National Consultative Workshops of Seven South and Southeast Asian Countries
K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim editors
Forest Genetic Resources
Conservation and Management
National Consultative Workshops of Seven South and Southeast Asian Countries
K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim editors
A publication of APFORGEN
The geographical designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Forest Research Institute Malaysia, or any of its
collaborators, Bioversity International and Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions,
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Similarly, the views expressed are those of the authors and do
not necessarily reflect the views of these participating organizations.
Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia
Forest genetic resources conservation and management: national consultative workshops of seven South
and Southeast Asian countries / editors K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) is the national forestry research organization of
Malaysia. It was first established in 1929 as the Forest Research Institute, the research arm of the
Peninsular Malayan (later Malaysian) Forest Department, and in 1985 was reorganized into the
present FRIM, a statutory body.
FRIM’s research focus and efforts through nearly a century’s existence has meant that FRIM has
not only built up a strong tradition of research, but backs this up with experience, expertise and
supporting facilities perhaps unmatched anywhere in the tropics. Basic studies of the tropical forests
conducted at FRIM had produced publications before and just after World War II that remain classic
books in their field till today. Among the more notable ones are Symington’s Manual of Dipterocarps,
Watson’s Mangrove Forests of the Malay Peninsula, and Wyatt-Smith’s Manual of Silviculture of Lowland Forests.
Past research has also left behind many living laboratories in the field – a number of arboreta,
sample plots and various experimental plantations of both local and exotic tree species. These sample
plots and experimental areas are not just confined to the FRIM campus, which is located in the
northern suburb 16 km outside the capital city of Kuala Lumpur; but are spread throughout
peninsular Malaysia, covering various forest types and terrains.
FRIM has maintained a number of collections including a herbarium, an insect collection, and
collections of wood and soil samples, which are widely regarded as reference collections for
researchers and scientists in these fields. The many well-equipped laboratories in FRIM, which have
been constantly and continuously upgraded, have put FRIM among the top forestry and forest
products research institutions.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kepong, 52109 Kepong
Bioversity International (Bioversity) an autonomous international scientific organization, supported by
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Bioversity’s mandate is to
advance the conservation and use of genetic diversity for the well-being of present and future
generations. Bioveristy’s headquarters is based in Rome, Italy, with offices in another 15 countries
worldwide. It operates through three programmes: (1) the Plant Genetic Resources Programme, (2) the
CGIAR Genetic Resources Support Programme, and (3) the International Network for the Improvement
of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).
The international status of Bioversity is conferred under an Establishment Agreement which, by
January 1999, had been signed and ratified by the Governments of Algeria, Australia, Belgium, Benin,
Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chile, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guinea, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan,
Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda and Ukraine.
Financial support for the Research Agenda of Bioversity is provided by the Governments of Australia,
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (F.Y.R.), Malta,
Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the UK, the USA and by the Asian
Development Bank, Common Fund for Commodities, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural
Cooperation (CTA), European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
International Development Research Centre (IDRC), International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), International Association for the Promotion of Cooperation with Scientists from the New
Independent States of the former Soviet Union (INTAS), Interamerican Development Bank, Natural
Resources Institute (NRI), Centre de Coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le
développement (CIRAD), Nordic Genebank, Rockefeller Foundation, United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Taiwan Banana Research
Institute (TBRI) and the World Bank.
Bioversity International Regional Office for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania
P.O. Box 236, UPM Post Office
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
APAFRI)'>The Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) is an association of Institutions
with an active interest in forestry research, conservation, management and other forestry related matters
in the Asia Pacific. Its objective is to promote collaboration among institutions to enhance and increase the
forestry research and conservation capacity in the Asia Pacific.
The establishment of APAFRI was prompted by the need to provide a viable institutional framework
for research collaboration in the region. Since 1991, the Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia
and the Pacific (FORSPA) has been fulfilling the networking function.
Countries in the region and the donor community wish to develop a more self-reliant, sustainable and
participatory institutional mechanism as a logical follow-up of FORSPA. The feasibility of establishment
of an Association was discussed in the FORSPA Pre-implementation seminar held at Kuala Lumpur in
January 1992. A draft constitution was prepared and circulated and subsequently a drafting committee
prepared a revision. This was discussed, modified and adopted during the meeting of Heads of Forestry
Research Organizations in the Asia Pacific in Bogor on 21st February 1995, and resulted in the
establishment of APAFRI.
The International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) has recognised APAFRI as its
Asia Pacific chapter. APAFRI has been collaborating closely with the IUFRO Special Programme for
Developing Countries (SPDC) in strengthening research in the Asia Pacific region. Extending from that,
APAFRI’s Executive Director also acts as the Asia Pacific Regional Coordinator for IUFRO-SPDC.
APAFRI c/o Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Kepong, 52109 Kepong, Malaysia
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is the only intergovernmental organization
that brings together countries that produce and consume tropical timber to discuss and exchange
information and develop policies on all aspects of the world tropical timber economy and the
management of the tropical timber resource base –tropical forests. As of November 2008, ITTO had 60
members, including the European Community, which together represent 90% of world trade in
tropical timber and 80% of the world's closed tropical forests.
Under the ITTA 2006, ITTO has two closely related overarching objectives:
To promote the expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical timber from
sustainably managed and legally harvested forests
To promote the sustainable management of tropical timber-producing forests.
The ITTA 2006 sets out the Organization’s longstanding aims of enhancing the capacity of
members to export tropical timber from sustainably managed forests and to improve market
transparency, forest-based enterprises and sustainable forest management (SFM). It also expands the
scope of previous agreements to include objectives related to poverty alleviation, forest law
enforcement, non-timber forest products and environmental services, voluntary market mechanisms
such as certification, and the role of forest-dependent communities.
ITTO develops internationally agreed policy documents to promote SFM and forest conservation.
It assists tropical member countries to adapt such policies to local circumstances and to implement
them in the field through projects. In addition, ITTO collects, analyses and disseminates data on the
production and trade of tropical timber and funds a range of projects and other actions aimed at
developing industries at both community and industrial scales.
By November 2008 the Organization had provided more than US$300 million to finance over 800
projects designed to encourage SFM, increase the efficiency of forest industries, and improve market
intelligence and statistics. The vast majority of these projects were made possible through the
voluntary financial contributions of consumer member countries. ITTO also supports capacity
building through the development of manuals, workshops and a fellowship fund that supports young
ITTO cooperates closely with other international organizations with forest-related mandates. It is a
founding member of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), which was established in 2000 to
support the work of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and to enhance coordination
among the international conventions, organizations and institutions with forest-related mandates.
ITTO also cooperates with a wide range of regional and national-level organizations and other civil-
society and private-sector stakeholders.
International Tropical Timber Organization
International Organisations Centre 5
Floor, Pacifico-Yokohama 1-1-1
APFORGEN The Asia Pacific Forest Genetic Resources Programme (APFORGEN) was initiated in 2003.
APFORGEN is a regional programme with a holistic approach to conservation and management of
forest genetic resources. Its aim is to enhance technical and scientific cooperation, training and
information exchange among countries in the region. It is managed by the Asia Pacific Association of
Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) with technical support from Bioversity International
(Bioversity). Target beneficiaries of this programme include forest research institutions, policy-
makers, local communities, government forestry departments, NGOs and private forestry companies.
Other international and regional organizations such as FAO are also participating in the development
of the programme and its activities.
The objective of APFORGEN is to manage tropical forest genetic diversity more equitably,
productively and sustainably in the participating countries, specifically the programme aims to:
Strengthen national programmes on forest genetic diversity
Enhance regional networking and collaboration
Facilitate to locate and conserve genetic diversity of selected priority forest species
Increase sustainable use of genetic diversity in natural and man-made forests
APFORGEN currently has fourteen participating country organizations from Bangladesh
(Bangladesh Forest Research Institute), India (Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education), Nepal
(Department of Forest Research and Survey), Pakistan (Pakistan Forest Institute), Sri Lanka (Forest Department), Cambodia (Department of Forestry and Wildlife), China (Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry), Indonesia (Centre for Plantation Research and Development, Bogor), Lao PDR
(Forest Research Centre), Malaysia (Forest Research Institute Malaysia), Myanmar (Forest Research Institute, Yezin), Philippines (College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Philippines Los Banos),
Thailand (Royal Forest Department/National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department) and Viet
Nam (Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam).
The programme has held five meetings (2003 to 2007) in which the National Coordinators of each
of the participating organizations attended. A draft action plan for the programme was drawn up for
implementation. Currently, some activities of APFORGEN are partially supported by APAFRI and
Bioversity. The bulk of the funding comes from the ITTO Project PD 199/03 Rev. 3(F) which has a
duration of three years (2006–2009). The project has been extended for another year till February 2010.
Preface xi Acknowledgements xiv Cambodia National Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management Chann Sophal 1
India National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and Capacity Building Needs in Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management
M. Surya Prakash
Indonesia National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and Capacity Building Needs on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management
Harry Santoso 19
Malaysia National Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management
Lee Soon Leong 27 National Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management in Myanmar Lwin Ko Oo 49
Philippines National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and Capacity Building Needs in Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management Enrique L. Tolentino Jr. 89
Thailand Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation
Preface The ITTO funded project on forest genetic resources, PD/199/03 Rev. 3(F): Strengthening
National Capacity and Regional Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic
Resources in Tropical Asia in February 2006 for a duration of three years. The project has a
number of activities that required inputs from the seven participating countries: Cambodia,
India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Thailand. To facilitate
collaboration and better participation, as well as soliciting inputs, each participating country
has been invited to nominate a person as a National Focal Point (NFP). These NFPs were
nominated by the forestry administrations of these countries, so that he or she has the
necessary mandate to organize activities and solicit inputs contributing to the project. The
frequent structural changes and personnel movements had resulted in many changes of
NFPs within the short period of the project duration and disrupting the smooth running of
the project to achieve its stated objectives. The NFPs, and their affiliated agencies, of the
seven countries are as follows:
National Focal Point Organizations Participating in the Project Originally appointed Current Forestry and Wildlife Science Research
Institute, Forestry Administration,
Mr. Sok Srun
Mr. Chann Sophal
Indian Council of Forestry Research &
Dr. Mudit Kumar Singh
Dr. G.S. Rawat
(Dr. M. Surya Prakash)
Centre for Plantation Forest Research and
Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Ministry of Forestry, INDONESIA
Dr. Nur Masripatin
Dr. Harry Santoso
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM),
Dr. Lee Soon Leong
Dr. Lee Soon Leong
Forest Research Institute,
Mr. Thuang Naing Oo
Mr. Aung Zaw Moe
(Mr. Lwin Ko Oo)
Institute of Renewable Natural Resources,
College of Forestry and Natural Resources,
University of the Philippines Los Banos,
Dr. Enrique L. Tolentino
Dr. Enrique L. Tolentino
National Park, Wildlife and Plant
Conservation Department, THAILAND
Mr. Vichien Sumantakul
Note: Those names within parentheses were former NFPs before the current ones.
From the original proposal of the project, the following inputs are required from the
National Focal Points (NFPs):
1. Assessment of capacity building needs
2. Reviewing of progress in FGR conservation
3. Developing/revising national FGR strategies
4. Assist to establish national FGR programme
5. Assessment of national R&D needs for improved FGR conservation
6. Information on FGR conservation & use (including in situ and ex situ conservation of
These inputs from NFPs could be prepared by either:
Informal communications/discussions/meetings led by the National Focal Point
with a number of key stakeholders
Consensus from a formally established national taskforce/committee/workgroup
Summarizing from the proceedings of a national workshop/meeting involving all
There is no preferred means, as countries differ in many aspects. The involvement of
stakeholders in preparing the inputs, however, must be noticeable and evident throughout
the process; and appropriately indicated and documented.
The project provided partial support for these activities. Each of the National Focal Points
was requested to prepare a workplan for those inputs mentioned above. Together with the
budget and a schedule to achieve those inputs, the workplan would then be forwarded to the
Technical Working Group (TWG), which is responsible to implement the project, for
approval. The Project Coordinator, and members of the TWG, could provide appropriate
technical assistance to the NFP for meeting the deadlines.
All the National Focal Points of the participating countries had chosen to organize one-
day consultative workshops which had the participation of the relevant stakeholders. These
workshops were organized to achieve the following objectives
1. Update and validate the previous recommendations and plans in the FGR
2. Identify problems and other constraints in operationalising a national FGR
3. Recommend solutions or courses of actions to address FGR issues and
4. Solicit inputs in crafting a viable research and development national agenda
for FGR conservation and management.
5. Determine capacity-building activities for a vibrant national FGR
6. Generate support and commitment from institutions and other stakeholders
to implement programmes for FGR conservation and development in their
Upon the completion of the national workshop, a country report was compiled with the
following expected outputs:
A review of the national in-situ and ex-situ FGR conservation and
development programmes, including the priority tree species.
Identification of capacity-building needs of the stakeholders in support of the
national FGR programmes.
Establishment of a National Coordinating Committee to support the FGR
Identifying the R & D needs necessary to support the FGR conservation and
Proposal for national FGR strategies and programmes
Commitments and support from institutions and individuals to be part of
regional and National Coordinating Committee for FGR.
Updated information on FGR conservation and use (including in situ and ex situ FGR conservation programmes)
The seven participating countries, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the
Philippines and Thailand, organized their one-day national consultative workshops during
2007 and 2008. The NFPs who organized the workshop and the date of each national
consultative workshop are as listed below:
Country National Focal Point Date of Workshop Venue Philippines
Dr Enrique Tolentino
6 February 2007
Dr Harry Santoso
1 March 2007
Dr. M. Surya Prakash
11 July 2007
Mr. Chann Sophal
12 February 2008
Dr. Suwan Tangmitcharoen
12 March 2008
Mr Lwin Ko Oo
26 February 2008
Dr. Lee Soon Leong
30 July 2008
These workshops followed the format: half-day of presentations on key relevant issues,
and half-day with break-away discussion groups formulating recommendations on specific
The reports of these national consultative workshops submitted by the NFPs have been
compiled into a single volume, both to serve as a record for this project and more
importantly as a collective source of updates on the activities of the participating countries
during the project duration (February 2006 – January 2009). These reports are certainly
valuable references on issues related to forest genetic resources conservation and
management for the forest administrators and policy makers in these countries. Three of
these reports, that of India, Indonesia and the Philippines, had been published in an earlier
volume, but are included here again to complete this compilation.
The compiling of these reports requires contributions from many individuals. Besides the
NFPs of the seven participating countries, colleagues from the implementing agency of the
ITTO Project, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), the collaborating agencies the
Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) and Bioversity
International had contributed substantially towards the publishing of this volume.
We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the National Focal Points of the seven
countries participating in the ITTO Project PD 199/03Rev. 3(F): Strengthening National
Capacity and Regional Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources in
Tropical Asia. They are Chann Sophal (Cambodia), M.Surya Prakash/GS Rawat (India),
Harry Santoso (Indonesia), Lee SoonLeong (Malaysia), Lwin Ko Oo (Myanmar), Enrique L.
Tolentino Jr. (Philippines) and Suwan Tangmitcharoen (Thailand).
Colleagues in FRIM, APAFRI and Bioversity International who contributed in various
ways to the compilation and publishing of this volume are also gratefully acknowledged.
We are indebted to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Yokohama,
Japan, for support via the ITTO Project PD199/03 Rev.3 (F).
National Consultative Workshop Reports
Cambodia National Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management
Chann Sophal Forestry and Wildlife Science Research Institute
One of the activities of the project "Strengthening National Capacity and Regional
Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources in Tropical Asia" is for
National Focal Points of the seven participating countries to carry out national level activities
and to organize national workshops on the conservation and management of forest genetic
APAFRI assisted Cambodia, one of the seven participating countries in the ITTO project,
to organize thisworkshop on 12 February 2008 with the major objectives to review and
develop a strategy for the conservation and management of forest genetic resources. It was
attended by 32 participants from central and regional forestry administration offices. The
programme of the workshop is in Appendix 1.
Opening of the Workshop
During the inauguration of the workshop, Mr. Chann Sophal, National Coordinator for
APFORGEN and National Focal Point for the ITTO-funded Project gave the welcome
address on behalf of H. E. Ty Sokhun, Director General of Forestry Administration. Dr
Daniel Baskaran Krishnapillay, Executive Secretary of APAFRI, and representative of FRIM
gave the introduction and overview of the ITTO project and APFORGEN activities.
Presentations A total of four presentations were presented at the workshop.
1. Forest Gene Conservation by Mr. Uorn Sam Ol, Deputy Chief of Reforestation Office;
The presentation by Mr. Uorn Sam Ol on forest gene conservation strategies in
Cambodia highlighted two methods, i.e. in situ conservation (within natural forest)
and ex situ conservation (planting outside natural habitat).
In situ conservation as formed by
best conservation strategy within natural habitat,
participatory approach and community option,
thirty-six seed sources/ conservation stands identified.
Ex situ conservation, in turn, can be described as
expensive but secure,
better options for seed improvement,
ten stands of ex situ conservation were established in Khbal Chhay and
additional locations are under consideration. The presentation concluded that
National Consultative Workshop Reports
further work would be required to develop, review and improve the
Cambodian Plant Conservation Strategy and Action Plan in the context of gene
conservation and promoting its implementation.
2. Cambodia's Forest and Wildlife Conservation Status by Mr. Chheang Dany, Deputy Chief of Wildlife Protection Office;
Mr. Chheang Dany highlighted the abundance of forest and wildlife in Cambodia as
well as the biodiversity richness. Among the total land area of 181,035 Km
, the total
forest area occupies 11,104,293 ha or about 61.15%. The figures on different forest
functions, i.e. protection forest (7%), concession forest (19%), protected forest (18%),
other forest (17%), and non-forest area (39%) were highlighted. The Cambodian
forests are variously dominated by Dipterocarpaceae, Leguminosae, Lythraceae, or
Fagaceae, and in some places Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, or bamboo. The flora of
lower altitudes is typical of the Indochinese floristic province (and so contrasts with
that of the Chinese, Indo-Burman and Indo-Malayan provinces), whilst the higher
altitudes share affinity with those of the Indo-Malayan region (Dy Phon 1982). It is
indicated that Cambodia possesses 2,308 of the 8,000 species described in the Flore
Generale de l'Indochine. These 2,308 species belong to 852 genera in 164 families.
Based on Dy Phon (1982), species of fauna documented in Cambodia include
mammals 125 species, birds 630, reptiles 73, amphibians 40, butterflies and moths
300, and fishes 850. In the status of in situ conservation, Mr. Chheang Dany showed
that there are 6 Protected Forests (include 1 Sarus Crane Reserve and 1 Biodiversity
Conservation Area) , 7 National Parks, 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 1 RAMSAR Site, 3
Multiple Use Areas, 3 Protected Landscapes, 1 Biosphere Reserves, and 20 Forest
Seed Sources Sites. In the status of ex situ conservation, he showed that there are 1
Wildlife Rescue Centre, 5 Private Zoo and 5 Animal Breeding Farms and 50 Tree
Nurseries. The presentation concluded by showing some key wildlife species
recorded in the surveyed areas from 1998-2004.
3. Ex situ Conservation of Indigenous Species in Khbal Chhay Area by Mr. Moy Ratha, Senior Officer of the Cambodian Tree Seed Project;
In his presentation, he showed the viability of forest trees in a changing climate and
their habitats. The ex situ conservation is conservation of genetic resources of any
species outside its origin. He also mentioned that 21 species have been planted in
triels in an ex situ conservation area, i.e. Afzelia xylocarpa, Aquilaria crassna,
Archidendron quocense, Azadirachta indica, Casia fistula, Casia siamea, Dalbegia bariensis,
Dalbegia cochinchinensis, Dipterocarpus alatus, Dipterocarpus retusus, Hopea recopel,
Hopea odrata, Irvingia malayana, Khaya senegalensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum dasyrrhachis, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Shorea guiso, Sterculia lychnophora, Syzygium cumini, Terrietia javanica. After 3 years of planting he observed that some species
would be suitable selection for the tree planting programme. Mr. Moy Ratha
concluded that taking into consideration of growth performance and survival rates
on the 21 species trial in Khbal Chhay, Dalbergia cochinchinensis, Hopea odorata, Khaya senegalensis, and Peltophorum dasyrrhachis would be the most appropriate species
identified for the tree planting programme. All of these species are fast growing and
have a high survival rate. If seedlings are not available species such as Aquilaria crassna, Casia siamea, Hopea recopi, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, and Terrietia javanica would make a good second choice.