Gtz project for the Practical Implementation of BioSt-Nachv sub-project Area



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GTZ Project for the Practical Implementation of BioSt-NachV – Sub-project Area-

related Requirements (Art. 4-7 + 10) 

 

 

Development of an Accreditation System for the  



Implementation of the German Biomass-Electricity-Sustainability Ordinance 

(Biomassestrom-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung, BioSt-NachV) for BMU-GTZ 

 

 

Work Package 2: Analysis of Selected National Data Sets 



 

 

Detailed Analysis of Suitable National Data Sources for Malaysia 



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

 

 



1 November 2009 

 

 



Prepared by 

 

Teckwyn Lim 



Resource Stewardship Consultants Sdn. Bhd., 

Selangor, Malaysia, 

 

 

Reviewed by 



 

Erik Meijaard  (PT Pet Norton Consulting International) 

Hans Harmen Smit 

Klaus Hennenberg, Rocio Herrera and Uwe Fritsche (Öko-Institut) 



 

 

 

In behalf of  



 

 

 



 

 

Funded by 



 

 

2

Contents 



 

 

1

 

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 3

 

2

 

DESCRIPTION OF SUITABLE DATA SOURCES FROM MALAYSIA...................................... 5

 

2.1

 

P



RIMARY AND 

N

ATURAL 

F

OREST 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

2

 AND 

3) ......................................... 5

 

2.2

 

C

ONTINUOUSLY WOODED AREAS 

(

TREE COVER PERCENTAGES

)

 



 

A

RTICLE 

5

 PARAGRAPH 

2............. 6

 

2.3

 

P

ROTECTED AREAS 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4)..................................................................... 7

 

2.4

 

V

ALUABLE ECOSYSTEMS 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4) .............................................................. 8

 

2.5

 

O

CCURRENCE OF RARE

,

 THREATENED

,

 ENDANGERED SPECIES 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4) ............... 9

 

2.6

 

G

RASSLAND 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

5) ........................................................................... 13

 

2.7

 

W

ETLANDS 

(A

RTICLE 

5

 PARAGRAPH 

3) ............................................................................ 13

 

2.8

 

P

EATLANDS

................................................................................................................ 13

 

2.9

 

S

USTAINABLY MANAGED AREAS FOR AGRICULTURE 

(A

RTICLE 

7)............................................. 13

 

2.10

 

D

EGRADED AREAS 

(A

PPENDIX 

1,

 

P

OINT 

9)...................................................................... 14

 

3

 

COMPARISON WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ORDINANCE AND WITH GLOBAL 

DATA SOURCES ................................................................................................................ 15

 

3.1

 

P

RIMARY AND 

N

ATURAL 

F

OREST 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

2

 AND 

3) ....................................... 15

 

3.2

 

C

ONTINUOUSLY 

W

OODED 

A

REAS 

(

TREE COVER PERCENTAGES

)

 



 

A

RTICLE 

5

 PARAGRAPH 

2.......... 16

 

3.3

 

P

ROTECTED 

A

REAS 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4) .................................................................. 17

 

3.4

 

V

ALUABLE 

E

COSYSTEMS 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4)............................................................ 18

 

3.5

 

O

CCURRENCE OF 

R

ARE

,

 

T

HREATENED AND 

E

NDANGERED 

S

PECIES 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

4) ...... 18

 

3.6

 

G

RASSLAND 

(A

RTICLE 

4

 PARAGRAPH 

5) ........................................................................... 19

 

3.7

 

W

ETLANDS 

(A

RTICLE 

5

 PARAGRAPH 

3) ............................................................................ 19

 

3.8

 

P

EATLANDS

................................................................................................................ 20

 

3.9

 

S

USTAINABLY MANAGED AREAS FOR AGRICULTURE 

(A

RTICLE 

7)............................................. 20

 

3.10

 

D

EGRADED AREAS 

(A

RTICLE 

9

 PARAGRAPH 

2).................................................................. 20

 

4

 

PROPOSAL FOR USE WITHIN THE GERMAN ACCREDITATION SYSTEM......................... 22

 

APPENDIX 1: LIST OF AREA TYPES RELATED TO THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE BIOST‐



NACHV............................................................................................................................. 23

 

APPENDIX 2.  COMBINED TABLE OF NATIONAL DATA SOURCES FOR MALAYSIA............... 24

 

 


 

3

  



 

1 Introduction 

 

This analysis is a contribution to the development of an accreditation system for the 



implementation of the German Biomass-Electricity-Sustainability Ordinance 

(Biomassestrom-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung or BioSt-NachV) for BMU-GTZ carried 

out by the Öko-Institut e.V.  The specific task refers to the Spatial Requirements of 

the BioSt-NachV (Work Package 2 (Analysis of selected national data sets)).  The 

analysis of existing national data sources covering Malaysia was carried out by 

Resource Stewardship Consultants Sdn. Bhd. (RESCU).  This involved collecting, 

reviewing and evaluating data sources that allow the assessment of the land status at a 

specific point in time and verify whether the requirements of the ordinance are met.  

Data was collected on the following area types that corresponded to the types listed in 

the ordinance Appendix 1: 

 

1. Primary and Natural Forest (Article 4 para 2 and 3) 



2.  Continuously wooded areas (tree cover percentages) – Article 5 para 2 

3. Protected areas (Article 4 para 4) 

4. Valuable ecosystems (Article 4 para 4) 

5. Occurrence of rare, threatened, endangered species (Article 4 para 4) 

6. Grassland (Article 4 para 5) 

7. Wetlands (Article 5 para 3) 

8. Peatlands (Article 6 para 1) 

9. Sustainably managed areas for agriculture (Article 7) 

10.  Degraded areas (Article 9 para 2) 

 

In addition, information is given on availability of data (licences needed, costs, 



institutions, etc.) as well as on the quality of the data (resolution, date of origin of raw 

data, method applied, format, types of categories, etc.). 

 

In particular, the analysis focuses on the identification of GIS-ready data sources in 



high resolution formats.  Original data sources such as satellite imagery and hard-

copy maps are only considered where no suitable alternative is available (in which 

case options for further processing are considered). 

 

The methodology employed two tasks: 



 

Task 1:  Pre-selection of suitable data sources: Existing data sources were collected 

and evaluated regarding date (1) of origin of raw data, (2) spatial resolution 

and (3) possibility of commercial use (with some additional notes). For each 

data source a rating regarding its suitability in the light of the ordinance is 

given (reference data 2008, category of area types).  

Result: The result of the pre-selection is provided in Appendix 2. 

 

Task 2:  Detailed analysis of suitable data sources: For each area type, the suitable 

data sources identified in the pre-selection were analysed in detail, covering: 

a)

 

Description of the suitable data sources 



 

4

b)



 

Evaluation of data gaps compared to the requirements of the ordinance 

c)

 

Evaluation whether a suitable data source improves the identification of 



the land status compared to global data sources (information on global 

data sources was provided by Öko-Institut) 

d)

 

Proposal for application of national data sources within the German 



accreditation system (with contribution from Öko-Institut) 

 

Result: This present document gives the results of the analysis described 



above. Further more, the result of the detailed analysis is tabulated in 

Appendix 2. 

 

 


 

5

2  Description of Suitable Data Sources from Malaysia 

 

Overview of data sources available 

 

There are numerous data sources for land status in Malaysia that may be suitable for 



use within the German accreditation system (Appendix 2).  It is noted that most 

relevant government departments have a GIS unit and there is a growing appreciation 

of spatial data throughout the country.  However, there are a number of issues that 

constrain the availability of suitable data.   

 

The main issue is that under the Malaysian federal constitution, land and forest 



matters come under the purview of the individual 13 states.  As a result, it is difficult 

to get data sets that apply to the whole of the country.  In addition, administration of 

matter such as wildlife conservation and “national” parks is divided under separate 

agencies in the three regions of the federation: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and 

Sarawak (the data sets are thus generally structured accordingly).  Attempts at to 

centralize geospatial data, including the establishment of a Malaysian Centre for 

Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MaCGDI) have only been partially successful. 

 

Another issue is the fact that Malaysia has an Official Secrets Act 1972 (Act 88) 



which restricts the public availability of government information in general and 

spatial information in particular.  Restrictions imposed by this act are gradually being 

lifted as a number of agencies have entered into agreements to commercialize spatial 

data.  Nevertheless, “national security” can still be cited as a reason not to release 

spatial data. 

 

 



2.1

 

Primary and Natural Forest (Article 4 paragraph 2 and 3) 

 

Some data on the location of primary and natural forest is available from the state 



forestry departments that have records on forest quality and logging history.  In 

Peninsular Malaysia, a forest reconnaissance survey was carried out in the 1970s and 

for the last 30 years there has been a “National Forest Inventory” (NFI) carried out 

every ten years.  The latest of these, NFI4, was carried out with the technical 

assistance of GTZ between 2002-2004 and was published in 2009. This is not a 

commercial product, but is available for inter-agency use.  It only covers Peninsular 

Malaysia. 

 

The NFI4 categorized forest into the following types: 



 

 



Virgin Forest Good to Superior 

 



Virgin Forest Poor to Moderate 

 



Logged 1991-2001 

 



Logged 1981-1990 

 



Logged 1971-1980 

 



Logged before 1970 

 



Peat Swamp Forest – Virgin Forest 

 

6



 

Peat Swamp Forest – Logged-over 

 

State Land Forest Inland Forest 



 

State Land Forest Peat Swamp Forest 



 

Protection Forest 



 

No regular forest inventory is carried out in Sabah or Sarawak.  However, information 

on the location of primary/natural forest is available on a piecemeal basis.  In Sabah, 

extensive aerial-photo interpretation work between 2002-2005 resulted in an online 

database of protection forest reserves (CAIMS) which includes information on 

vegetation type and extent of disturbance in these protected areas (but does not cover 

primary forests outside of these forest reserves).  This is freely available online but 

commercial application is not allowed and there would be extensive further 

processing in order to vectorise and geo-reference the existing raster maps. 

 

Furthermore, there are extensive areas of natural/primary forest which are outside the 



scope of CAIMS because they are in national parks and wildlife reserves (not forest 

reserves); but note that these areas are generally covered under the area type 

protected areas”, below. 

 

Between 1995 and 2000 GTZ carried out a project that involved setting up a forest 



resource assessment framework for the state forestry department.  However, this 

framework does not appear to have resulted in any published forest assessment or 

inventory.  There are indications that a forest habitat map was produced by the 

Sarawak Biodiversity Centre, however there is not publically available information on 

this map.  The only spatial information on the distribution of primary forest in 

Sarawak is a low-resolution image on the Forest Department website which 

distinguishes between various natural forest types and “shifting cultivation”. 

 

However, this map does not appear to distinguish between logged-over forest and 



primary forest.  Approaches to the Forest Department indicate that there are GIS 

ESRI shapefiles used to create this map, but these cannot be provided to outside 

agencies. 

 

Additional information on forest cover in Sabah and Sarawak can be found from 



Borneo-wide work carried out by Sarvision.  In particular, Sarvision plans to produce 

a forest and land cover map for Borneo in 2009/2010. This “PALSAR” project will 

have data to 15-25 m resolution and “PALSAR/MODIS” will have data to 50 m 

resolution (2007-2011).  This project is also looking at selected change hotspot areas 

and the data will be freely available through the Google Earth portal (E. Meijaard, 

pers. com.). 

 

2.2

 

Continuously wooded areas (tree cover percentages) – Article 5 

paragraph 2 

 

The various data sources for the area type “primary/natural forest”, above, give data 



on continuously forested areas which in the Malaysian context denotes an effective 

canopy cover of 100% (with the very rare exception of denuded mountain tops, rocky 

outcrops and water bodies). 

 

In addition, there are landuse maps for Peninsular Malaysia which give information 



on landcover which distinguishes between “forest” and “scrub”.  In particular, the 

 

7

landuse maps produced by the Department of Town and Country Planning provide 



high-resolution and up-to-date data that allows continuously wooded areas to be 

identified in Peninsular Malaysia.  In the Malaysian context “scrub” generally refers 

to areas with vegetation consisting mainly of brushwood or stunted forest as a result 

of forest clearance by fire or heavy logging.  In such instances, the canopy cover may 

be as low as 10-30%, however this is generally a temporary state, pending natural 

regeneration/vegetative succession. 

 

According our search, no similar maps are available for Sabah and Sarawak but the 



Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) of the National 

University of Singapore (NUS) recently appears to have produced a high-resolution 

landuse map that covers this region.  Our search did not reveal whether this data set is 

available commercially.   

 

The local data sources can be compared with an additional global data source - 



Sarvision – which produces landcover data in 23 classes and has a resolution of 50 m 

(which will be upgraded to 25 m).  This data has been used to produce land-cover 

maps for Kalimantan in Indonesia. 

 

 



2.3

 

Protected areas (Article 4 paragraph 4) 

 

Various data sources on “protected areas” from Malaysia are used in the World 



Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) of UNEP-WCMC.  However none of these 

sources are authoritative at present.  As a result a number of areas which are not 

protected areas are included in the WDPA and a number of Malaysian protected areas 

are not yet included.  This issue is addressed further in section 3.3 (below). 

 

The Danish Government funded a project in the 1990s to compile a spatial database 



on protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia.  This data set did not included protected 

areas inside forest reserves and was not entirely up-to-date even at the time.   

 

A comprehensive effort to update and expand the coverage of the data set is being 



coordinated by WWF-Malaysia under the Ministry of Natural Resources and 

Environment.  This data set would include all protected areas in Malaysia.  A first 

draft of this database has been compiled and WWF-Malaysia plans to present a formal 

report to key statkeholders by the end of 2009. 

 

For Sarawak, there is a comprehensive and up to date data set for protected areas (all 



of which come under the jurisdiction of the Forest Department).  This is occasionally 

published in raster format and GIS data should be available for officially sanctioned 

purposes.   

 

In Sabah, protected areas come under the jurisdiction of a multitude of agencies.  A 



master list of protected areas in the state was developed in 2006 which serves as a 

useful index in determining which reserves can be considered relevant.  In particular, 

this list can be used in conjunction with the consolidated GIS data sets which are 

maintained by the Town and Regional Planning Department.  These are available for 

officially sanctioned use – although they are not commercially available. 


 

8

 



In addition, a regional data set of protected areas was developed by the Asian Bureau 

of Conservation (Hong Kong) known as the Biological Information Management 

System.

1

 



2.4

 

Valuable ecosystems (Article 4 paragraph 4) 

 

By definition, all of the protected areas in Malaysia were selected for their role in 



protecting biodiversity.  Therefore, it is appropriate to refer to the data sets 

highlighted for the area type “protected areas”, above, in order to determine the 

location of valuable ecosystems in the context of Article 4, paragraph 4.  In addition, 

it is recognized that there are valuable ecosystems outside of protected areas that have 

been identified by various international initiatives such as Important Bird Areas, 

Global 200 Ecoregions and Global Biodiversity Hotspots.  No specific national data 

set is available that is comparable to these international initiatives.  

 

Mapping of high conservation value forest (HCVF) has been conducted for some 



individual forest management units (especially those which have been certified under 

the FSC and RSPO schemes such as Deramakot Forest Reserve in Sabah), and a state-

level evaluation was carried out for Sabah.

2

  However, no national-level HCVF map 



depicting valuable ecosystems has been published.  For Peninsular Malaysia an 

assessment of the extent of remaining ecosystems was carried out by the Department 

of Wild Life and National Parks (DWNP) in 2004.

3

   



 

The DWNP assessment did not make an explicit determination of the relative value of 

each ecosystem.  However, a combination of the degree of protection and the number 

of sites protected can be used to determine whether a particular ecosystem is 

considered threatened in the Malaysian context (i.e. meets the criteria for HCV3).  

Table 1, below, uses the 2004 DWNP data for this purpose. 

 

                         



1

   J. MacKinnon. 1997. Protected areas system review of the Indo‐Malayan realm. The Asian 

Bureau for Conservation Limited, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

 

2



   Anon. (2006). HCVF Definitions for Sabah: An interpretation of the Global HCVF Toolkit for use 

in Sabah, Malaysia. Draft 3: May 2006. Proforest Ltd., Oxford.

 

3



   DWNP.  (2004).  Using  an  ecological  model  to  assess  the  performance  of  a  protected  areas 

system at conserving biodiversity at the ecosystems level. Review of biodiversity in protected 



areas  in  Peninsular  Malaysia.  Department  of  Wildlife  and  National  Parks,  Kuala  Lumpur. 

February.  

 


 

9


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