A number of terms will be used quite frequently in the dissection exercises. These
Some of these terms (anterior, distal, dorsal, lateral, medial, posterior, proximal, and
the stomach, it does not mean that you will find the diaphragm at the anterior end of the
organism. It means that, once you find the stomach, you will find the diaphragm on the
anterior side of the stomach, i.e. the side closest to the anterior end of the animal.
anterior -- the head end of an animal, or in that direction. (e.g. on the pig, the front
cross section (c.s., t.s., x.s.) -- cut at right angles to the long axis of a structure or
distal -- the part of an organ or limb that is furthest from the origin or point
of attachment. (E.g. the fingers are distal to the wrist.)
dorsal -- the back or upper side of an animal, or in that direction. (e.g. the vertebral
lateral -- the side, or toward the side.
left -- the organism's left.
longitudinal section -- a cut along the long axis of a structure or organism.
medial or median -- on or toward the midline of the organism.
posterior -- the tail end of an animal, or in that direction.
proximal -- the part of an organ or limb that is nearest the origin or point
of attachment. (the wrist is proximal to the fingers)
right -- the organism's right.
ventral -- the underside of an animal, or in that direction. (e.g. the heart is ventral to