Methodological typology of grammar content Introduction

Chapter II. The grammatical aspect as a means of optimizing the educational process

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Methodological typology of grammar content Introduction

Chapter II. The grammatical aspect as a means of optimizing the educational process
2.1 Approaches to teaching foreign languages
In order to optimize the process of teaching English, that is, to improve it as much as possible, various teaching approaches are used. It is known that recently the communicative approach to teaching foreign languages is the most common. Let's consider it in more detail. I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina in the book "The English-Russian Terminological Guide to the Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages" write that the communicative approach to teaching foreign languages appeared in the 1970s in the UK in connection with the promotion of a new learning goal - language acquisition as a means of communication. Communication is understood as the transfer and communication of information of a cognitive and affective-evaluative nature, the exchange of knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of verbal interaction of two or more people. It should be noted that the fact of interaction does not always mean that communication took place. There are a number of examples when the participants in the interaction pronounce phrases, remarks, but there is no exchange of information, understanding and mutual influence in the process of interaction. The reason for this is the lack of formation of communicative competence, which is considered by all researchers of the communicative approach as the main goal of learning. The term "competence" was introduced by N. Chomsky in relation to linguistics and meant knowledge of the language system, in contrast to its possession in real situations of communication. Gradually, in foreign, and then in domestic methodology, in contrast to the linguistic competence of Chomsky, the methodological term "communicative competence" appeared, by which they began to understand the ability to communicate through language, that is, to transmit thoughts and exchange them in various situations in the process of interaction with others. participants of communication, correctly using the system of language and speech norms and choosing communicative behavior that is adequate to the authentic situation of communication. Communicative competence is not a personal characteristic of this or that person; its formation is manifested in the process of communication. The following components of communicative competence are distinguished ( Sheils 1993, pp . 1-2; Sheils 1995, pp. 1-2): linguistic competence - vocabulary knowledge units and grammatical rules that transform lexical skie units into a meaningful statement; sociolinguistic competence - the ability to choose and use adequate language forms and means, depending on the purpose and situation of communication, on the social roles of the participants in communication, that is, on who is the communication partner; discursive competence - the ability to understand various types of communicative statements, as well as to build coherent, coherent and logical statements of different functional styles (article, letter, essay, etc.); involves the choice of linguistic means depending on the type of utterance; strategic competence - verbal and non-verbal means (strategies) that a person resorts to if communication does not take place; such means can be both re-reading the phrase and questioning the misunderstood sentence, as well as gestures, facial expressions, the use of various objects; sociocultural competence - knowledge of the cultural characteristics of native speakers, their habits, traditions, norms of behavior and etiquette and the ability to understand and adequately use them in the process of communication, while remaining a carrier of a different culture; the formation of socio-cultural competence involves the integration of the individual in the system of world and national cultures; social competence - the ability and desire to interact with others, self-confidence and self-confidence for communication, as well as the ability to help another maintain communication, put oneself in his place and the ability to cope with situations that arise in the process of misunderstanding communication partners. In accordance with the communicative approach, language teaching should take into account the features of real communication, and the learning process should be based on a model of real communication, since knowledge of the language system (knowledge of grammar and vocabulary) is insufficient for effective use of the language for communication purposes. The communicative approach involves mastering various speech functions, that is, the formation of skills to express one or another communicative intention (request, consent, invitation, refusal, advice, reproach, etc.) I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina [4], consider the following two approaches in comparison: deductive and inductive.
The deductive approach to learning is based on deduction - a kind of inference from the general to the particular. With regard to the teaching of foreign languages, the deductive approach provides for the explanation of the rule and its training in practice, that is, the path from the general to the particular, from the form to its implementation.
The inductive approach, on the contrary, involves a path from the particular to the general, from the use of a lexical or grammatical phenomenon to an understanding of its form.
The interpretation of the terms "inductive" and "deductive" in domestic and foreign methods differs significantly. According to foreign methodologists [14, 17], the deductive approach underlies the grammar-translation method, when a student first learns a rule and then performs exercises in accordance with it. The inductive approach in its purest form completely excludes the use of rules and is typical for mastering the native language, when the student intuitively, unconsciously masters the phenomenon and uses it in speech. An example of an inductive approach in teaching foreign languages can be an audiolingual method, when students work according to a model, use a phenomenon in speech by imitation, mechanical repetition, performing actions according to the model, but do not formulate the rule verbally.
There are "modified" deductive and inductive approaches, when students derive a rule from the examples provided by the teacher and formulate it verbally, and then practice using the linguistic phenomenon (modified deductive approach), or perform various tasks on the use of the phenomenon, and then formulate the rule (modified inductive approach). an approach).
In foreign methodology, the term "inductive approach" is often used as a synonym for the term "natural approach", and "deductive" is correlated with the terms "formal, cognitive". At the same time, inductance is interpreted as a modern direction in teaching, and deductivity - as traditional, outdated.
According to Ya. M. Kolker [5], in the domestic methodology no preference is given to one or another approach. Moreover, according to domestic and a number of foreign methodologists, inductance and deductivity are not approaches to learning, but indicate possible ways of mastering language material, which are based on cognitive processes: analysis is the essence of deduction, and analogy is induction ( Rivers 1989, p.95). Both ways of introducing the material do not exclude the role of rules in teaching, while it is noted that the rules can be presented in various forms - from verbal formulation to schemes and tables of a generalizing nature.
Each of these approaches has positive and negative features. With the inductive nature of the presentation of linguistic material, students get acquainted with the phenomenon and its use in speech, which contributes to communication, but makes it difficult to clearly understand the mechanism of formation and use, interferes with self-control. The deductive method is more economical in time, helps to overcome the interference of the native language, promotes understanding of the structure and form of linguistic phenomena, but there is always a danger that memorizing the rules will become an end in itself and will not lead to the formation of communication skills. The teacher needs to decide for himself which method will be most effective in specific conditions, depending on the stage of training, the level of preparedness of students, the goals and objectives of the lesson.
The inductive approach to learning, according to foreign methodologists [14, 17], has become widespread, which led to the clarification and revision of the meaning of this term by some methodologists and to the emergence of a new term consciousness-raising approach - "a consciously-oriented approach." This approach underlies learning using a database and computers.
No less important approach, according to I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina [4], is a consciously oriented approach. The consciously oriented approach is based on the awareness of the form of a linguistic phenomenon - lexical and grammatical - and is based on the data of contrastive linguistics and the inductive method of language acquisition. The approach was developed in relation to the teaching of grammar: the mastery of grammatical skills was seen as a gradual awareness of the form.
The approach is based on the position of N. Chomsky about the universal grammar, some elements of which are the same in many languages; they should not be trained in a special way, as students themselves gradually become aware of their similarity with the corresponding forms in their native language. Thus, significant attention is paid to the positive transfer of phenomena from the native language to a foreign one. The approach has much in common with the conscious-comparative method known in the Russian methodology, which proceeds from the fact that thinking is the same in all languages, only the forms of its expression, represented in languages by different linguistic means, differ.
I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina [4], write that the consciously oriented approach appeared in foreign methodology in the 1980s, as opposed to many modern methods and approaches that actually excluded grammar from the curriculum and denied the role of consciousness in learning.
The followers of this approach warn against its simplistic interpretation and identification with the grammatical-translational method and learning by rules ( Rutherford and Smith , 1988). Supporters of this approach deny the gap between conscious learning and unconscious language acquisition and try to reconcile the two directions in learning: traditional and " straight ". The traditional direction is based on the data of comparative linguistics of the native and studied languages. It involves the purposeful formation of skills, the use of curricula that include strictly selected and graded language phenomena, as well as the use of educational materials designed and organized taking into account the requirements of the programs.
The direct direction is based on the provisions of the direct method and involves the mastery of speech skills and abilities, which is carried out naturally on authentic materials and does not require special organization. Scott Thornbury [17] writes that the basis of the consciously-oriented approach is the psychological concept of consciousness in mastering a foreign language, which is interpreted differently by domestic and foreign methodologists. In the foreign methodology, "conscious" and "unconscious" are always opposed and exclude each other. At the same time, the first means the absolute dependence of the student on knowledge of the rules, while the second implies the complete exclusion of the rules and the imitation of the child's mastery of the native language.
In the formed foreign language speech ability, the content of the statement is actually realized; the macro-operational composition of the utterance (speech skills) and its constituent elements (for example, words) are correlated with the level of conscious control; micro-operations and most of the features of pronunciation are correlated with the level of unconscious control, etc. The main methodological problem is to correlate the channels of conscious and unconscious language acquisition in the right proportion.
In the process of mastering the language, the student must go from actual awareness of the linguistic phenomenon to unconscious control and to complete unconsciousness at the stage of improvement, if he continues to study a foreign language after school and strives for a level close to that of a native speaker.
I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina [4] identified the main provisions of the consciously oriented approach:
Grammar acquisition should be carried out in an inductive way, when the teacher offers tasks in the course of which students build hypotheses about the use of a particular grammatical form, test them, draw conclusions, and eventually master this form.
Grammar teaching is not seen as a "linear" process, where each learned phenomenon is followed by another that students must master; experience shows that "passed" does not mean "learned" and that the student owns this material and actively uses it. When communicating knowledge, the use of rules is allowed, the need to work on the language form is recognized. Different levels of expression of the rules are distinguished, while their verbal formulation and explanation are not excluded. However, the rules are given a secondary role, since their explanation and memorization are not a guarantee of the assimilation of grammatical phenomena. The main attention should be paid to the meaning of a lexical or grammatical phenomenon, and not to its form. In this regard, the phenomenon under study should not be considered in isolation, but within the context. Еxercises are widely used as teaching methods , aimed at understanding the form of the phenomenon being studied. There are many different ways in which you can draw students' attention to the form. These include underlining, bolding, intentionally reusing a phenomenon. Grammar teaching should be carried out on authentic materials, examples of the use of one or another grammatical phenomenon in truly communicative situations, and not on specially compiled examples illustrating the form of the grammatical phenomenon being studied. Scott Thornbury [17], I. L. Kolesnikova and O. A. Dolgina [4] agree that the consciously oriented approach has been implemented and is widely used in computer learning, where the database serves as a material for performing not only grammatical, but and lexical exercises of an inductive nature. In the process of analyzing numerous examples, students guess the meaning and features of the compatibility of a particular word, draw conclusions about its use in speech.
The undoubted advantage of this approach is the focus on the unconscious mastery of the language, the focus on the use of the studied phenomena in the process of communication and the use of authentic materials. At the same time, some negative aspects should be pointed out: an exaggeration of the role of linguistic knowledge, the operations of comparison, comparison and analysis.
The rigid connection of the system of exercises with the supporting text and the underestimation of the purposeful formation of speech skills in expressive types of speech activity also have a negative impact on language acquisition.
Proponents of this approach note that it is "designed to intensify the formation of linguistic competence" and has no direct connection with the formation of speech competence in students ( Rutheford and Smith 1988, p. 114). Currently, this approach is widely discussed in the methodological literature, but in the practice of teaching it has not yet been widely used in the form of specific teaching materials and manuals.
In the "English-Russian terminological reference book on the methods of teaching foreign languages" [4], a structural approach to teaching a foreign language is also considered.
The structural approach to teaching a foreign language is based on the provisions of structural linguistics and the behavioral trend in psychology. Learning in accordance with this approach involves the mastery of a number of grammatical pattern structures, which are arranged in a certain sequence depending on the difficulty of their assimilation. The following structures can be cited as an example: I have a fatily , Could uoi open the door . Structures are introduced sequentially, and their number covers the entire studied grammatical material. Structure training is carried out by students under the guidance of a teacher or individually in language exercises for substitution, imitation, filling in gaps, etc.
According to the "English-Russian terminological reference book on the methods of teaching foreign languages" [4], the structural approach in the domestic methodology is based on the concept of structure adopted by representatives of the Prague linguistic school. In this regard, the understanding of the learning process based on the structural approach in the domestic methodology differs from the point of view of Western methodologists: the structure and variants of its use in speech (its modification) are usually considered as a structural group.
The structural group is “a set of functional transformations of the original structure, including, in addition to affirmative and negative structures, questions of all types and answers to them. <...> A structural group is not a model of dialogue, but a set of structures to be mastered jointly in speech.” ( Starkov 1978, pp . 45-46), for example : The book is op the desk. The book isn't op the chair. Is the book op the desk? - Yes, it is. (No, it isn't .) Is the book op the desk or op the chair? - The book is op the desk. Where is the book ? - It's op the desk .
According to G.V. Rogova [11], the training of the structure does not end with the performance of language exercises, but involves conditional speech and genuine speech exercises, the correct selection and organization of which ensure the mastery of language material for the purpose of its communicative use.
Foreign methodologists [14, 17] identify both positive and negative aspects of the structural approach to learning. Thanks to this approach, a learning unit was singled out and grammatical models were refined, a sequence of primary consolidation of new grammatical structures was developed in the form of substitution operations for structural, or grammatical, models. The structural approach provided the teacher with a set of models that were isolated from the traditional topics of normative grammar, and determined the sequence of training work with them.
At the same time, adherents of the structural approach underestimate the role of communication, misunderstand the automation of speech skills, and often reduce it to memorizing stamp models, which is not enough to use the structure in speech. Learning in accordance with the principles of the structural approach makes it difficult to make a conscious choice of means of expression, does not contribute to the free construction of speech and speech creation .
Summarizing all of the above, we can conclude that there is no single approach to teaching the grammatical aspect of a foreign language. All approaches have their positive and negative features and complement each other in the learning process.

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