMI INVERTEBRATE COLLECTION
Submitted 03/21/2001

Agreed verbally by Dr. Lee Eavy, CREES, CNM

Invertebrate collection Policy

A collection of non-marine invertebrates occurring as populations in the CNMI will be prepared and maintained for use as an invertebrate identification aid, for purposes of research and education/training, and for agricultural and environmental conservation decision making.


Invertebrate specimen keeping and recording protocol


  1. At least one specimen of each species from each of the CNMI Islands will be collected,

adequately labeled and preserved, and stored in the collection. Where a species shows major or consistent morphological variations (such as related to sex, age or locality ), such variations will be included in the collection. The numbers of specimens of large and common species will be restricted to save space.
b. No long series of any species will be maintained except as part of a special project approved by the CNMI Entomologist, and then only on a temporary basis. Such series will be kept separately from the main collection, and will be offered to any appropriate institution (e.g. a museum, research institute) once its purpose has been served.
c. Alien species inadvertently imported into the country will not be stored in the body of the main collection, except such species which are a potential threat to crops, stock or humans. Selected voucher specimens will be arranged by country of origin. No more than two specimens of each species will be retained. Remaining specimens will be discarded unless a teaching, education or other use can be found for them.


  1. No specimens will be accepted if not supplied together with locality, date, or collector

information, and specimens lacking such information will be discarded unless they are useful, such as for identification or education purposes.
c. A database will be established and maintained by the Collections Manager.
d. The collections Manager will be in charge of the collection and of the electronic database, and will be responsible for the correct maintenance of both. Access to the data base will be restricted to selected personnel, and no entries or deletions to the data base may be made by any but the Collections Manager, the CNMI Entomologist or by a person authorized by them.
e. No specimens may be removed from or added to the permanent collection except by the Collections Manager or by the CNMI Entomologist, or with their authority.


Electronic database

An electronic database should include the following:




  1. Taxonomic categories (Phylum, Class, Subclass, Order, Suborder, Division, Superfamily, Family, Genus, Species, Subspecies/Variety/Form). The categories in italics are ones normally required – in some cases the other categories are needed to more clearly define a taxon. Author name to be given with species.


2. Common name/s (English, Chamorro, Carolinian)
3. Occurrence on island/s (island names to be spelled out in full),
4. Whether in NMC collection, numbers of specimens, year of collection (first and last).
5. References used to produce database, with full list to be made available


  1. Distribution map for each species (several related species can be entered onto each

map when records are sparse). Maps to be A4 size and with 250, 500, 1000 and 1500

foot contour lines.




  1. Human and Ecological value categories



A. Crops





  1. Crop pests - (seriousness of threat: 1 = high, 2 = medium, 3 = low), food plants – refer to Moore and Tudela 1999 database, or include the data into this database), reference list




  1. Crop pest predators – prey species, reference list



  1. Human welfare





  1. Parasites/diseases- seriousness of threat (high, medium, low)

parasite/disease carried or caused, predators, reference list


  1. Stored food pests – food/s affected, seriousness of threats, predator species name/s,

reference list


  1. Cloth pests- materials affected, seriousness of threats, predator species name/s,

reference list


  1. Wood pests- wood affected, seriousness of threats, predator species name/s, reference

list


  1. Species with venomous stings/bites- seriousness of threats, predator species name/s,

reference list


  1. Irritating species – predator species name/s, reference lists




  1. Species breaking down faces and carcasses – predator species name/s, reference list




  1. Use by people – category of use (e.g. Food, medicine, ornament, research etc.)



  1. Animal welfare





  1. Internal parasites/diseases – seriousness of threat, parasite/disease carried or caused,

predator species name/s, references list.

  1. External parasites/diseases – seriousness of threat, parasite/disease carried or caused,

Predator’s species name/s, reference list

D. Biodiversity/environmental conservation issues




1. Species population status – common, occasional or rare, reference list




2. Endemic species – reference list





  1. Alien – seriousness of invasive threat, reference list

4. Conservation status – Red Data status (extinct, endangered, threatened, rare,

indeterminate), reference list


  1. Soil system maintenance/creation - detritus breakdown (soil microphone, millipedes),

soil mixing (earthworms), reference list
6. Plant pollinators – plant species, importance rating, reference list


  1. Predators of undesirable plants– plant species, importance rating, reference list

8. Other – Food plants, prey species, reference list

* confiscated imported aliens to have own database established – see Appendix 2.

Imported species database
An “imported species” database should include the following:


  1. Taxon – to nearest category, “The electronic database -… # 1 “ above




  1. Country of origin




  1. Method of transport




  1. Date of capture, and whether dead or alive




  1. Retained in collection, or disposed of (sent to another institution; discarded) after examination


APPENDIX 2


Taxa to be included in the CNMI collection
The taxa in bold type are those for which freshwater and terrestrial representatives are to be kept in the CNMI collection. A “?” indicates uncertainty of the presence of the taxon.

1. Phylum: Protozoa

Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora

1. Class: Phytomastigophora

2. Class: Zoomastigophorea

3. Class: Actinopodea

4. Class: Rhizopodea

Subphylum: Apicomplexa

5.Class: Sporozoa

6. Class: Piroplasmea

Subphylum: Cnidospora

7. Class: Myxospora

8. Class: Microspora

9. Class: Ciliophora

10. Class: Ciliata
2. Phylum: Mesozoa
3. Phylum: Porifera
1. Class: Hexatinellidae
2. Class: Calcarea
3. Class: Demospongiae

4. Phylum: Cnidaria

5. Phylum: Ctenophora

6. Phylum: Platyhelminthes Flat worms

1. Class: Turbellaria

2. Class: Monogenea

3. Class: Trematoda

4. Class: cestoda

7. Phylum: Rhynchocoela (Nemertina) Ribbon worms ?

1. Class: Enopla

2. Class: Anopla

8. Phylum: Rotifera Rotifers ?

Order: Seisonacea

Order: Bdelloidea

Order: Monogononta



9. Phylum: Gastrotricha Gastrotrichs ?

10. Phylum: Kinorhyncha Kinorhynchs


11. Phylum: Nematoda

1. Class: Phasmidia (Secernentea)

2. Class: Aphasmidia (Adenophorea)
12. Phylum: Nematomorpha Horse-hair worms ?
13. Phylum: Acanthocephala Spiny-headed worms
14. Phylum: Entoprocta Entoprocts ?
15. Phylum: Gnathostomulidea Gnathostomulids

16. Phylum: Mollusca Snails, slugs, squid, octopus

1. Class: Monoplacophora

2. Class: Polyplacophora

3. Class: Aplacophora

4. Class: Scaphopoda



5. Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Prosobranchia
Subclass: Pulmonata
6. Class: Bivalvia

7. Class: Cephalopoda
17. Phylum: Sipuncula
18. Phylum: Echiura



19. Phylum: Annelida
1. Class: Myzostomaria
2. Class: Polychaeta

3. Class: Oligochaeta Earthworms

4. Class: Hirudinea Leeches


20. Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Chelicerata

1. Class: Xiphosura Horse-shoe crabs

2. Class: Pycnogonida Sea spiders

3. Class: Arachnida

Order: Scorpionida Scorpions

Order: Pseudoscorpionida Pseudoscorpions

Order: Phalangida Harvestmen

Order: Acari Mites and ticks

Order: Schizomida Short-tailed whip scorpions

Order: Araneida Spiders

Section: Mygalomorpha

Section: Araneomorpha
Subphylum: Mandibulata

4. Class: Crustacea Crustaceans

Subclass: Branchiopoda Fairy shrimps, tadpole shrimps

Subclass: Ostracoda

Subclass: Copepoda

Subclass: Malacostraca

Order: Isopoda

Order: Amphipoda

Order: Decapoda Lobsters, crabs, shrimps
5. Class: Diplopoda Millipedes

Order: Polyxenida

Order: Glomerida

Order: Polydesmida
Order: Chordeumida

Order: Julida

Order: Spirobolida

Order: Spirostreptida

Order: Cambalida

Order: Polyzoniida

Order: Platydesmida


6. Class: Chilopoda Centipedes

Order: Scutigeromorpha

Order: Lithobiomorpha

Order: Scolopendromorpha

Order: Geophilomorpha
7. Class: Pauropoda Pauropods
8. Class: Symphyla Symphylans

9. Class: Insecta

Subclass: Apterygota
Order: Protura Proturans ?

Order: Collembola Springtails

Order: Diplura Diplurans

Order: Thysanura Bristletails
Subclass: Pterygota

Order: Ephemeroptera Mayflies
Order: Odonata Damselflies and dragonflies

Order: Phasmida stick Insects

Order: Orthoptera Grasshoppers and crickets

Order: Mantodea Mantids

Order: Blattaria cockroaches
Order: Isoptera Termites
Order: Dermaptera Earwigs
Order: Embioptera Webspinners

Order: Plecoptera Stoneflies

Order: Zoraptera Zorapterans


Order: Psocoptera Psocids

Order: Mallophaga Chewing lice

Order: Anoplura Sucking lice

Order: Hemiptera Bugs
Order: Homoptera Cicadas, hoppers, scale-insects

Order: Thysanoptera Thrips

Order: Neuroptera Alderflies, antlions, lacewings
Order: Coleoptera Beetles

Order: Strepsiptera Stylops

Order: Mecoptera Scorpionflies

Order: Diptera Flies

Order: Siphonaptera Fleas
Order: Trichoptera Caddisflies
Order: Lepidoptera Butterflies and moths
Order: Hymenoptera Wasps, bees, ants

21. Phylum: Sipuncula

22. Phylum: Echiura

23. Phylum: Pogonophora

24. Phylum: Priapulida

25. Phylum: Pentastomida

26. Phylum: Onychophora

27. Phylum: Tardigrada

28. Phylum: Phoronida

29. Phylum: Ectoprocta (Bryozoa)

30. Phylum: Brachiopoda

31. Phylum: Echinodermata

32. Phylum: Chaetognatha

33. Phylum: Hemichordata


34. Phylum: Chordata


Appendix 3
Biodiversity of CNMI and collected material in CNMI collection

Contents.


Section Taxon
1 Protozoa Single-celled animals

2 Porifera Sponges
3 Platyhelminthes Flat worms

4 Rhynchocoela (Nemertina) Ribbon worms
5 Rotifera Rotifers

6 Gastrotricha Gastrotrichs

7 Nematoda Roundworms

8 Nematomorpha Horse-hair worms

9 Acanthocephala Spiny-headed worms

10 Enteroprocta Enterproctans

11 Mollusca Snails, slugs
12 Annelida Earthworms and leeches
13 Arachnida Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks
14 Crustacea Crustaceans

15 Diplopoda Millipedes

16 Chilopoda Centipedes

17 Pauropoda Pauropods

18 Symphyla Symphyalans

19 Protura Proturans
20 Collembola Springtails

21 Diplura Diplurans

22 Thysanura Bristletails
23 Odonata Damselflies and dragonflies

24 Phasmida Stick-Insects

25 Orthoptera Grasshoppers, crickets

26 Mantodea Mantids

27 Blattarea Cockroaches,

28 Isoptera Termites

29 Dermaptera Earwigs

30 Embioptera Webspinners
31 Psocoptera Psocids

32 Mallophaga Chewing lice

33 Anoplura Sucking lice

34 Hemiptera Bugs

35 Homoptera Cicadas, hoppers, scale-Insects

36 Thysanoptera Thrips

37 Neuroptera Alderflies, antlions, lacewings
38 Coleoptera Beetles

39 Strepsiptera Stylops
40 Diptera Flies

41 Siphonaptera Fleas

42 Trichoptera Caddisflies

43 Lepidoptera Butterflies and moths
44 Hymenoptera Wasps, bees, ants

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Flagellate amoeboid protozoans

Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora

Diversity

Micronesia – ? species, Mariana Isl. – ? species, CNMI - ? species

Ecological and human significance

Sarcomastigophora are single-celled animals free-living in marine and fresh-water, and also as parasites in numbers of animal species. There are some that affect human and animal health (such as those causing various kinds of dysentery) to a greater or lesser extent. Others, particularly marine organisms, have had a great effect on the building of earth deposits (e.g. Foraminifera). Many of the species occupy the bottom rung of the food chain, and occur in countless millions in appropriate environments, such as the ocean.
Conservation

Conservation of the species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats and hosts as possible. Those species which have been introduced to the Commonwealth should be eliminated where possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in-house identifications.



.

Records of flagellate amoeboid protozoans from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.

,Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian


Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


No species records
. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.

Species listed below will probably be found in the c:


Class: Phytomastigophorea

Class: Zoomastigophorea



Giardia lamblia (has been found in Guam)

Trichomonas sp. (has been found in Guam)

Class: Actinopodea

Class: Rhizopodea

Entamoeba histolytica - amoebic dysentery (found in Guam)

E. coli - in human intestine (found in Guam)

E. gingivalis - in human mouth
References

Miller, R. and J.R. Baker. 1990. Medical Parasitology. Gower Medical Publishing Company,

New York. 168 pp.

Bohart, G.E. and J. Linsley Gressitt. 1951. Filth inhabiting flies of Guam. Bernice P. Bishop

Museum Bulletin 204. 152 pp, 17 plates.

.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY Ampicomplexans


Phylum: Protozoa Subphylum: Apicomplexa

. .
Diversity

Micronesia – ? species, Mariana Isl. – ? species, CNMI - ? species

Ecological and human significance

All are single-celled endoparasites of animals, some of humans. The group contains species of great veterinary and medical importance, such as Plasmodium spp. causing malaria, and Eimeria sp. causing severe dysentery or diarrhrea in domestic animals.
Conservation

Conservation of the species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment to maintain the hosts, with as many intact natural habitats as possible. Those species which have been introduced to the Commonwealth should be eliminated where possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in-house identifications.



. .

Records of ampicomplexans from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.

Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Fara1= Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian


Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


No species records

. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.


Species listed below will probably be found in CNMI.
Class: Sporozoa

Plasmodium falciparum - malignant tertian malaria carried by Anopheles sp. Guam 1966

P. vivax - benign tertian malaria “

P. malariae - quartan malaria “

P. ovale - Ovale tertian malaria “

Class: Piroplasmea

Subphylum: Myxospora

Subphylum: Microspora

Subphylum: Ciliophora

Class: Ciliata.


References
Miller, R. and J.R. Baker. 1990. Medical Parasitology. Gower Medical Publishing Company,

New York. 168 pp.


MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Sponges


Phylum: Porifera Class: Demospongiae

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – ? species, Mariana Isl. – ? species, CNMI - 1 species



Ecological and human significance

Sponges are aquatic and feed on fine detritus particles, planktonic organisms and bacteria. They appear to be scarce in the CNMI in freshwater habitats.
Conservation

Little is known of freshwater sponges in the CNMI and before any specific plans for their conservation can be made a survey needs to be made. conservation of any species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats as possible. Those species which have been introduced to the Commonwealth should be eliminated where possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in-house identifications.



. .

Records of sponges from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, ? = status uncertain, X = specimen in CNMI collection.

Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian


Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


? Heteromyenia sp. x
. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.



Heteromyenia sp. Charanka Lake, Saipan n.d.

References

Best, Bruce R. and C. E. Davidson. 1981. Inventory and atlas of the inland aquatic ecosystems

of the Mariana Archipelago. University of Guam Marine Laboratory Technical

Report # 75. 226 pp.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Flatworms
Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Turbellaria

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – 3 (4 -5 ?) species, Mariana Isl. – 3( 4 –5 ?) species, CNMI– 3 ( 4 – 5 ?) species



Ecological and human significance

Turbellaria are free-living worms with soft, flattened bodies. Some are terrestrial species living mostly in sheltered areas under rocks or logs. Others live in freshwater or marine systems. None are parasitic, most are carnivores of small crustaceans, rotifers, nematodes and insects.
Conservation

Little is known of turbellarians in the CNMI and before any specific plans for their conservation can be considered a survey needs to be carried out. Conservation of any species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats as possible. Those species which have been introduced to the Commonwealth should be eliminated where possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in-house identifications.



. .

Records of flatworms from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.
Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac

Platydemus sp. ? x x

Microplaninae sp. x

Australopacifica sp. x x

Sp. A X


Sp. B X
Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian

. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.


Suborder: Tricladida

Family: Rhynchodemidae


Platydemus sp. ? Alamagan 1992, Agrihan 1992
Microplaninae sp. Anatahan 1992
Family: Geoplanidae

Australopacifica sp. Anatahn 1992, Agrihan 1992
Families?
Species A. 1(2 ?) species under stone near secondary forest edge, in garden, Saipan

CNMI 2000. colour white with three black lines (one mid-dorsal and one dorsolateral

line on each side). Some specimens very long and narrow, others broader.
Species B. A shiny black species found under rotting planks in garden, Saipan, CNMI 2000.
References
Kawakatsu, M. and R.E. Ogren. 1994. A preliminary report on land planarians from the Northern Mariana Islands (Turbellaria, Tricladida, Terricola). Nat. Hist. Res., Special Issue, No. 1: 107-112.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Digenetic flukes, trematodes


Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – ? species, Mariana Isl. – ? species, CNMI - ? species



Ecological and human significance

Trematodes are all parasites, and as adults are almost all found in vertebrates. An intermediate stage in the life cycle is spent in an invertebrate – often one of the molluscs. Some digenetic flukes are of medical importance, such as the blood-fluke causing schistosomiasis, and the liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis), in humans. Problems can also be caused to domestic animals, such as the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) of ruminants.
Conservation

It does not appear as if any deliberate surveys of naturally occuring fluke populations have been carried out in the CNMI. Although sporadic cases of presence of trematodes (and others) may be found in the Marianas, they are probably not endemic as their life cycles depend on the presence of fresh water and carriers such as fish, crabs and snails. There do not appear to be freshwater molluscs or freshwater crabs which are eaten. The Crustaceans which are eaten are normally marine species. The freshwater prawn (Machrobrachium lar), and any fish imported for fish breeding purposes, or which have been released into any freshwater body need to be examined for the presence of flukes and other parasites potentially dangerous to humans. Conservation of any indigenous species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats to maintain the flukes’ hosts as possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in house identifications.



.

Records of digenetic flukes from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.
Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


No species records
Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian

. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.
The following species will probably be found in CNMI:

Clonorchis sinensis Chinese liver fluke, Gastrodiscoides hominis Gastrodisciasis fluke

Metagonimus yokogawai Yokogawas fluke, Paragonimus westerman Lung fluke

Schistosoma japonicum Blood fluke - intestinal schistosomiasis (bilharziasis)
References
Miller, R. and J.R. Baker. 1990. Medical Parasitology. Gower Medical PublishingCompany,

New York. 168 pp.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Tapeworms
Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Cestoda

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – ? species, Mariana Isl. – ? species, CNMI - ? species

Ecological and human significance

Adult tapeworms are all endoparasites of vertebrates, and the majority require at least two hosts, with the host for the immature stage often being an invertebrate. Of the more than 1000 species known, a number can infect humans. Normally, adult tapeworms do little harm to their hosts. For example, the dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) where the larvae infects flour beetles and the adult infects humans. Some menbers, at least, of all vertebrate groups are known to be hosts to tapeworms.
Conservation

It does not appear as if any deliberate surveys of naturally occuring tapeworm populations have been carried out in the CNMI. These should be carried out to establish presence of indigenous and alien species, as well as those of potential danger to humans. Aspects of conservation can only be considered once such a survey has been done. Conservation of any indigenous species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats to maintain the tapeworms’ hosts as possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in house identifications.



. .

Records of tapeworms from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.
Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


No species records
Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian

. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.


The following species possibly occur in the CNMI:

Diphyllobothrium latum Broad fish-tapeworm - diphyllobothriasis; Taenia solium Pork tapeworm - taeniasis, pigs – man; Taenia saginata Beef tapeworm - taeniasis, cattle – man; Hymenolepis nana Dwarf tapeworm - hymenolepiasis, man –flour beetles – man; Echinococcus granulosus Minute tapeworm - cattle/sheep – dogs – man, causes echinococcus (humans), hydatidosis (animals)
References

Miller, R. and J.R. Baker. 1990. Medical Parasitology. Gower Medical PublishingCompany,

New York. 168 pp.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Roundworms, hookworms, whipworms


Phylum: Nematoda

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – 1+ species, Mariana Isl. – 1+ species, CNMI – 1+ species



Ecological and human significance

This is a large group (more than 12000 species), world wide in distribution; most being under 5 cm long (many are microscopic), but some being over a meter in length. They are either free-living or parasitic. Among the parasitic species are a number which affect man and his domestic animals, with often bizarre effects, such as elephantiasis (caused by Wucheria bancrofti).
Conservation

It does not appear as if any deliberate surveys of naturally occuring nematode populations have been carried out in the CNMI. These should be carried out to establish presence of indigenous and alien species, as well as those of potential danger to humans. Aspects of conservation can only be considered once such a survey has been done. Conservation of any indigenous species requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many intact natural habitats to maintain free-living forms and the hosts of parasites as possible.

Identification

No identification keys are available for in house identifications.



. .

Records of nematodes from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.
Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


?Toxacara canis X
Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian

. .
Species list

Saipan 1945 = literature record for Saipan, seen/found 1945, CNMI 2000 = in Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, housed at the Northern Marianas college collection, Saipan, collected during 2000, or CNMI 1971-2000 where the dates indicate earliest and latest years of specimens collected. n.d. = no date given in reference.


?Toxacara canis Saipan CNMI 2002, regurgitated by dog
Species listed below will probably be found in CNMI.
Class: Phasmidia (Secernentea)

Ancylostoma duodenale Old world hookworm (an Ancylostoma sp. has been found in Guam); Necator americanus New world hookworm; Strongyloides stercoralis; Ascaris lumbricoides intestinal roundworm (has been found in Guam); Enterobius vermicularis pinworm (found in Guam), Trichuris trichiura whipworm (has been found in Guam); Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic filariasis; Brugia malayi Malayan lymphatic filariasis; Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitus
References

Bohart, G.E. and J Linsley Gressitt. 1951. Filth inhabiting flies of Guam. Bernice P. Bishop

Museum Bulletin 204. 152 pp, 17 plates.

Miller, R. and J.R. Baker. 1990. Medical Parasitology. Gower Medical Publishing Company,

New York. 168 pp.

MARIANA ISLANDS BIODIVERSITY. Terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs


Phylum: Mollusca

. .

Diversity

Micronesia – 75+ species, Mariana Isl. – 75+ species, CNMI – 73 + species



Ecological and human significance

Molluscs are very diverse group olf animals with probably more than 100000 living species. The Classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia, into which land and freshwater snails and slugs fall, contain over 40000 living species. They include animals which feed on garden plants and crops, as well as species which are used as food by humans. Although most slugs and snails are herbivorous, some are carnivorous.
Conservation

The CNMI has had problems with particularly one snail (Achatina fulica) which was introduced, and increased to the extent that it caused considerable crop and garden plant damage. An attempt to indroduce a predator, another snail called Euglandina rosea, to control Achatina on Agrihan, failed. The introduced predator paid more attention to the indigenous snails than it did to Achatina. Shells of this introduced species were also found on Saipan, where an unrecorded introduction apparently took place. The Marianas has at least 27 endemic terrestrial snail species, and more work done on this group will probably bring to light an even greater number of endemics. As such the fauna is a rich one and deserving of special attention. Conservation of molluscs requires the maintenance of a pollution free environment, with as many appropriate intact natural habitats as possible. The removal of alien, introduced snails acting as competitors for food, or as predators would be highly desirable. Monitoring for presence of the endemic snail fauna on a two to three year basis needs to be instigated to be able to effect necessary conservation measures.

Identification

All unnamed specimens were sent to the Bishop Museum, which passed them on th Dr. R. H. Cowie for identification. No keys are available for in house identification.



. .

Records of slugs and snails from CNMI indicating areas (blank spaces) from which records are required.
Bold = endemic to Mariana Islands, Underlined = indigenous to Mariana Islands, Other = introduced , x = literature record, X = specimen in CNMI collection.

Agri = Agrihan , Agui = Aguiguan, Alam = Alamagan , Asun = Asuncion, Urac = Farallon de Pajaros or Uracas, Fara = Farallon de Medinilla, Gugu = Guguan, Paga = Pagan, Rota = Rota, Sari = Sarigan, Saip = Saipan, Tini = Tinian


Species Islands

Rota Agui Tini Saip Fara Anat Sari Gugu Alam Paga Agri Asun Maug Urac


Georissa elegans x X


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