Cashcrop Halophytes, T: vs volume Nr. 38 Halophyte Database Vers. 0 on cd

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HALOPHYTE Database Vers. 2.0 update
Uwe Menzel and Helmut Lieth


Cashcrop Halophytes , T:VS volume Nr. 38 I


Cashcrop Halophytes , T:VS volume Nr. 38

Halophyte Database Vers. 2.0 on CD

Uwe Menzel and Helmut Lieth

The interest in halophyte plants has grown during recent years. Their potential as useful plants as proposed by the members of the Cocerted Action "Sustainable utilisation of halophytes" of the European Community (see Lieth and Moschenko 1998) has triggered research especially in regions with a shortage of freshwater and a need for an increase in fodder production or landscape protection. There are more than 2000 higher plants known worldwide to possess some salinity tolerance. The species occur in different regions of the world separated both geographically and by environmental parameters. For that reason the task arose to compile the most complete list of halophytes worldwide. This task was undertaken by the two authors.

Uwe Menzel has compiled several different lists during the last two years. First, he compiled all halophytes listed in the literature as crop plants or plants with other known uses. This list was published in Vol. 2 of the 1998 INTECOL report (Menzel and Lieth, 1999). Second, he evaluated all literature available on halophytic species so far. While doing this he discovered large differences in the number of species different authors were quoting as being halophytes. These collections are compiled in different forms on this CD.

A closer check revealed that different authors had quite differing opinions on the salinity tolerance which would qualify a species to be a halophyte.

Several authors had started the compilation of halophytes and added qualitative physiological information. Despite these very useful attempts it was found that many papers had shortcomings in distinguishing synonyms, geographical origin and physiological properties. Therefore we considered it necessary to start an authentic list of halophytes which could be used as a basic data bank for various properties of each individual halophytic species. This we found a necessary base for the development of pilot projects.

Here the second version of this data bank is presented with the desire to have this list double-checked for possible errors and/or for suggestions what property categories we should collect and what to add later.

The following lists contain over 2600 names of species which Uwe Menzel checked for synonyms and spelling errors. As nomenclature standard we used the Index Kewensis.

Families are also listed in alphabetical order and genera within families. Synonyms are listed behind the proper species name as they are listed in the Index Kewensis. See explanation below. The latest update took place in July 2003.

The source literature has been added following the tabulation. A numbering system has been used to cross-reference authors of papers with species.

We accepted a low level of salinity tolerance for species to qualify for inclusion in our list and we hope that in time we can add the salinity tolerance range for all species.

All readers and users of this list are kindly requested to report additional species or qualitative properties that should be added to the authors.

For initial searches we used the collection of Aronson, A. (1990) Haloph “A database of salt tolerant plants of the world“ and the papers quoted below.


Aronson, A. 1990. Haloph „A data base of salt tolerant plants of the world“. In: Pasternak, D. (eds.) Fodder production with saline water, Project report Jan. 1982 – Dec. 1989, BGUN-ARI-35-90.

Lampert, K. 1903. Vom Keim zum Leben. In: Günther, S. (ed.) Bücher der Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 15. Leipzig, Philipp Reclam jun.
Lieth, H.; Moschenko, M. (eds.) 1998. Short activity report for the period 15.7.1997-15.1.1998 of the EU concerted action IC18CT96-0055 „Sustainable halophyte utilisation in the Mediterranean and subtropical dry regions“, USF, University of Osnabrück, 66+6pp.
Menzel, U.; Lieth, H. 1999. Tabulation of Halophytes reported as utilized in different publications and handbooks. In: Hamdy, A.; Lieth, H.; Todorović, M.; Moschenko, M. (eds.): Halophyte uses in different climates. Vol. 2. Progress in Biometeorology 14, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands, 127-133.
Menzel, U.; Lieth, H. 1999. Halophyte Database, 9-168 In: Lieth, H.; Hamdy, A.(eds.); Saline irrigation: Halophyte production and utilization. Agadir, Morocco.

Contents of the three colums

The data base is structured in three columns

Column 1 contains taxonomic information according to entries taken from Index Kewensis, see reference number 473. Plants with * are not in the Index.

Column 2 provides the highest reported salinity tolerance level in ‰ salinity for species where this value was found in the literature. Value with * = Chloride in rootarea.

Colume 3 gives the reference number under which the relevant author and / or paper can be found in the reference list.
The literature number 473 is the Index Kewensis. When a plant has only this number, then we have found only the synonym.
The following chapter explains the difficulty to obtain the valid name among synonymes in the Index Kewensis for a name found in the literature.
The name Sesuvium sesuvioides leads according to the rules of the Index Kewensis to two other valid names which in turn lead again to other names. Since we cannot decide ourselves which is the valid name we enter this species under 3 different names as shown below.

Sesuvium sesuvioides {(Fenzl) Verd.} (Fenzl) Verdc.

= FICODIACEAE Diplochonium sesuvioides {Fenzl / = Trianthema hydaspica Edgew.}; { Wawra & Peyr. / = Sesuvium digynum Welw. ex Oliver }

Searching in the Index Kewensis

AIZOACEAE Sesuvium sesuvioides {(Fenzl) Verd. literature author is different from Index Kewensis author} (Fenzl) Verdc.

Under Sesuvium sesuvioides one finds in the Index the plant with the publ. author: (Fenzl) Verdc. with the remark Diplochonium sesuvioides in field notes. = FICODIACEAE Diplochonium sesuvioides; under D. s. you can find two plants, D. s. Fenzl and also D. s. Wawra & Peyr.; this means {Fenzl ... } and also { Wawra & Peyr. ...}

{Fenzl / = Trianthema hydaspica Edgew.}; { Wawra & Peyr. / = Sesuvium digynum Welw. ex Oliver}

{... / = means under the entry from D. s. under publ. author Fenzl one finds in notes: = Trianthema hydaspica and under D. s. publ. author Wawra & Peyr. = Sesuvium digynum. Under the entry from T. h. you find now the publ. author Edgew. under S. d. the publ. author Welw. ex Oliver.

These data are taken from the Index Kewensis on Compact Disc. The data in their original form remain under copyright of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Record Type Spx

Vol/Supp S13



Species sesuvioides

Publ. Author (Fenzl) Verdc.

Publication in Kew Bull 1957, 349 (1957)

Notes =Diplochonium sesuvioides.
Record Type Spx Record Type Spx

Vol/Supp OV1F2 Vol/Supp OV1F2



Species sesuvioides Species sesuvioides

Publ. Author Fenzl, Publ. Author Wawra & Peyr.

Publication Nov. Stirp. Dec. 58 (1839) Publication Sert. Beng. 24

Notes =Trianthema hydaspica. Notes =Sesuvium digynum.

Record Type Spx Record Type Spx

Vol/Supp OV2F4 Vol/Supp OV2F4



Species hydaspica Species digynum

Publ. Author Edgew. Publ. Author Welw. ex Oliver,

Publication in Journ. Linn. Soc. Publication Fl. Trop. Afr. ii.

vi. (1862) 203. 586

Notes Ind. or.; Afr. trop. Notes Afr. trop.

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