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W

ATE R A ND

 R

IVER S


              

       COMMISSION

river r

estoration



Revegetation

Case studies from

south-west Western

Australia

August 1999

Report No. RR 5



W

ATER


& R

IVERS


C

OMMISSION

Hyatt Centre

3 Plain Street

East Perth

Western Australia 6004

Telephone (08) 9278 0300

Facsimile (08) 9278 0301



REVEGETATION

Case Studies from 

south-west Western A u s t r a l i a

Prepared by 

Linda Taman

Native Environmental Systems

jointly funded by

W

AT E R



& R

I V E R S

C

O M M I S S I O N



R

E P O RT


N

O

. RR5 



A

U G U S T

1 9 9 9

Natural HeritageTr u s t


This document was prepared by Linda Taman, Native

Environmental Systems. 

River Restoration Series co-ordination by Jodie Oates,

Water and Rivers Commission. 

Thanks to all groups and individuals who agreed to be

part  of  these  case  studies  and  assisted  in  their

compilation. 

Locality maps produced by Brett Harrison, Banksia

Environmental Mapping. 

This document has been jointly funded by the Natural

Heritage Trust and the Water and Rivers Commission.

A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s

Reference Details

i

The recommended reference for this publication is:



Water  and  Rivers  Commission  1999,  Revegetation: 

Case  Studies  from  south-west  Western  Australia. 

Water  and  Rivers  Commission  River  Restoration 

Report No. RR 5.

ISSN 1449-5147 [PDF]

ISBN 1-9-209-4706-X [PDF]

Text printed on recycled stock,

Cover, 220gsm Onyx Bright White Smooth

August 1999

Cover photo by Dr Luke Pen Margaret River 1994



Many Western Australian rivers are becoming degraded

as a result of human activity within and along waterways

and through the off-site effects of catchment land uses.

The erosion of foreshores and invasion of weeds and

feral animals are some of the more pressing problems.

Water quality in our rivers is declining with many

carrying excessive loads of nutrients and sediment and

in some cases contaminated with synthetic chemicals

and other pollutants. Many rivers in the south-west

region are also becoming increasingly saline. 

The Water and Rivers Commission is responsible for

coordinating the management of the state’s waterways.

Given that Western Australia has some 208 major rivers

with a combined length of over 25 000 km, management

can  only  be  achieved  through  the  development  of

partnerships between business, landowners, community

groups, local governments and the Western Australian

and Commonwealth Governments.

The Water and Rivers Commission is the lead agency for

the Waterways WA Program which is aimed at the

protection  and  enhancement  of  Western  A u s t r a l i a ’s

waterways through support for on-ground action. One of

these support functions is the development of river

restoration literature that will assist Local Government,

community groups and landholders to restore, protect

and manage waterways.

This document is part of an ongoing series of river

restoration literature aimed at providing a guide to the

nature,  rehabilitation  and  long-term  management  of

waterways in Western Australia. It is intended that the

series will undergo continuous development and review.

As part of this process any feedback on the series is

welcomed and may be directed to the Catchment and

Waterways Management Branch of the Water and Rivers

Commission.

F o r e w o r d

ii


C o n t e n t s

iii


1. Cleveland Creek ‘Yebwen’ Ongerup — Steve Newbey

...................................................1

1.1  Original Site Description.......................................................................................................................1

1.1.1  Ownership and Location.............................................................................................................1

1.1.2  Remnant vegetation.....................................................................................................................1

1.1.3  Weed Species ..............................................................................................................................1

1.2  Rehabilitation Managers........................................................................................................................2

1.3  Rehabilitation Works.............................................................................................................................2

1.3.1  Weed Control ..............................................................................................................................2

1.3.2  Revegetation................................................................................................................................2

1.4  Costings.................................................................................................................................................4

1.5  Outcomes...............................................................................................................................................4



2. Baignup Reserve, Bayswater — Bayswater Greenwork Regeneration

Technology, City of Bayswater and Ministry for Planning

...........................................5

2.1  Original Site Description.......................................................................................................................5

2.1.1  Ownership and Location.............................................................................................................5

2.1.2  Remnant vegetation.....................................................................................................................6

2.1.3  Weed Species ..............................................................................................................................6

2.2  Rehabilitation Managers........................................................................................................................6

2.3  Rehabilitation Works.............................................................................................................................6

2.3.1  Weed Control ..............................................................................................................................6

2.3.2  Revegetation................................................................................................................................7

2.4  Costings.................................................................................................................................................8

2.5  Outcomes...............................................................................................................................................8



3. Paterson St Drain, Paterson St Bayswater — The Bayswater

Intergrated Catchment Management Group

.......................................................................9

3.1  Original Site Description.......................................................................................................................9

3.1.1  Ownership and Location.............................................................................................................9

3.1.2  Remnant vegetation.....................................................................................................................9

3.1.3  Weed Species ..............................................................................................................................9

3.2  Rehabilitation Managers......................................................................................................................10

3.3  Rehabilitation Works...........................................................................................................................10

3.3.1  Weed Control ............................................................................................................................10

3.3.2  Revegetation..............................................................................................................................11

3.4  Costings...............................................................................................................................................12

3.5  Outcomes.............................................................................................................................................12



4. Jane Brook — Hovea Ratepayers Association

..................................................................13

4.1  Original Site Description.....................................................................................................................13

4.1.1  Ownership and Location...........................................................................................................13

4.1.2  Remnant vegetation...................................................................................................................13

4.1.3  Weed Species ............................................................................................................................13

4.2  Rehabilitation Managers......................................................................................................................14


4.3  Rehabilitation Works...........................................................................................................................14

4.3.1  Weed Control ............................................................................................................................14

4.3.2  Revegetation..............................................................................................................................15

4.4  Costings...............................................................................................................................................16

4.5  Outcomes.............................................................................................................................................16

5. The Avon River, Toodyay — The Friends of the River

.................................................17

5.1  Original Site Description.....................................................................................................................17

5.1.1  Ownership and Location...........................................................................................................17

5.1.2  Remnant vegetation...................................................................................................................17

5.1.3  Weed Species ............................................................................................................................17

5.2  Rehabilitation Managers......................................................................................................................18

5.3  Rehabilitation Works...........................................................................................................................18

5.3.1  Weed Control ............................................................................................................................18

5.3.2  Revegetation..............................................................................................................................18

5.4  Costings...............................................................................................................................................18

5.5  Outcomes.............................................................................................................................................19



6. Mahogany Creek — Herbet Titelius

.....................................................................................20

6.1  Original Site Description.....................................................................................................................20

6.1.1  Ownership and Location...........................................................................................................20

6.1.2  Remnant vegetation...................................................................................................................20

6.1.3  Weed Species ............................................................................................................................20

6.2  Rehabilitation Managers......................................................................................................................21

6.3  Rehabilitation Works...........................................................................................................................21

6.3.1  Weed Control ............................................................................................................................21

6.3.2  Revegetation..............................................................................................................................21

6.4  Costings...............................................................................................................................................22

6.5  Outcomes.............................................................................................................................................22



7. Dampier Ave, Peel Inlet, Mandurah — Water and Rivers

Commission and the local community

...................................................................................23

7.1  Original Site Description.....................................................................................................................23

7.1.1  Ownership and Location...........................................................................................................23

7.1.2  Remnant vegetation...................................................................................................................23

7.1.3  Weed Species ............................................................................................................................23

7.2  Rehabilitation Managers......................................................................................................................24

7.3  Rehabilitation Works...........................................................................................................................24

7.3.1  Weed Control ............................................................................................................................24

7.3.2  Revegetation..............................................................................................................................24

7.4  Costings...............................................................................................................................................25

7.5  Outcomes.............................................................................................................................................25

iv


v

1.2 Rehabilitation Managers

Steve Newbey is one of the Gnowangerup Landcare

Coordinators, and has taken a deep interest in the

management of his own farm.  He has completed a plan

for the farm, and is now in the process of implementing

it.  Many thousands of trees have been planted across the

property, and Steve has improved on the methods he

uses each year through careful observation of what

succeeded and what didn’t.  Apart from replanting, Steve

has used many innovative ideas to improve the value of

his farm to the local wildlife.

His whole farm is registered with the Land For Wildlife

scheme, which is managed by CALM.  Under this

scheme, Steve receives free advice from the Land For

Wildlife officer and a newsletter on work being done on

other properties.  An ephemeral wetland located on the

property has been improved as a waterbird nesting site

by the creation of ‘islands’ built with old wooden fence

posts.  Last year Steve had Pacific Black Duck chicks

hatch in the wetland, and was delighted that they were

able to shelter within the nooks and crannies of the

island, safe from marauding foxes.

Steve has also created many wildlife corridors across the

farm, and has come up with an innovative scheme to

increase the use of the dams by wildlife while decreasing

his own costs.  Most dams on the farm are part of the

wildlife corridors, and are fenced across the front.  This

means that stock can only access the dam by climbing

over the back walls.  As a result, there is no funnelling

e ffect  from  stock  tracks  at  the  front  of  the  dam, 

resulting in less clean-outs of the dams (Steve estimates

that he will only need to clean the dams on average 

once every 50 years, as opposed to every 10-20 years 

for  an  unfenced  dam).    An  added  bonus  is  that 

wildlife can access the water supply in safety from the

vegetated corridor.



1.3 Rehabilitation Works

1.3.1 Weed Control

Steve uses a Chatfield Tree Planter to revegetate areas on

his farm, as he has found it gives good results.  The

machine scalps the area to be planted, removing weeds

and the stored seedbank.  This controls some weeds,

however Steve has found a problem with summer weeds

such  as  Wireweed  colonising  the  area  around  the

plantings.  So far he has resorted to a shovel to remove

the weeds prior to the summer, feeling that the use of

herbicide was too dangerous to the new plantings. 

Limited control of the grassy weeds is done, as Steve has

found that the summer weeds which colonise in their

place are more of a problem. 

1.3.2 Revegetation

The soil at Cleveland Creek consists of sandy loam, with

heavier clay layers beneath.  The area was shallow

ripped to prevent large clay clods being brought to the

surface.  Steve planted four rows of seedlings using the

Chatfield Tree Planter, spacing the plants 5m apart, and

separating rows by 6m. At the same time, the area is

direct seeded from the seedbox on the back of the

planter. The following year the area between each row

is direct seeded, resulting in eight rows.  The seedlings

are grown by local nurseries, often using the seed grown

on  Steve’s  property.  Only  shrubs  and  understorey

species are used in the revegetation, as Steve has found

that the larger trees tend to grow too quickly, shading out

the understorey and competing for water and nutrients.

The understorey is unable to successfully establish, 

and remains sparse and stunted.  Steve has found that 

the overstorey will come back naturally in time, after 

the shrub layer is well established.  If shade is required

in a certain area, Steve will hand plant a small number 

of trees.

The seeds which Steve uses for his direct seeding are

mainly collected by him on the property, to ensure local

provenance.  The seed mix consists of as many shrub and

understorey species as he can collect, mixed with the

sievings from the seed cleaning, which Steve prefers to

the bentonite clay often used to bulk up direct seeding.

The clay has a tendency to ‘tunnel’, sticking to the sides

of the seeding machine.

If  the  plantings  and  direct  seeding  are  reasonably

successful, Steve will do nothing but control summer

weeds  over  the  next  twelve  months.    Sometimes

plantings fail, affected by the amount and spread of

rainfall for the year, viability of seed, insect predation

and areas of different soil type.  If areas have remained

bare, they are direct seeded again the following year.

At Cleveland Creek, twenty-five species were planted or

seeded the first year, and as Steve became more familiar

with the vegetation on his property, fifty species were

used in the second year.

2


The following species are used in revegetation:

SEEDLINGS

Eucalyptus loxophleba

York Gum (hand planted only)



Melaleuca hamulosa

Melaleuca thyoides

Melaleuca cuticularis

Saltwater Paperbark



Casuarina obesa

Swamp Sheoak



DIRECT SEEDING

Acacia acuminata

Jam Wattle



Acacia cyclops

Coastal Wattle



Acacia declinata

Pallinup Gold



Acacia glaucoptera

Clay Wattle



Acacia harveyi

Acacia lasiocalyx

Granite Wattle



Acacia microbotrya

Manna Wattle



Acacia pulchella var glaberimma

Prickly Moses



Acacia redolens

Ongerup Wattle



Acacia saligna

Golden Wreath Wattle



Acacia uncinata

Weeping Wattle



Allocasuarina campestris

Tamma


Allocasuarina huegliana

Rock Oak


Callistemon phoeniceus

Lesser Bottlebrush



Calothamnus quadrifidus

One-sided Bottlebrush



Eucalyptus densa

Eucalyptus eremophila

Tall Sand Mallee



Eucalyptus flocktoniae (Mallee Form)

Merrit


Eucalyptus pluricaulis

Purple-leafed Mallee



Leptospermum erubescens

Tea Tree


Leptospermum oligandrum

Melaleuca acuminata

Scented Honey Myrtle



Melaleuca adnata

Melaleuca cucculata

Melaleuca cuticularis

Saltwater Paperbark



Melaleuca densa

Lemon Honey Myrtle



Melaleuca eleuterostachya

Melaleuca elliptica

Granite Bottlebrush



Melaleuca glaberrima

Mallee Honey Myrtle



Melaleuca halmaturorum ssp cymbifolia

Melaleuca hamulosa

Creekline Honey Myrtle



Melaleuca lateriflora

Melaleuca nesophila

Mindiyed


Melaleuca pauperiflora

Boree


Melaleuca pentagonia

Melaleuca sapientes

3


In addition to the above species Steve collected seed

from many species which he has not yet been able to

identify. There appears to be a large diversity in the

seedlings which have germinated from seed, however it

has not yet been possible to identify which species have

been the most successful.  Steve is hopeful that with time

more of the seed will germinate, adding to the diversity.

The planted seedlings at Cleveland creek also appear to

have survived well, with about a 75% survival rate.



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