Haptens: Small organic molecule (e g. 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene)



Yüklə 474 b.
tarix31.03.2017
ölçüsü474 b.







Haptens: Small organic molecule (e.g. 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene)

  • Haptens: Small organic molecule (e.g. 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene)

  • Not Immunogenic by themselves

  • Can be immunogenic when attached to an immunogenic macromolecular carrier

  • The Anti-hapten antibody so generated will bind the Hapten

  • Epitope: A region of a macromolecular antigen that is actually an antigenic determinant,

  • a molecular sub-region that is actually recognized and bound by an Antibody or T-Cell Receptor













































































Cancer Antigens in Diagnosis of Cancer

  • Cancer Antigens in Diagnosis of Cancer

  • Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA)

  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

  • Ovarian Cancer Antigen (CA 125)

  • Breast Cancer Associated Antigens: BRCA1 and 2

  • Whole-body Imaging of Metastatic Colon Carcinoma

  • A33 Antigen

  • Anti-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Pregnancy Test (Early Home Pregnancy Test)

  • Type II Allergic Hypersensitivity

  • Blood Group Antigens in Transfusions (A, B, AB, O Blood Groups)

  • Hemolytic Disease of New-Borns: Rh Antigen incompatibility

  • Super-Antigens in Toxic Shock Syndrome



Cancer Antigens as Targets for Therapy

  • Cancer Antigens as Targets for Therapy

  • Antibodies as Anti-cancer Agents

  • Radioactively-labeled Antibodies

  • Cytolytic Antibodies

  • Specifically-activated Cytotoxic T-Cells as Anti-Cancer Agents

  • Specifically Activated Antigen-presenting Cells (Tc).

  • Specifically Activated Helper T-Cells (TH)





































Caused by Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxins: (Endotoxins = Agent is in the Outer Membrane)

  • Caused by Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxins: (Endotoxins = Agent is in the Outer Membrane)

  • Examples -

  • E. coli

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Neisseria meningitidis

  • Meningococcus

  • 70,000 Deaths per year

  • Diarrhea, Fever, Blood Clotting, Blood Pressure Drop

  • Macrophage Activation by Endotoxin:

  • Generates systemic cytokine production -

  • IL1 and TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor)



Exotoxins = Secreted or Presented Membrane Bound:

  • Exotoxins = Secreted or Presented Membrane Bound:

  • Act as "Superantigens"

  • Examples -

  • Staphylococcus aureus:

  • TSST1 (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin)

  • Streptococcus pyrogenes - Rheumatic fever and shock

  • Staphylococcus enterotoxins: Food poisoning

  • Superantigens cross-link TCR with Antigen-presenting Cell MHC Class II Proteins

  • Again Generates systemic cytokine production – IL1 and TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor)









































Yüklə 474 b.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©www.azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə