National Consultative Workshops of Seven South and Southeast Asian Countries



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Forest Genetic Resources
 
Conservation and Management
 
 
National Consultative Workshops of Seven 
South and Southeast Asian Countries  
 
 
K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim editors 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Forest Genetic Resources
 
Conservation and Management
 
 
National Consultative Workshops of Seven  
South and Southeast Asian Countries  
 
 
K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim editors 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A publication of APFORGEN 

 
The geographical designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply 
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Forest Research Institute Malaysia, or any of its 
collaborators, Bioversity International and Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions, 
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the 
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.  Similarly, the views expressed are those of the authors and do 
not necessarily reflect the views of these participating organizations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia   
Cataloguing-in-Publication Data 
Forest genetic resources conservation and management: national consultative workshops of seven South 
and Southeast Asian countries / editors K.Y. Choo, R. Jalonen, L.T. Hong and H.C. Sim 
ISBN 978-967-5221-20-0  
1.
 
Forest genetic resources conservation--South Asia--Congresses. 
2.
 
Forest genetic resources conservation--Southeast Asia--Congresses. 
3.
 
Forest and forestry--Congresses.   I.  Choo, K.Y. 
333.95340954 
 
 
© FRIM, Bioversity International and APAFRI, 2009 
 
 

iii 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) is the national forestry research organization of 
Malaysia. It was first established in 1929 as the Forest Research Institute, the research arm of the 
Peninsular Malayan (later Malaysian) Forest Department, and in 1985 was reorganized into the 
present FRIM, a statutory body.  
  FRIM’s research focus and efforts through nearly a century’s existence has meant that FRIM has 
not only built up a strong tradition of research, but backs this up with experience, expertise and 
supporting facilities perhaps unmatched anywhere in the tropics. Basic studies of the tropical forests 
conducted at FRIM had produced publications before and just after World War II that remain classic 
books in their field till today. Among the more notable ones are Symington’s Manual of Dipterocarps
Watson’s Mangrove Forests of the Malay Peninsula, and Wyatt-Smith’s Manual of Silviculture of Lowland 
Forests
  Past  research  has  also  left  behind  many  living  laboratories  in  the  field  –  a  number  of  arboreta, 
sample plots and various experimental plantations of both local and exotic tree species. These sample 
plots and experimental areas are not just confined to the FRIM campus, which is located in the 
northern suburb 16 km outside the capital city of Kuala Lumpur; but are spread throughout 
peninsular Malaysia, covering various forest types and terrains.  
  FRIM has maintained a number of collections including a herbarium, an insect collection, and 
collections of wood and soil samples, which are widely regarded as reference collections for 
researchers and scientists in these fields. The many well-equipped laboratories in FRIM, which have 
been constantly and continuously upgraded, have put FRIM among the top forestry and forest 
products research institutions.  
 
    
 
 
 
Forest Research Institute Malaysia 
Kepong, 52109 Kepong 
Malaysia 
 
http://www.frim.gov.my 
 

iv 
 
 
 
 
 
Bioversity International (Bioversity) an autonomous international scientific organization, supported by 
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).  Bioversity’s mandate is to 
advance the conservation and use of genetic diversity for the well-being of present and future 
generations.  Bioveristy’s headquarters is based in Rome, Italy, with offices in another 15 countries 
worldwide.  It operates through three programmes: (1) the Plant Genetic Resources Programme, (2) the 
CGIAR Genetic Resources Support Programme, and (3) the International Network for the Improvement 
of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP). 
  The international status of Bioversity is conferred under an Establishment Agreement which, by 
January 1999, had been signed and ratified by the Governments of Algeria, Australia, Belgium, Benin, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chile, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech 
Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Greece, Guinea, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, 
Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, 
Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda and Ukraine. 
  Financial support for the Research Agenda of Bioversity is provided by the Governments of Australia, 
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, 
F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, 
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (F.Y.R.), Malta, 
Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, 
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the UK, the USA and by the Asian 
Development Bank, Common Fund for Commodities, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural 
Cooperation (CTA), European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 
International Development Research Centre (IDRC), International Fund for Agricultural Development 
(IFAD), International Association for the Promotion of Cooperation with Scientists from the New 
Independent States of the former Soviet Union (INTAS), Interamerican Development Bank, Natural 
Resources Institute (NRI), Centre de Coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le 
développement (CIRAD), Nordic Genebank, Rockefeller Foundation, United Nations Development 
Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Taiwan Banana Research 
Institute (TBRI) and the World Bank. 
 
Bioversity International 
Regional Office for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania 
P.O. Box 236, UPM Post Office 
43400 Serdang,  Selangor,  Malaysia 
 
http://www.bioversityinternational.org  


 
 
APAFRI)'>The Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) is an association of Institutions 
with an active interest in forestry research, conservation, management and other forestry related matters 
in the Asia Pacific. Its objective is to promote collaboration among institutions to enhance and increase the 
forestry research and conservation capacity in the Asia Pacific. 
  The establishment of APAFRI was prompted by the need to provide a viable institutional framework 
for research collaboration in the region.  Since 1991, the Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia 
and the Pacific (FORSPA) has been fulfilling the networking function. 
  Countries in the region and the donor community wish to develop a more self-reliant, sustainable and 
participatory institutional mechanism as a logical follow-up of FORSPA.  The feasibility of establishment 
of an Association was discussed in the FORSPA Pre-implementation seminar held at Kuala Lumpur in 
January 1992.  A draft constitution was prepared and circulated and subsequently a drafting committee 
prepared a revision.  This was discussed, modified and adopted during the meeting of Heads of Forestry 
Research Organizations in the Asia Pacific in Bogor on 21st February 1995, and resulted in the 
establishment of APAFRI.   
  The International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) has recognised APAFRI as its 
Asia Pacific chapter.  APAFRI has been collaborating closely with the IUFRO Special Programme for 
Developing Countries (SPDC) in strengthening research in the Asia Pacific region.  Extending from that, 
APAFRI’s Executive Director also acts as the Asia Pacific Regional Coordinator for IUFRO-SPDC.   
 
 
 
 
APAFRI 
c/o Forest Research Institute Malaysia 
Kepong, 52109 Kepong, Malaysia 
 
http://www.apafri.org  
 

vi 
 
 
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is the only intergovernmental organization 
that brings together countries that produce and consume tropical timber to discuss and exchange 
information and develop policies on all aspects of the world tropical timber economy and the 
management of the tropical timber resource base –tropical forests. As of November 2008, ITTO had 60 
members, including the European Community, which together represent 90% of world trade in 
tropical timber and 80% of the world's closed tropical forests. 
  Under the ITTA 2006, ITTO has two closely related overarching objectives: 

 
To promote the expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical timber from 
sustainably managed and legally harvested forests 

 
To promote the sustainable management of tropical timber-producing forests. 
 
  The ITTA 2006 sets out the Organization’s longstanding aims of enhancing the capacity of 
members to export tropical timber from sustainably managed forests and to improve market 
transparency, forest-based enterprises and sustainable forest management (SFM). It also expands the 
scope of previous agreements to include objectives related to poverty alleviation, forest law 
enforcement, non-timber forest products and environmental services, voluntary market mechanisms 
such as certification, and the role of forest-dependent communities.  
  ITTO develops internationally agreed policy documents to promote SFM and forest conservation. 
It assists tropical member countries to adapt such policies to local circumstances and to implement 
them in the field through projects. In addition, ITTO collects, analyses and disseminates data on the 
production and trade of tropical timber and funds a range of projects and other actions aimed at 
developing industries at both community and industrial scales. 
  By November 2008 the Organization had provided more than US$300 million to finance over 800 
projects designed to encourage SFM, increase the efficiency of forest industries, and improve market 
intelligence and statistics. The vast majority of these projects were made possible through the 
voluntary financial contributions of consumer member countries. ITTO also supports capacity 
building through the development of manuals, workshops and a fellowship fund that supports young 
professionals.  
  ITTO cooperates closely with other international organizations with forest-related mandates. It is a 
founding member of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), which was established in 2000 to 
support the work of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and to enhance coordination 
among the international conventions, organizations and institutions with forest-related mandates. 
ITTO also cooperates with a wide range of regional and national-level organizations and other civil-
society and private-sector stakeholders. 
 
International Tropical Timber Organization  
International Organisations Centre 
5
th
 Floor, Pacifico-Yokohama 1-1-1 
Minato-Mirai, Nishi-ku 
Yokohama 220-0012 
Japan 
 
http://www.itto.int 
 
 
 
 
 

vii 
APFORGEN 
 
 
The Asia Pacific Forest Genetic Resources Programme (APFORGEN) was initiated in 2003.  
APFORGEN is a regional programme with a holistic approach to conservation and management of 
forest genetic resources.  Its aim is to enhance technical and scientific cooperation, training and 
information exchange among countries in the region. It is managed by the Asia Pacific Association of 
Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) with technical support from Bioversity International 
(Bioversity).  Target beneficiaries of this programme include forest research institutions, policy-
makers, local communities, government forestry departments, NGOs and private forestry companies.  
Other international and regional organizations such as FAO are also participating in the development 
of the programme and its activities. 
  The objective of APFORGEN is to manage tropical forest genetic diversity more equitably, 
productively and sustainably in the participating countries, specifically the programme aims to: 

 
Strengthen national programmes on forest genetic diversity 

 
Enhance regional networking and collaboration 

 
Facilitate to locate and conserve genetic diversity of selected priority forest species 

 
Increase sustainable use of genetic diversity in natural and man-made forests 
  APFORGEN currently has fourteen participating country organizations from Bangladesh 
(Bangladesh Forest Research Institute), India (Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education), Nepal 
(Department of Forest Research and Survey), Pakistan (Pakistan Forest Institute), Sri Lanka (Forest 
Department), Cambodia (Department of Forestry and Wildlife), China (Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese 
Academy of Forestry), Indonesia (Centre for Plantation Research and Development, Bogor), Lao PDR 
(Forest Research Centre), Malaysia (Forest Research Institute Malaysia), Myanmar (Forest Research Institute, 
Yezin), Philippines (College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Philippines Los Banos), 
Thailand (Royal Forest Department/National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department) and Viet 
Nam (Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam). 
  The programme has held five meetings (2003 to 2007) in which the National Coordinators of each 
of the participating organizations attended. A draft action plan for the programme was drawn up for 
implementation.  Currently, some activities of APFORGEN are partially supported by APAFRI and 
Bioversity. The bulk of the funding comes from the ITTO Project PD 199/03 Rev. 3(F) which has a 
duration of three years (2006–2009). The project has been extended for another year till February 2010. 
   
 
 
 
 
APFORGEN 
c/o APAFRI 
Forest Research Institute Malaysia 
Kepong,  52109 Kepong,  Malaysia 
 
http://www.apforgen.org  

Contents
                                                                                                                                     
ix
 
Preface_xi_Acknowledgements_xiv'>Contents 
 
Preface 
xi  
Acknowledgements xiv 
 
 
 
Cambodia National Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources 
Conservation and Management 
Chann Sophal 
 
 
      
     
 
India National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and Capacity  
Building Needs in Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management 
     
 
 
M. Surya Prakash 
 
 
 
     7 
 
Indonesia National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and Capacity 
Building Needs on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management 
     
 
Harry Santoso 
                                          19 
 
Malaysia National Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and 
Management
 
Lee Soon Leong 
                                          27 
 
National Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management 
in Myanmar
 
Lwin Ko Oo   
 
 
                49 
 
Philippines National Consultative Workshop to Identify Stakeholders and 
Capacity Building Needs in Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and 
Management 
Enrique L. Tolentino Jr.
 
 
            
89 
 
Thailand Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic Resources Conservation 
     
 
Suwan Tangmitcharoen 
 
              127 
 

 

Preface                                                                                                                                                
 
xi
Preface
 
 
 
The ITTO funded project on forest genetic resources, PD/199/03 Rev. 3(F): Strengthening 
National Capacity and Regional Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic 
Resources in Tropical Asia in February 2006 for a duration of three years. The project has a 
number of activities that required inputs from the seven participating countries: Cambodia, 
India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Thailand. To facilitate 
collaboration and better participation, as well as soliciting inputs, each participating country 
has been invited to nominate a person as a National Focal Point (NFP). These NFPs were 
nominated by the forestry administrations of these countries, so that he or she has the 
necessary mandate to organize activities and solicit inputs contributing to the project. The 
frequent structural changes and personnel movements had resulted in many changes of 
NFPs within the short period of the project duration and disrupting the smooth running of 
the project to achieve its stated objectives. The NFPs, and their affiliated agencies, of the 
seven countries are as follows: 
 
National Focal Point 
Organizations Participating in the 
Project 
Originally appointed 
Current 
Forestry and Wildlife Science Research 
Institute, Forestry Administration, 
CAMBODIA 
 
Mr. Sok Srun 
Mr. Chann Sophal 
 
Indian Council of Forestry Research & 
Education, INDIA 
Dr. Mudit Kumar Singh 
 
Dr. G.S. Rawat 
(Dr. M. Surya Prakash) 
 
Centre for Plantation Forest Research and 
Development (CPF),  
Forestry Research and Development 
Agency, Ministry of Forestry, INDONESIA 
 
Dr. Nur Masripatin 
 
Dr. Harry Santoso 
 
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 
MALAYSIA 
 
Dr. Lee Soon Leong    
   
 
Dr. Lee Soon Leong    
   
 
Forest Research Institute,  
Yezin,  MYANMAR   
 
Mr. Thuang Naing Oo 
 
Mr. Aung Zaw Moe 
(Mr. Lwin Ko Oo) 
Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, 
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, 
University of the Philippines Los Banos, 
PHILIPPINES   
                               
Dr. Enrique L. Tolentino 
Jr.   
 
Dr. Enrique L. Tolentino 
Jr.   
 
National Park, Wildlife and Plant 
Conservation Department,  THAILAND          
Mr. Vichien Sumantakul 
 
Dr. Suwan 
Tangmitcharoen  
 
Note: Those names within parentheses were former NFPs before the current ones. 
 
From the original proposal of the project, the following inputs are required from the 
National Focal Points (NFPs): 
1. Assessment of capacity building needs 
2. Reviewing of progress in FGR conservation 
3. Developing/revising national FGR strategies 
4. Assist to establish national FGR programme 
5. Assessment of national R&D needs for improved FGR conservation 
 

xii 
 
 
    
 
                    
Preface  
                     
6. Information on FGR conservation & use (including in situ and ex situ conservation of 
priority species) 
 
These inputs from NFPs could be prepared by either: 

 
Informal communications/discussions/meetings led by the National Focal Point 
with a number of key stakeholders 

 
Consensus from a formally established national taskforce/committee/workgroup 

 
Summarizing from the proceedings of a national workshop/meeting involving all 
stakeholders 
There is no preferred means, as countries differ in many aspects. The involvement of 
stakeholders in preparing the inputs, however, must be noticeable and evident throughout 
the process; and appropriately indicated and documented.  
  The project provided partial support for these activities. Each of the National Focal Points 
was requested to prepare a workplan for those inputs mentioned above. Together with the 
budget and a schedule to achieve those inputs, the workplan would then be forwarded to the 
Technical Working Group (TWG), which is responsible to implement the project, for 
approval. The Project Coordinator, and members of the TWG, could provide appropriate 
technical assistance to the NFP for meeting the deadlines. 
  All the National Focal Points of the participating countries had chosen to organize one-
day consultative workshops which had the participation of the relevant stakeholders. These 
workshops were organized to achieve the following objectives 
 
1.  Update and validate the previous recommendations and plans in the FGR 
national workshop. 
2.  Identify problems and other constraints in operationalising a national FGR 
programme. 
3.  Recommend solutions or courses of actions to address FGR issues and 
concerns. 
4.  Solicit inputs in crafting a viable research and development national agenda 
for FGR conservation and management. 
5. Determine capacity-building activities for a vibrant national FGR 
programme. 
6.  Generate support and commitment from institutions and other stakeholders 
to implement programmes for FGR conservation and development in their 
regions. 
 
  Upon the completion of the national workshop, a country report was compiled with the 
following expected outputs: 
 
1.
 
A review of the national in-situ and ex-situ FGR conservation and 
development programmes, including the priority tree species. 
2.
 
Identification of capacity-building needs of the stakeholders in support of the 
national FGR programmes. 
3.
 
Establishment of a National Coordinating Committee to support the FGR 
programmes. 
4.
 
Identifying the R & D needs necessary to support the FGR conservation and 
development programmes. 
5.
 
Proposal for national FGR strategies and programmes 
6.
 
Commitments and support from institutions and individuals to be part of 
regional and National Coordinating Committee for FGR. 

Preface                                                                                                                                                
 
xiii
7.
 
Updated information on FGR conservation and use (including in situ  and ex 
situ FGR conservation programmes) 
   
  The seven participating countries, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the 
Philippines and Thailand, organized their one-day national consultative workshops during 
2007 and 2008. The NFPs who organized the workshop and the date of each national 
consultative workshop are as listed below: 
 
Country 
National Focal Point 
Date of Workshop 
Venue 
Philippines 
Dr Enrique Tolentino 
6 February 2007 
Manila 
Indonesia 
Dr Harry Santoso 
1 March 2007 
Bogor 
India 
Dr. M. Surya Prakash 
11 July 2007 
Coimbatore 
Cambodia 
Mr. Chann Sophal 
12 February 2008 
Phnom Penh 
Thailand 
Dr. Suwan Tangmitcharoen  
12 March 2008 
Bangkok 
Myanmar 
Mr Lwin Ko Oo 
26 February 2008 
Yezin 
Malaysia 
Dr. Lee Soon Leong 
30 July 2008 
Kuala Lumpur 
 
  These workshops followed the format: half-day of presentations on key relevant issues
and half-day with break-away discussion groups formulating recommendations on specific 
issues. 
  The reports of these national consultative workshops submitted by the NFPs have been 
compiled into a single volume, both to serve as a record for this project and more 
importantly as a collective source of updates on the activities of the participating countries 
during the project duration (February 2006 – January 2009). These reports are certainly 
valuable references on issues related to forest genetic resources conservation and 
management for the forest administrators and policy makers in these countries. Three of 
these reports, that of India, Indonesia and the Philippines, had been published in an earlier 
volume, but are included here again to complete this compilation. 
  The compiling of these reports requires contributions from many individuals. Besides the 
NFPs of the seven participating countries, colleagues from the implementing agency of the 
ITTO Project, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), the collaborating agencies the 
Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions (APAFRI) and Bioversity 
International had contributed substantially towards the publishing of this volume.  
 
 
The Editors 
August 2009 
 

Acknowledgements
 
  
                      
xiv 
Acknowledgements 
 
We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the National Focal Points of the seven 
countries participating in the ITTO Project PD 199/03Rev. 3(F):  Strengthening National 
Capacity and Regional Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources in 
Tropical Asia. They are Chann Sophal (Cambodia), M.Surya Prakash/GS Rawat (India), 
Harry Santoso (Indonesia), Lee SoonLeong (Malaysia), Lwin Ko Oo (Myanmar), Enrique L. 
Tolentino Jr. (Philippines) and Suwan Tangmitcharoen (Thailand). 
  Colleagues in FRIM, APAFRI and Bioversity International who contributed in various 
ways to the compilation and publishing of this volume are also gratefully acknowledged. 
  We are indebted to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Yokohama, 
Japan, for support via the ITTO Project PD199/03 Rev.3 (F). 

National Consultative Workshop Reports                                                                                                                      
1
Cambodia National Consultative Workshop on Forest Genetic 
Resources Conservation and Management 
 
Chann Sophal 
Forestry and Wildlife Science Research Institute
 
 
Introduction 
 
One of the activities of the project "Strengthening National Capacity and Regional 
Collaboration for Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources in Tropical Asia" is for 
National Focal Points of the seven participating countries to carry out national level activities 
and to organize national workshops on the conservation and management of forest genetic 
resources (FGR).  
  APAFRI assisted Cambodia, one of the seven participating countries in the ITTO project, 
to organize this  workshop on 12 February 2008 with the major objectives to review and 
develop a strategy for the conservation and management of forest genetic resources. It was 
attended by 32 participants from central and regional forestry administration offices. The 
programme of the workshop is in Appendix 1. 
 
Opening of the Workshop 
 
During the inauguration of the workshop, Mr. Chann Sophal, National Coordinator for 
APFORGEN and National Focal Point for the ITTO-funded Project gave the welcome 
address on behalf of H. E. Ty Sokhun, Director General of Forestry Administration. Dr 
Daniel Baskaran Krishnapillay, Executive Secretary of APAFRI, and representative of FRIM 
gave the introduction and overview of the ITTO project and APFORGEN activities. 
 
Presentations 
 
A total of four presentations were presented at the workshop.  
 
1.
 
Forest Gene Conservation by Mr. Uorn Sam Ol, Deputy Chief of Reforestation 
Office; 
 
The presentation by Mr. Uorn Sam Ol on forest gene conservation strategies in 
Cambodia highlighted two methods, i.e. in situ conservation (within natural forest) 
and ex situ conservation (planting outside natural habitat). 
 
In situ conservation as formed by 
1.
 
best conservation strategy within natural habitat, 
2.
 
cost-efficient, 
3.
 
participatory approach and community option,  
4.
 
thirty-six seed sources/ conservation stands identified.  
Ex situ conservation, in turn, can be described as 
1.
 
better protected,  
2.
 
expensive but secure,  
3.
 
better options for seed improvement,  
4.
 
ten stands of ex situ conservation were established in Khbal Chhay and 
additional locations are under consideration. The presentation concluded that 

                                                                         
National Consultative Workshop Reports
 
  
                     

further work would be required to develop, review and improve the 
Cambodian Plant Conservation Strategy and Action Plan in the context of gene 
conservation and promoting its implementation. 
 
2.  Cambodia's Forest and Wildlife Conservation Status by Mr. Chheang Dany, 
Deputy Chief of Wildlife Protection Office;  
 
Mr. Chheang Dany highlighted the abundance of forest and wildlife in Cambodia as 
well as the biodiversity richness. Among the total land area of 181,035 Km
2
, the total 
forest area occupies 11,104,293 ha or about 61.15%. The figures on different forest 
functions, i.e. protection forest (7%), concession forest (19%), protected forest (18%), 
other forest (17%), and non-forest area (39%) were highlighted. The Cambodian 
forests are variously dominated by Dipterocarpaceae, Leguminosae, Lythraceae, or 
Fagaceae, and in some places Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, or bamboo. The flora of 
lower altitudes is typical of the Indochinese floristic province (and so contrasts with 
that of the Chinese, Indo-Burman and Indo-Malayan provinces), whilst the higher 
altitudes share affinity with those of the Indo-Malayan region (Dy Phon 1982). It is 
indicated that Cambodia possesses 2,308 of the 8,000 species described in the Flore 
Generale de l'Indochine. These 2,308 species belong to 852 genera in 164 families. 
Based on Dy Phon (1982), species of fauna documented in Cambodia include 
mammals 125 species, birds 630, reptiles 73, amphibians 40, butterflies and moths 
300, and fishes 850. In the status of in situ conservation, Mr. Chheang Dany showed 
that there are 6 Protected Forests (include 1 Sarus Crane Reserve and 1 Biodiversity 
Conservation Area) , 7 National Parks, 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 1 RAMSAR Site, 3 
Multiple Use Areas, 3 Protected Landscapes, 1 Biosphere Reserves, and 20 Forest 
Seed Sources Sites. In the status of ex situ conservation, he showed that there are 1 
Wildlife Rescue Centre, 5 Private Zoo and 5 Animal Breeding Farms and 50 Tree 
Nurseries. The presentation concluded by showing some key wildlife species 
recorded in the surveyed areas from 1998-2004. 
 
3.  Ex situ Conservation of Indigenous Species in Khbal Chhay Area by Mr. Moy 
Ratha, Senior Officer of the Cambodian Tree Seed Project;  
 
In his presentation, he showed the viability of forest trees in a changing climate and 
their habitats. The ex situ conservation is conservation of genetic resources of any 
species outside its origin. He  also mentioned that 21 species have been planted in 
triels in an ex situ conservation area, i.e. Afzelia xylocarpa,  Aquilaria crassna
Archidendron quocenseAzadirachta indicaCasia fistulaCasia siameaDalbegia bariensis
Dalbegia cochinchinensis,  Dipterocarpus alatus,  Dipterocarpus retusus,  Hopea recopel
Hopea odrataIrvingia malayanaKhaya senegalensisLeucaena leucocephalaPeltophorum  
dasyrrhachis,  Pterocarpus macrocarpus,  Shorea guiso,  Sterculia lychnophora,  Syzygium 
cumini,  Terrietia javanica. After 3 years of planting he observed that some species 
would be suitable selection for the tree planting programme. Mr. Moy Ratha 
concluded that taking into consideration of growth performance and survival rates 
on the 21 species trial in Khbal Chhay, Dalbergia cochinchinensisHopea odorataKhaya 
senegalensis, and Peltophorum dasyrrhachis would be the most appropriate species 
identified for the tree planting programme. All of these species are fast growing and 
have a high survival rate. If seedlings are not available species such as Aquilaria 
crassna,  Casia siamea,  Hopea recopi,  Pterocarpus macrocarpus, and Terrietia javanica 
would make a good second choice. 
 

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4. 


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