|Beasts of England
. The other animals sitting round her took it up, and they sang it three times over−very
tunefully, but slowly and mournfully, in a way they had never sung it before.
They had just finished singing it for the third time when Squealer, attended by two dogs, approached them
with the air of having something important to say. He announced that, by a special decree of Comrade
Napoleon, Beasts of England had been abolished. From now onwards it was forbidden to sing it.
The animals were taken aback.
"Why?" cried Muriel.
"It's no longer needed, comrade," said Squealer stiffly. "Beasts of England was the song of the Rebellion. But
the Rebellion is now completed. The execution of the traitors this afternoon was the final act. The enemy
both external and internal has been defeated. In Beasts of England we expressed our longing for a better
society in days to come. But that society has now been established. Clearly this song has no longer any
Frightened though they were, some of the animals might possibly have protested, but at this moment the
sheep set up their usual bleating of "Four legs good, two legs bad," which went on for several minutes and
put an end to the discussion.
So Beasts of England was heard no more. In its place Minimus, the poet, had composed another song which
Animal Farm, Animal Farm,
Never through me shalt thou come to harm!
and this was sung every Sunday morning after the hoisting of the flag. But somehow neither the words nor
the tune ever seemed to the animals to come up to Beasts of England.
days later, when the terror caused by the executions had died down, some of the animals
remembered−or thought they remembered−that the Sixth Commandment decreed "No animal shall kill any
other animal." And though no one cared to mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was felt that the
killings which had taken place did not square with this. Clover asked Benjamin to read her the Sixth
Commandment, and when Benjamin, as usual, said that he refused to meddle in such matters, she fetched
Muriel. Muriel read the Commandment for her. It ran: "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause."
Somehow or other, the last two words had slipped out of the animals' memory. But they saw now that the
Commandment had not been violated; for clearly there was good reason for killing the traitors who had
leagued themselves with Snowball.
Throughout the year the animals worked even harder than they had worked in the previous year To rebuild
the windmill, with walls twice as thick as before, and to finish it by the appointed date, together with the
regular work of the farm, was a tremendous labour. There were times when it seemed to the animals that they
worked longer hours and fed no better than they had done in Jones's day. On Sunday mornings Squealer,
holding down a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of figures proving that the
production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred per cent, three hundred per cent, or five
hundred per cent, as the case might be. The animals saw no reason to disbelieve him, especially as they could
no longer remember very clearly what conditions had been like before the Rebellion. All the same, there were
days when they felt that they would sooner have had less figures and more food.
All orders were now issued through Squealer or one of the other pigs. Napoleon himself was not seen in
public as often as once in a fortnight. When he did appear, he was attended not only by his retinue of dogs but
by a black cockerel who marched in front of him and acted as a kind of trumpeter, letting out a loud
"cock−a−doodle−doo" before Napoleon spoke. Even in the farmhouse, it was said, Napoleon inhabited
separate apartments from the others. He took his meals alone, with two dogs to wait upon him, and always ate
from the Crown Derby dinner service which had been in the glass cupboard in the drawing−room. It was also
announced that the gun would be fired every year on Napoleon's birthday, as well as on the other two
Napoleon was now never spoken of simply as "Napoleon." He was always referred to in formal style as "our
Leader, Comrade Napoleon," and this pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of All Animals, Terror
of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep−fold, Ducklings' Friend, and the like. In his speeches, Squealer would
talk with the tears rolling down his cheeks of Napoleon's wisdom the goodness of his heart, and the deep love
he bore to all animals everywhere, even and especially the unhappy animals who still lived in ignorance and
slavery on other farms. It had become usual to give Napoleon the credit for every successful achievement and
every stroke of good fortune. You would often hear one hen remark to another, "Under the guidance of our
Leader, Comrade Napoleon, I have laid five eggs in six days"; or two cows, enjoying a drink at the pool,
would exclaim, "Thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon, how excellent this water tastes!" The
general feeling on the farm was well expressed in a poem entitled Comrade Napoleon, which was composed
by Minimus and which ran as follows:
Friend of fatherless!
Fountain of happiness!
Lord of the swill−bucket! Oh, how my soul is on
Fire when I gaze at thy
Calm and commanding eye,
Like the sun in the sky,
Thou are the giver of
All that thy creatures love,
Full belly twice a day, clean straw to roll upon;
Every beast great or small
Sleeps at peace in his stall,
Thou watchest over all,
Had I a sucking−pig,
Ere he had grown as big
Even as a pint bottle or as a rolling−pin,
He should have learned to be
Faithful and true to thee,
Yes, his first squeak should be
Napoleon approved of this poem and caused it to be inscribed on the wall of the big barn, at the opposite end
from the Seven Commandments. It was surmounted by a portrait of Napoleon, in profile, executed by
Squealer in white paint.
Meanwhile, through the agency of Whymper, Napoleon was engaged in complicated negotiations with
Frederick and Pilkington. The pile of timber was still unsold. Of the two, Frederick was the more anxious to
get hold of it, but he would not offer a reasonable price. At the same time there were renewed rumours that
Frederick and his men were plotting to attack Animal Farm and to destroy the windmill, the building of
which had aroused furious jealousy in him. Snowball was known to be still skulking on Pinchfield Farm. In
the middle of the summer the animals were alarmed to hear that three hens had come forward and confessed
that, inspired by Snowball, they had entered into a plot to murder Napoleon. They were executed
immediately, and fresh precautions for Napoleon's safety were taken. Four dogs guarded his bed at night, one
at each corner, and a young pig named Pinkeye was given the task of tasting all his food before he ate it, lest
it should be poisoned.
At about the same time it was given out that Napoleon had arranged to sell the pile of timber to Mr.
Pilkington; he was also going to enter into a regular agreement for the exchange of certain products between
Animal Farm and Foxwood. The relations between Napoleon and Pilkington, though they were only
conducted through Whymper, were now almost friendly. The animals distrusted Pilkington, as a human
being, but greatly preferred him to Frederick, whom they both feared and hated. As the summer wore on, and
the windmill neared completion, the rumours of an impending treacherous attack grew stronger and stronger.
Frederick, it was said, intended to bring against them twenty men all armed with guns, and he had already
bribed the magistrates and police, so that if he could once get hold of the title−deeds of Animal Farm they
would ask no questions. Moreover, terrible stories were leaking out from Pinchfield about the cruelties that
Frederick practised upon his animals. He had flogged an old horse to death, he starved his cows, he had killed
a dog by throwing it into the furnace, he amused himself in the evenings by making cocks fight with splinters
of razor−blade tied to their spurs. The animals' blood boiled with rage when they heard of these things
beingdone to their comrades, and sometimes they clamoured to be allowed to go out in a body and attack
Pinchfield Farm, drive out the humans, and set the animals free. But Squealer counselled them to avoid rash
actions and trust in Comrade Napoleon's strategy.
Nevertheless, feeling against Frederick continued to run high. One Sunday morning Napoleon appeared in the
barn and explained that he had never at any time contemplated selling the pile of timber to Frederick; he
considered it beneath his dignity, he said, to have dealings with scoundrels of that description. The pigeons
who were still sent out to spread tidings of the Rebellion were forbidden to set foot anywhere on Foxwood,
and were also ordered to drop their former slogan of "Death to Humanity" in favour of "Death to Frederick."
In the late summer yet another of Snowball's machinations was laid bare. The wheat crop was full of weeds,
and it was discovered that on one of his nocturnal visits Snowball had mixed weed seeds with the seed corn.
A gander who had been privy to the plot had confessed his guilt to Squealer and immediately committed
suicide by swallowing deadly nightshade berries. The animals now also learned that Snowball had never−as
many of them had believed hitherto−received the order of "Animal Hero7 First Class." This was merely a
legend which had been spread some time after the Battle of the Cowshed by Snowball himself. So far from
being decorated, he had been censured for showing cowardice in the battle. Once again some of the animals
heard this with a certain bewilderment, but Squealer was soon able to convince them that their memories had
been at fault.
In the autumn, by a tremendous, exhausting effort−for the harvest had to be gathered at almost the same
time−the windmill was finished. The machinery had still to be installed, and Whymper was negotiating the
purchase of it, but the structure was completed. In the teeth of every difficulty, in spite of inexperience, of
primitive implements, of bad luck and of Snowball's treachery, the work had been finished punctually to the
very day! Tired out but proud, the animals walked round and round their masterpiece, which appeared even
more beautiful in their eyes than when it had been built the first time. Moreover, the walls were twice as thick
as before. Nothing short of explosives would lay them low this time! And when they thought of how they had
laboured, what discouragements they had overcome, and the enormous difference that would be made in their
lives when the sails were turning and the dynamos running−when they thought of all this, their tiredness
forsook them and they gambolled round and round the windmill, uttering cries of triumph. Napoleon himself,
attended by his dogs and his cockerel, came down to inspect the completed work; he personally congratulated
the animals on their achievement, and announced that the mill would be named Napoleon Mill.
Two days later the animals were called together for a special meeting in the barn. They were struck dumb
with surprise when Napoleon announced that he had sold the pile of timber to Frederick. Tomorrow
Frederick's wagons would arrive and begin carting it away. Throughout the whole period of his seeming
friendship with Pilkington, Napoleon had really been in secret agreement with Frederick.
All relations with Foxwood had been broken off; insulting messages had been sent to Pilkington. The pigeons
had been told to avoid Pinchfield Farm and to alter their slogan from "Death to Frederick" to "Death to
Pilkington." At the same time Napoleon assured the animals that the stories of an impending attack on
Animal Farm were completely untrue, and that the tales about Frederick's cruelty to his own animals had
been greatly exaggerated. All these rumours had probably originated with Snowball and his agents. It now
appeared that Snowball was not, after all, hiding on Pinchfield Farm, and in fact had never been there in his
life: he was living−in considerable luxury, so it was said−at Foxwood, and had in reality been a pensioner of
Pilkington for years past.
The pigs were in ecstasies over Napoleon's cunning. By seeming to be friendly with Pilkington he had forced
Frederick to raise his price by twelve pounds. But the superior quality of Napoleon's mind, said Squealer, was
shown in the fact that he trusted nobody, not even Frederick. Frederick had wanted to pay for the timber with
something called a cheque, which, it seemed, was a piece of paper with a promise to pay written upon it. But
Napoleon was too clever for him. He had demanded payment in real five−pound notes, which were to be
handed over before the timber was removed. Already Frederick had paid up; and the sum he had paid was
just enough to buy the machinery for the windmill.
Meanwhile the timber was being carted away at high speed. When it was all gone, another special meeting
was held in the barn for the animals to inspect Frederick's bank−notes. Smiling beatifically, and wearing both
his decorations, Napoleon reposed on a bed of straw on the platform, with the money at his side, neatly piled
on a china dish from the farmhouse kitchen. The animals filed slowly past, and each gazed his fill. And Boxer
put out his nose to sniff at the bank−notes, and the flimsy white things stirred and rustled in his breath.
Three days later there was a terrible hullabaloo. Whymper, his face deadly pale, came racing up the path on
his bicycle, flung it down in the yard and rushed straight into the farmhouse. The next moment a choking roar
of rage sounded from Napoleon's apartments. The news of what had happened sped round the farm like
wildfire. The banknotes were forgeries! Frederick had got the timber for nothing!
Napoleon called the animals together immediately and in a terrible voice pronounced the death sentence upon
Frederick. When captured, he said, Frederick should be boiled alive. At the same time he warned them that
after this treacherous deed the worst was to be expected. Frederick and his men might make their
long−expected attack at any moment. Sentinels were placed at all the approaches to the farm. In addition,
four pigeons were sent to Foxwood with a conciliatory message, which it was hoped might re−establish good
relations with Pilkington.
The very next morning the attack came. The animals were at breakfast when the look−outs came racing in
with the news that Frederick and his followers had already come through the five−barred gate. Boldly enough
the animals sallied forth to meet them, but this time they did not have the easy victory that they had had in the
Battle of the Cowshed. There were fifteen men, with half a dozen guns between them, and they opened fire as
soon as they got within fifty yards. The animals could not face the terrible explosions and the stinging pellets,
and in spite of the efforts of Napoleon and Boxer to rally them, they were soon driven back. A number of
them were already wounded. They took refuge in the farm buildings and peeped cautiously out from chinks
and knot−holes. The whole of the big pasture, including the windmill, was in the hands of the enemy. For the
moment even Napoleon seemed at a loss. He paced up and down without a word, his tail rigid and twitching.
Wistful glances were sent in the direction of Foxwood. If Pilkington and his men would help them, the day
might yet be won. But at this moment the four pigeons, who had been sent out on the day before, returned,
one of them bearing a scrap of paper from Pilkington. On it was pencilled the words: "Serves you right."
Meanwhile Frederick and his men had halted about the windmill. The animals watched them, and a murmur
of dismay went round. Two of the men had produced a crowbar and a sledge hammer. They were going to
knock the windmill down.
"Impossible!" cried Napoleon. "We have built the walls far too thick for that. They could not knock it down
in a week. Courage, comrades!"
But Benjamin was watching the movements of the men intently. The two with the hammer and the crowbar
were drilling a hole near the base of the windmill. Slowly, and with an air almost of amusement, Benjamin
nodded his long muzzle.
"I thought so," he said. "Do you not see what they are doing? In another moment they are going to pack
blasting powder into that hole."
Terrified, the animals waited. It was impossible now to venture out of the shelter of the buildings. After a few
minutes the men were seen to be running in all directions. Then there was a deafening roar. The pigeons
swirled into the air, and all the animals, except Napoleon, flung themselves flat on their bellies and hid their
faces. When they got up again, a huge cloud of black smoke was hanging where the windmill had been.
Slowly the breeze drifted it away. The windmill had ceased to exist!
At this sight the animals' courage returned to them. The fear and despair they had felt a moment earlier were
drowned in their rage against this vile, contemptible act. A mighty cry for vengeance went up, and without
waiting for further orders they charged forth in a body and made straight for the enemy. This time they did
not heed the cruel pellets that swept over them like hail. It was a savage, bitter battle. The men fired again
and again, and, when the animals got to close quarters, lashed out with their sticks and their heavy boots. A
cow, three sheep, and two geese were killed, and nearly everyone was wounded. Even Napoleon, who was
directing operations from the rear, had the tip of his tail chipped by a pellet. But the men did not go unscathed
either. Three of them had their heads broken by blows from Boxer's hoofs; another was gored in the belly by
a cow's horn; another had his trousers nearly torn off by Jessie and Bluebell. And when the nine dogs of
Napoleon's own bodyguard, whom he had instructed to make a detour under cover of the hedge, suddenly
appeared on the men's flank, baying ferociously, panic overtook them. They saw that they were in danger of
being surrounded. Frederick shouted to his men to get out while the going was good, and the next moment
the cowardly enemy was running for dear life. The animals chased them right down to the bottom of the field,
and got in some last kicks at them as they forced their way through the thorn hedge.
They had won, but they were weary and bleeding. Slowly they began to limp back towards the farm. The
sight of their dead comrades stretched upon the grass moved some of them to tears. And for a little while they
halted in sorrowful silence at the place where the windmill had once stood. Yes, it was gone; almost the last
trace of their labour was gone! Even the foundations were partially destroyed. And in rebuilding it they could
not this time, as before, make use of the fallen stones. This time the stones had vanished too. The force of the
explosion had flung them to distances of hundreds of yards. It was as though the windmill had never been.
As they approached the farm Squealer, who had unaccountably been absent during the fighting, came
skipping towards them, whisking his tail and beaming with satisfaction. And the animals heard, from the
direction of the farm buildings, the solemn booming of a gun.
"What is that gun firing for?" said Boxer.
"To celebrate our victory!" cried Squealer.
"What victory?" said Boxer. His knees were bleeding, he had lost a shoe and split his hoof, and a dozen
pellets had lodged themselves in his hind leg.
"What victory, comrade? Have we not driven the enemy off our soil−the sacred soil of Animal Farm? "
"But they have destroyed the windmill. And we had worked on it for two years!"
"What matter? We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills if we feel like it. You do not
appreciate, comrade, the mighty thing that we have done. The enemy was in occupation of this very ground
that we stand upon. And now−thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon−we have won every inch of it
"Then we have won back what we had before," said Boxer.
"That is our victory," said Squealer.
They limped into the yard. The pellets under the skin of Boxer's leg smarted painfully. He saw ahead of him
the heavy labour of rebuilding the windmill from the foundations, and already in imagination he braced
himself for the task. But for the first time it occurred to him that he was eleven years old and that perhaps his
great muscles were not quite what they had once been.
But when the animals saw the green flag flying, and heard the gun firing again−seven times it was fired in
all−and heard the speech that Napoleon made, congratulating them on their conduct, it did seem to them after
all that they had won a great victory. The animals slain in the battle were given a solemn funeral. Boxer and
Clover pulled the wagon which served as a hearse, and Napoleon himself walked at the head of the
procession. Two whole days were given over to celebrations. There were songs, speeches, and more firing of
the gun, and a special gift of an apple was bestowed on every animal, with two ounces of corn for each bird
and three biscuits for each dog. It was announced that the battle would be called the Battle of the Windmill,
and that Napoleon had created a new decoration, the Order of the Green Banner, which he had conferred
upon himself. In the general rejoicings the unfortunate affair of the banknotes was forgotten.
It was a few days later than this that the pigs came upon a case of whisky in the cellars of the farmhouse. It
had been overlooked at the time when the house was first occupied. That night there came from the
farmhouse the sound of loud singing, in which, to everyone's surprise, the strains of Beasts of England were
mixed up. At about half past nine Napoleon, wearing an old bowler hat of Mr. Jones's, was distinctly seen to
emerge from the back door, gallop rapidly round the yard, and disappear indoors again. But in the morning a
deep silence hung over the farmhouse. Not a pig appeared to be stirring. It was nearly nine o'clock when
Squealer made his appearance, walking slowly and dejectedly, his eyes dull, his tail hanging limply behind
him, and with every appearance of being seriously ill. He called the animals together and told them that he
had a terrible piece of news to impart. Comrade Napoleon was dying!
A cry of lamentation went up. Straw was laid down outside the doors of the farmhouse, and the animals
walked on tiptoe. With tears in their eyes they asked one another what they should do if their Leader were
taken away from them. A rumour went round that Snowball had after all contrived to introduce poison into
Napoleon's food. At eleven o'clock Squealer came out to make another announcement. As his last act upon
earth, Comrade Napoleon had pronounced a solemn decree: the drinking of alcohol was to be punished by
By the evening, however, Napoleon appeared to be somewhat better, and the following morning Squealer
was able to tell them that he was well on the way to recovery. By the evening of that day Napoleon was back
at work, and on the next day it was learned that he had instructed Whymper to purchase in Willingdon some
booklets on brewing and distilling. A week later Napoleon gave orders that the small paddock beyond the
orchard, which it had previously been intended to set aside as a grazing−ground for animals who were past
work, was to be ploughed up. It was given out that the pasture was exhausted and needed re−seeding; but it
soon became known that Napoleon intended to sow it with barley.
About this time there occurred a strange incident which hardly anyone was able to understand. One night at
about twelve o'clock there was a loud crash in the yard, and the animals rushed out of their stalls. It was a
moonlit night. At the foot of the end wall of the big barn, where the Seven Commandments were written,
there lay a ladder broken in two pieces. Squealer, temporarily stunned, was sprawling beside it, and near at
hand there lay a lantern, a paint−brush, and an overturned pot of white paint. The dogs immediately made a
ring round Squealer, and escorted him back to the farmhouse as soon as he was able to walk. None of the
animals could form any idea as to what this meant, except old Benjamin, who nodded his muzzle with a
knowing air, and seemed to understand, but would say nothing.
But a few days later Muriel, reading over the Seven Commandments to herself, noticed that there was yet
another of them which the animals had remembered wrong. They had thought the Fifth Commandment was
"No animal shall drink alcohol," but there were two words that they had forgotten. Actually the
Commandment read: "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess."
split hoof was a long time in healing. They had started the rebuilding of the windmill the day after
the victory celebrations were ended Boxer refused to take even a day off work, and made it a point of honour
not to let it be seen that he was in pain. In the evenings he would admit privately to Clover that the hoof
troubled him a great deal. Clover treated the hoof with poultices of herbs which she prepared by chewing
them, and both she and Benjamin urged Boxer to work less hard. "A horse's lungs do not last for ever," she
said to him. But Boxer would not listen. He had, he said, only one real ambition left−to see the windmill well
under way before he reached the age for retirement.
At the beginning, when the laws of Animal Farm were first formulated, the retiring age had been fixed for
horses and pigs at twelve, for cows at fourteen, for dogs at nine, for sheep at seven, and for hens and geese at
five. Liberal old−age pensions had been agreed upon. As yet no animal had actually retired on pension, but of
late the subject had been discussed more and more. Now that the small field beyond the orchard had been set
aside for barley, it was rumoured that a corner of the large pasture was to be fenced off and turned into a
grazing−ground for superannuated animals. For a horse, it was said, the pension would be five pounds of corn
a day and, in winter, fifteen pounds of hay, with a carrot or possibly an apple on public holidays. Boxer's
twelfth birthday was due in the late summer of the following year.
Meanwhile life was hard. The winter was as cold as the last one had been, and food was even shorter. Once
again all rations were reduced, except those of the pigs and the dogs. A too rigid equality in rations, Squealer
explained, would have been contrary to the principles of Animalism. In any case he had no difficulty in
proving to the other animals that they were not in reality short of food, whatever the appearances might be.
For the time being, certainly, it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations (Squealer always
spoke of it as a "readjustment," never as a "reduction"), but in comparison with the days of Jones, the
improvement was enormous. Reading out the figures in a shrill, rapid voice, he proved to them in detail that
they had more oats, more hay, more turnips than they had had in Jones's day, that they worked shorter hours,
that their drinking water was of better quality, that they lived longer, that a larger proportion of their young
ones survived infancy, and that they had more straw in their stalls and suffered less from fleas. The animals
believed every word of it. Truth to tell, Jones and all he stood for had almost faded out of their memories.
They knew that life nowadays was harsh and bare, that they were often hungry and often cold, and that they
were usually working when they were not asleep. But doubtless it had been worse in the old days. They were
glad to believe so. Besides, in those days they had been slaves and now they were free, and that made all the
difference, as Squealer did not fail to point out.
There were many more mouths to feed now. In the autumn the four sows had all littered about
simultaneously, producing thirty−one young pigs between them. The young pigs were piebald, and as
Napoleon was the only boar on the farm, it was possible to guess at their parentage. It was announced that
later, when bricks and timber had been purchased, a schoolroom would be built in the farmhouse garden. For
the time being, the young pigs were given their instruction by Napoleon himself in the farmhouse kitchen.
They took their exercise in the garden, and were discouraged from playing with the other young animals.
About this time, too, it was laid down as a rule that when a pig and any other animal met on the path, the
other animal must stand aside: and also that all pigs, of whatever degree, were to have the privilege of
wearing green ribbons on their tails on Sundays.
The farm had had a fairly successful year, but was still short of money. There were the bricks, sand, and lime
for the schoolroom to be purchased, and it would also be necessary to begin saving up again for the
machinery for the windmill. Then there were lamp oil and candles for the house, sugar for Napoleon's own
table (he forbade this to the other pigs, on the ground that it made them fat), and all the usual replacements
such as tools, nails, string, coal, wire, scrap−iron, and dog biscuits. A stump of hay and part of the potato
crop were sold off, and the contract for eggs was increased to six hundred a week, so that that year the hens
barely hatched enough chicks to keep their numbers at the same level. Rations, reduced in December, were
reduced again in February, and lanterns in the stalls were forbidden to save Oil. But the pigs seemed
comfortable enough, and in fact were putting on weight if anything. One afternoon in late February a warm,
rich, appetising scent, such as the animals had never smelt before, wafted itself across the yard from the little
brew−house, which had been disused in Jones's time, and which stood beyond the kitchen. Someone said it
was the smell of cooking barley. The animals sniffed the air hungrily and wondered whether a warm mash
was being prepared for their supper. But no warm mash appeared, and on the following Sunday it was
announced that from now onwards all barley would be reserved for the pigs. The field beyond the orchard
had already been sown with barley. And the news soon leaked out that every pig was now receiving a ration
of a pint of beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon himself, which was always served to him in the Crown
Derby soup tureen.
But if there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays had a greater
dignity than it had had before. There were more songs, more speeches, more processions. Napoleon had
commanded that once a week there should be held something called a Spontaneous Demonstration, the object
of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm. At the appointed time the animals
would leave their work and march round the precincts of the farm in military formation, with the pigs
leading, then the horses, then the cows, then the sheep, and then the poultry. The dogs flanked the procession
and at the head of all marched Napoleon's black cockerel. Boxer and Clover always carried between them a
green banner marked with the hoof and the horn and the caption, "Long live Comrade Napoleon! "
Afterwards there were recitations of poems composed in Napoleon's honour, and a speech by Squealer giving
particulars of the latest increases in the production of foodstuffs, and on occasion a shot was fired from the
gun. The sheep were the greatest devotees of the Spontaneous Demonstration, and if anyone complained (as a
few animals sometimes did, when no pigs or dogs were near) that they wasted time and meant a lot of
standing about in the cold, the sheep were sure to silence him with a tremendous bleating of "Four legs good,
two legs bad!" But by and large the animals enjoyed these celebrations. They found it comforting to be
reminded that, after all, they were truly their own masters and that the work they did was for their own
benefit. So that, what with the songs, the processions, Squealer's lists of figures, the thunder of the gun, the
crowing of the cockerel, and the fluttering of the flag, they were able to forget that their bellies were empty,
at least part of the time.
In April, Animal Farm was proclaimed a Republic, and it became necessary to elect a President. There was
only one candidate, Napoleon, who was elected unanimously. On the same day it was given out that fresh
documents had been discovered which revealed further details about Snowball's complicity with Jones. It
now appeared that Snowball had not, as the animals had previously imagined, merely attempted to lose the
Battle of the Cowshed by means of a stratagem, but had been openly fighting on Jones's side. In fact, it was
he who had actually been the leader of the human forces, and had charged into battle with the words "Long
live Humanity!" on his lips. The wounds on Snowball's back, which a few of the animals still remembered to
have seen, had been inflicted by Napoleon's teeth.
In the middle of the summer Moses the raven suddenly reappeared on the farm, after an absence of several
years. He was quite unchanged, still did no work, and talked in the same strain as ever about Sugarcandy
Mountain. He would perch on a stump, flap his black wings, and talk by the hour to anyone who would listen.
"Up there, comrades," he would say solemnly, pointing to the sky with his large beak−"up there, just on the
other side of that dark cloud that you can see−there it lies, Sugarcandy Mountain, that happy country where
we poor animals shall rest for ever from our labours!" He even claimed to have been there on one of his
higher flights, and to have seen the everlasting fields of clover and the linseed cake and lump sugar growing
on the hedges. Many of the animals believed him. Their lives now, they reasoned, were hungry and laborious;
was it not right and just that a better world should exist somewhere else? A thing that was difficult to
determine was the attitude of the pigs towards Moses. They all declared contemptuously that his stories about
Sugarcandy Mountain were lies, and yet they allowed him to remain on the farm, not working, with an
allowance of a gill of beer a day.
After his hoof had healed up, Boxer worked harder than ever. Indeed, all the animals worked like slaves that
year. Apart from the regular work of the farm, and the rebuilding of the windmill, there was the schoolhouse
for the young pigs, which was started in March. Sometimes the long hours on insufficient food were hard to
bear, but Boxer never faltered. In nothing that he said or did was there any sign that his strength was not what
it had been. It was only his appearance that was a little altered; his hide was less shiny than it had used to be,
and his great haunches seemed to have shrunken. The others said, "Boxer will pick up when the spring grass
comes on"; but the spring came and Boxer grew no fatter. Sometimes on the slope leading to the top of the
quarry, when he braced his muscles against the weight of some vast boulder, it seemed that nothing kept him
on his feet except the will to continue. At such times his lips were seen to form the words, "I will work
harder"; he had no voice left. Once again Clover and Benjamin warned him to take care of his health, but
Boxer paid no attention. His twelfth birthday was approaching. He did not care what happened so long as a
good store of stone was accumulated before he went on pension.
Late one evening in the summer, a sudden rumour ran round the farm that something had happened to Boxer.
He had gone out alone to drag a load of stone down to the windmill. And sure enough, the rumour was true.
A few minutes later two pigeons came racing in with the news: "Boxer has fallen! He is lying on his side and
can't get up!"
About half the animals on the farm rushed out to the knoll where the windmill stood. There lay Boxer,
between the shafts of the cart, his neck stretched out, unable even to raise his head. His eyes were glazed, his
sides matted with sweat. A thin stream of blood had trickled out of his mouth. Clover dropped to her knees at
"Boxer!" she cried, "how are you?"
"It is my lung," said Boxer in a weak voice. "It does not matter. I think you will be able to finish the windmill
without me. There is a pretty good store of stone accumulated. I had only another month to go in any case. To
tell you the truth, I had been looking forward to my retirement. And perhaps, as Benjamin is growing old too,
they will let him retire at the same time and be a companion to me."
"We must get help at once," said Clover. "Run, somebody, and tell Squealer what has happened."
All the other animals immediately raced back to the farmhouse to give Squealer the news. Only Clover
remained, and Benjamin7 who lay down at Boxer's side, and, without speaking, kept the flies off him with his
long tail. After about a quarter of an hour Squealer appeared, full of sympathy and concern. He said that
Comrade Napoleon had learned with the very deepest distress of this misfortune to one of the most loyal
workers on the farm, and was already making arrangements to send Boxer to be treated in the hospital at
Willingdon. The animals felt a little uneasy at this. Except for Mollie and Snowball, no other animal had ever
left the farm, and they did not like to think of their sick comrade in the hands of human beings. However,
Squealer easily convinced them that the veterinary surgeon in Willingdon could treat Boxer's case more
satisfactorily than could be done on the farm. And about half an hour later, when Boxer had somewhat
recovered, he was with difficulty got on to his feet, and managed to limp back to his stall, where Clover and
Benjamin had prepared a good bed of straw for him.
For the next two days Boxer remained in his stall. The pigs had sent out a large bottle of pink medicine which
they had found in the medicine chest in the bathroom, and Clover administered it to Boxer twice a day after
meals. In the evenings she lay in his stall and talked to him, while Benjamin kept the flies off him. Boxer
professed not to be sorry for what had happened. If he made a good recovery, he might expect to live another
three years, and he looked forward to the peaceful days that he would spend in the corner of the big pasture. It
would be the first time that he had had leisure to study and improve his mind. He intended, he said, to devote
the rest of his life to learning the remaining twenty−two letters of the alphabet.
However, Benjamin and Clover could only be with Boxer after working hours, and it was in the middle of the
day when the van came to take him away. The animals were all at work weeding turnips under the
supervision of a pig, when they were astonished to see Benjamin come galloping from the direction of the
farm buildings, braying at the top of his voice. It was the first time that they had ever seen Benjamin
excited−indeed, it was the first time that anyone had ever seen him gallop. "Quick, quick!" he shouted.
"Come at once! They're taking Boxer away!" Without waiting for orders from the pig, the animals broke off
work and raced back to the farm buildings. Sure enough, there in the yard was a large closed van, drawn by
two horses, with lettering on its side and a sly−looking man in a low−crowned bowler hat sitting on the
driver's seat. And Boxer's stall was empty.
The animals crowded round the van. "Good−bye, Boxer!" they chorused, "good−bye!"
"Fools! Fools!" shouted Benjamin, prancing round them and stamping the earth with his small hoofs. "Fools!
Do you not see what is written on the side of that van?"
That gave the animals pause, and there was a hush. Muriel began to spell out the words. But Benjamin
pushed her aside and in the midst of a deadly silence he read:
" 'Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer and Glue Boiler, Willingdon. Dealer in Hides and Bone−Meal.
Kennels Supplied.' Do you not understand what that means? They are taking Boxer to the knacker's! "
A cry of horror burst from all the animals. At this moment the man on the box whipped up his horses and the
van moved out of the yard at a smart trot. All the animals followed, crying out at the tops of their voices.
Clover forced her way to the front. The van began to gather speed. Clover tried to stir her stout limbs to a
gallop, and achieved a canter. "Boxer!" she cried. "Boxer! Boxer! Boxer!" And just at this moment, as though
he had heard the uproar outside, Boxer's face, with the white stripe down his nose, appeared at the small
window at the back of the van.
"Boxer!" cried Clover in a terrible voice. "Boxer! Get out! Get out quickly! They're taking you to your
All the animals took up the cry of "Get out, Boxer, get out!" But the van was already gathering speed and
drawing away from them. It was uncertain whether Boxer had understood what Clover had said. But a
moment later his face disappeared from the window and there was the sound of a tremendous drumming of
hoofs inside the van. He was trying to kick his way out. The time had been when a few kicks from Boxer's
hoofs would have smashed the van to matchwood. But alas! his strength had left him; and in a few moments
the sound of drumming hoofs grew fainter and died away. In desperation the animals began appealing to the
two horses which drew the van to stop. "Comrades, comrades!" they shouted. "Don't take your own brother to
his death! " But the stupid brutes, too ignorant to realise what was happening, merely set back their ears and
quickened their pace. Boxer's face did not reappear at the window. Too late, someone thought of racing ahead
and shutting the five−barred gate; but in another moment the van was through it and rapidly disappearing
down the road. Boxer was never seen again.
Three days later it was announced that he had died in the hospital at Willingdon, in spite of receiving every
attention a horse could have. Squealer came to announce the news to the others. He had, he said, been present
during Boxer's last hours.
"It was the most affecting sight I have ever seen!" said Squealer, lifting his trotter and wiping away a tear. "I
was at his bedside at the very last. And at the end, almost too weak to speak, he whispered in my ear that his
sole sorrow was to have passed on before the windmill was finished. 'Forward, comrades!' he whispered.
'Forward in the name of the Rebellion. Long live Animal Farm! Long live Comrade Napoleon! Napoleon is
always right.' Those were his very last words, comrades."
Here Squealer's demeanour suddenly changed. He fell silent for a moment, and his little eyes darted
suspicious glances from side to side before he proceeded.
It had come to his knowledge, he said, that a foolish and wicked rumour had been circulated at the time of
Boxer's removal. Some of the animals had noticed that the van which took Boxer away was marked "Horse
Slaughterer," and had actually jumped to the conclusion that Boxer was being sent to the knacker's. It was
almost unbelievable, said Squealer, that any animal could be so stupid. Surely, he cried indignantly, whisking
his tail and skipping from side to side, surely they knew their beloved Leader, Comrade Napoleon, better than
that? But the explanation was really very simple. The van had previously been the property of the knacker,
and had been bought by the veterinary surgeon, who had not yet painted the old name out. That was how the
mistake had arisen.
The animals were enormously relieved to hear this. And when Squealer went on to give further graphic
details of Boxer's death−bed, the admirable care he had received, and the expensive medicines for which
Napoleon had paid without a thought as to the cost, their last doubts disappeared and the sorrow that they felt
for their comrade's death was tempered by the thought that at least he had died happy.
Napoleon himself appeared at the meeting on the following Sunday morning and pronounced a short oration
in Boxer's honour. It had not been possible, he said, to bring back their lamented comrade's remains for
interment on the farm, but he had ordered a large wreath to be made from the laurels in the farmhouse garden
and sent down to be placed on Boxer's grave. And in a few days' time the pigs intended to hold a memorial
banquet in Boxer's honour. Napoleon ended his speech with a reminder of Boxer's two favourite maxims, "I
will work harder" and "Comrade Napoleon is always right"−maxims, he said, which every animal would do
well to adopt as his own.
On the day appointed for the banquet, a grocer's van drove up from Willingdon and delivered a large wooden
crate at the farmhouse. That night there was the sound of uproarious singing, which was followed by what
sounded like a violent quarrel and ended at about eleven o'clock with a tremendous crash of glass. No one
stirred in the farmhouse before noon on the following day, and the word went round that from somewhere or
other the pigs had acquired the money to buy themselves another case of whisky.
passed. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by. A time came when there was no
one who remembered the old days before the Rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a
number of the pigs.
Muriel was dead; Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher were dead. Jones too was dead−he had died in an inebriates'
home in another part of the country. Snowball was forgotten. Boxer was forgotten, except by the few who
had known him. Clover was an old stout mare now, stiff in the joints and with a tendency to rheumy eyes.
She was two years past the retiring age, but in fact no animal had ever actually retired. The talk of setting
aside a corner of the pasture for superannuated animals had long since been dropped. Napoleon was now a
mature boar of twenty−four stone. Squealer was so fat that he could with difficulty see out of his eyes. Only
old Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and, since Boxer's
death, more morose and taciturn than ever.
There were many more creatures on the farm now, though the increase was not so great as had been expected
in earlier years. Many animals had been born to whom the Rebellion was only a dim tradition, passed on by
word of mouth, and others had been bought who had never heard mention of such a thing before their arrival.
The farm possessed three horses now besides Clover. They were fine upstanding beasts, willing workers and
good comrades, but very stupid. None of them proved able to learn the alphabet beyond the letter B. They
accepted everything that they were told about the Rebellion and the principles of Animalism, especially from
Clover, for whom they had an almost filial respect; but it was doubtful whether they understood very much of
The farm was more prosperous now, and better organised: it had even been enlarged by two fields which had
been bought from Mr. Pilkington. The windmill had been successfully completed at last, and the farm
possessed a threshing machine and a hay elevator of its own, and various new buildings had been added to it.
Whymper had bought himself a dogcart. The windmill, however, had not after all been used for generating
electrical power. It was used for milling corn, and brought in a handsome money profit. The animals were
hard at work building yet another windmill; when that one was finished, so it was said, the dynamos would
be installed. But the luxuries of which Snowball had once taught the animals to dream, the stalls with electric
light and hot and cold water, and the three−day week, were no longer talked about. Napoleon had denounced
such ideas as contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The truest happiness, he said, lay in working hard and
Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any
richer−except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs. Perhaps this was partly because there were so many pigs
and so many dogs. It was not that these creatures did not work, after their fashion. There was, as Squealer
was never tired of explaining, endless work in the supervision and organisation of the farm. Much of this
work was of a kind that the other animals were too ignorant to understand. For example, Squealer told them
that the pigs had to expend enormous labours every day upon mysterious things called "files," "reports,"
"minutes," and "memoranda." These were large sheets of paper which had to be closely covered with writing,
and as soon as they were so covered, they were burnt in the furnace. This was of the highest importance for
the welfare of the farm, Squealer said. But still, neither pigs nor dogs produced any food by their own labour;
and there were very many of them, and their appetites were always good.
As for the others, their life, so far as they knew, was as it had always been. They were generally hungry, they
slept on straw, they drank from the pool, they laboured in the fields; in winter they were troubled by the cold,
and in summer by the flies. Sometimes the older ones among them racked their dim memories and tried to
determine whether in the early days of the Rebellion, when Jones's expulsion was still recent, things had been
better or worse than now. They could not remember. There was nothing with which they could compare their
present lives: they had nothing to go upon except Squealer's lists of figures, which invariably demonstrated
that everything was getting better and better. The animals found the problem insoluble; in any case, they had
little time for speculating on such things now. Only old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of his
long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse−hunger,
hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, the unalterable law of life.
And yet the animals never gave up hope. More, they never lost, even for an instant, their sense of honour and
privilege in being members of Animal Farm. They were still the only farm in the whole county−in all
England!−owned and operated by animals. Not one of them, not even the youngest, not even the newcomers
who had been brought from farms ten or twenty miles away, ever ceased to marvel at that. And when they
heard the gun booming and saw the green flag fluttering at the masthead, their hearts swelled with
imperishable pride, and the talk turned always towards the old heroic days, the expulsion of Jones, the writing
of the Seven Commandments, the great battles in which the human invaders had been defeated. None of the
old dreams had been abandoned. The Republic of the Animals which Major had foretold, when the green
fields of England should be untrodden by human feet, was still believed in. Some day it was coming: it might
not be soon, it might not be with in the lifetime of any animal now living, but still it was coming. Even the
tune of Beasts of England was perhaps hummed secretly here and there: at any rate, it was a fact that every
animal on the farm knew it, though no one would have dared to sing it aloud. It might be that their lives were
hard and that not all of their hopes had been fulfilled; but they were conscious that they were not as other
animals. If they went hungry, it was not from feeding tyrannical human beings; if they worked hard, at least
they worked for themselves. No creature among them went upon two legs. No creature called any other
creature "Master." All animals were equal.
One day in early summer Squealer ordered the sheep to follow him, and led them out to a piece of waste
ground at the other end of the farm, which had become overgrown with birch saplings. The sheep spent the
whole day there browsing at the leaves under Squealer's supervision. In the evening he returned to the
farmhouse himself, but, as it was warm weather, told the sheep to stay where they were. It ended by their
remaining there for a whole week, during which time the other animals saw nothing of them. Squealer was
with them for the greater part of every day. He was, he said, teaching them to sing a new song, for which
privacy was needed.
It was just after the sheep had returned, on a pleasant evening when the animals had finished work and were
making their way back to the farm buildings, that the terrified neighing of a horse sounded from the yard.
Startled, the animals stopped in their tracks. It was Clover's voice. She neighed again, and all the animals
broke into a gallop and rushed into the yard. Then they saw what Clover had seen.
It was a pig walking on his hind legs.
Yes, it was Squealer. A little awkwardly, as though not quite used to supporting his considerable bulk in that
position, but with perfect balance, he was strolling across the yard. And a moment later, out from the door of
the farmhouse came a long file of pigs, all walking on their hind legs. Some did it better than others, one or
two were even a trifle unsteady and looked as though they would have liked the support of a stick, but every
one of them made his way right round the yard successfully. And finally there was a tremendous baying of
dogs and a shrill crowing from the black cockerel, and out came Napoleon himself, majestically upright,
casting haughty glances from side to side, and with his dogs gambolling round him.
He carried a whip in his trotter.
There was a deadly silence. Amazed, terrified, huddling together, the animals watched the long line of pigs
march slowly round the yard. It was as though the world had turned upside−down. Then there came a
moment when the first shock had worn off and when, in spite of everything−in spite of their terror of the
dogs, and of the habit, developed through long years, of never complaining, never criticising, no matter what
happened−they might have uttered some word of protest. But just at that moment, as though at a signal, all
the sheep burst out into a tremendous bleating of−
"Four legs good, two legs better! Four legs good, two legs better! Four legs good, two legs better!"
It went on for five minutes without stopping. And by the time the sheep had quieted down, the chance to utter
any protest had passed, for the pigs had marched back into the farmhouse.
Benjamin felt a nose nuzzling at his shoulder. He looked round. It was Clover. Her old eyes looked dimmer
than ever. Without saying anything, she tugged gently at his mane and led him round to the end of the big
barn, where the Seven Commandments were written. For a minute or two they stood gazing at the tatted wall
with its white lettering.
"My sight is failing," she said finally. "Even when I was young I could not have read what was written there.
But it appears to me that that wall looks different. Are the Seven Commandments the same as they used to be,
For once Benjamin consented to break his rule, and he read out to her what was written on the wall. There
was nothing there now except a single Commandment. It ran:
ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL
BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS
After that it did not seem strange when next day the pigs who were supervising the work of the farm all
carried whips in their trotters. It did not seem strange to learn that the pigs had bought themselves a wireless
set, were arranging to install a telephone, and had taken out subscriptions to John Bull, TitBits, and the Daily
Mirror. It did not seem strange when Napoleon was seen strolling in the farmhouse garden with a pipe in his
mouth−no, not even when the pigs took Mr. Jones's clothes out of the wardrobes and put them on, Napoleon
himself appearing in a black coat, ratcatcher breeches, and leather leggings, while his favourite sow appeared
in the watered silk dress which Mrs. Jones had been used to wear on Sundays.
A week later, in the afternoon, a number of dogcarts drove up to the farm. A deputation of neighbouring
farmers had been invited to make a tour of inspection. They were shown all over the farm, and expressed
great admiration for everything they saw, especially the windmill. The animals were weeding the turnip field.
They worked diligently hardly raising their faces from the ground, and not knowing whether to be more
frightened of the pigs or of the human visitors.
That evening loud laughter and bursts of singing came from the farmhouse. And suddenly, at the sound of the
mingled voices, the animals were stricken with curiosity. What could be happening in there, now that for the
first time animals and human beings were meeting on terms of equality? With one accord they began to creep
as quietly as possible into the farmhouse garden.
At the gate they paused, half frightened to go on but Clover led the way in. They tiptoed up to the house, and
such animals as were tall enough peered in at the dining−room window. There, round the long table, sat half a
dozen farmers and half a dozen of the more eminent pigs, Napoleon himself occupying the seat of honour at
the head of the table. The pigs appeared completely at ease in their chairs The company had been enjoying a
game of cards but had broken off for the moment, evidently in order to drink a toast. A large jug was
circulating, and the mugs were being refilled with beer. No one noticed the wondering faces of the animals
that gazed in at the window.
Mr. Pilkington, of Foxwood, had stood up, his mug in his hand. In a moment, he said, he would ask the
present company to drink a toast. But before doing so, there were a few words that he felt it incumbent upon
him to say.
It was a source of great satisfaction to him, he said−and, he was sure, to all others present−to feel that a long
period of mistrust and misunderstanding had now come to an end. There had been a time−not that he, or any
of the present company, had shared such sentiments−but there had been a time when the respected proprietors
of Animal Farm had been regarded, he would not say with hostility, but perhaps with a certain measure of
misgiving, by their human neighbours. Unfortunate incidents had occurred, mistaken ideas had been current.
It had been felt that the existence of a farm owned and operated by pigs was somehow abnormal and was
liable to have an unsettling effect in the neighbourhood. Too many farmers had assumed, without due
enquiry, that on such a farm a spirit of licence and indiscipline would prevail. They had been nervous about
the effects upon their own animals, or even upon their human employees. But all such doubts were now
dispelled. Today he and his friends had visited Animal Farm and inspected every inch of it with their own
eyes, and what did they find? Not only the most up−to−date methods, but a discipline and an orderliness
which should be an example to all farmers everywhere. He believed that he was right in saying that the lower
animals on Animal Farm did more work and received less food than any animals in the county. Indeed, he
and his fellow−visitors today had observed many features which they intended to introduce on their own
He would end his remarks, he said, by emphasising once again the friendly feelings that subsisted, and ought
to subsist, between Animal Farm and its neighbours. Between pigs and human beings there was not, and there
need not be, any clash of interests whatever. Their struggles and their difficulties were one. Was not the
labour problem the same everywhere? Here it became apparent that Mr. Pilkington was about to spring some
carefully prepared witticism on the company, but for a moment he was too overcome by amusement to be
able to utter it. After much choking, during which his various chins turned purple, he managed to get it out:
"If you have your lower animals to contend with," he said, "we have our lower classes!" This bon mot set the
table in a roar; and Mr. Pilkington once again congratulated the pigs on the low rations, the long working
hours, and the general absence of pampering which he had observed on Animal Farm.
And now, he said finally, he would ask the company to rise to their feet and make certain that their glasses
were full. "Gentlemen," concluded Mr. Pilkington, "gentlemen, I give you a toast: To the prosperity of
There was enthusiastic cheering and stamping of feet. Napoleon was so gratified that he left his place and
came round the table to clink his mug against Mr. Pilkington's before emptying it. When the cheering had
died down, Napoleon, who had remained on his feet, intimated that he too had a few words to say.
Like all of Napoleon's speeches, it was short and to the point. He too, he said, was happy that the period of
misunderstanding was at an end. For a long time there had been rumours−circulated, he had reason to think,
by some malignant enemy−that there was something subversive and even revolutionary in the outlook of
himself and his colleagues. They had been credited with attempting to stir up rebellion among the animals on
neighbouring farms. Nothing could be further from the truth! Their sole wish, now and in the past, was to live
at peace and in normal business relations with their neighbours. This farm which he had the honour to
control, he added, was a co−operative enterprise. The title−deeds, which were in his own possession, were
owned by the pigs jointly.
He did not believe, he said, that any of the old suspicions still lingered, but certain changes had been made
recently in the routine of the farm which should have the effect of promoting confidence stiff further.
Hitherto the animals on the farm had had a rather foolish custom of addressing one another as "Comrade."
This was to be suppressed. There had also been a very strange custom, whose origin was unknown, of
marching every Sunday morning past a boar's skull which was nailed to a post in the garden. This, too, would
be suppressed, and the skull had already been buried. His visitors might have observed, too, the green flag
which flew from the masthead. If so, they would perhaps have noted that the white hoof and horn with which
it had previously been marked had now been removed. It would be a plain green flag from now onwards.
He had only one criticism, he said, to make of Mr. Pilkington's excellent and neighbourly speech. Mr.
Pilkington had referred throughout to "Animal Farm." He could not of course know−for he, Napoleon, was
only now for the first time announcing it−that the name "Animal Farm" had been abolished. Henceforward
the farm was to be known as "The Manor Farm"−which, he believed, was its correct and original name.
"Gentlemen," concluded Napoleon, "I will give you the same toast as before, but in a different form. Fill your
glasses to the brim. Gentlemen, here is my toast: To the prosperity of The Manor Farm! "
There was the same hearty cheering as before, and the mugs were emptied to the dregs. But as the animals
outside gazed at the scene, it seemed to them that some strange thing was happening. What was it that had
altered in the faces of the pigs? Clover's old dim eyes flitted from one face to another. Some of them had five
chins, some had four, some had three. But what was it that seemed to be melting and changing? Then, the
applause having come to an end, the company took up their cards and continued the game that had been
interrupted, and the animals crept silently away.
But they had not gone twenty yards when they stopped short. An uproar of voices was coming from the
farmhouse. They rushed back and looked through the window again. Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress.
There were shoutings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious denials. The source of the
trouble appeared to be that Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington had each played an ace of spades simultaneously.
Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike. No question, now, what had happened to the
faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man
again; but already it was impossible to say which was which.
- Table of Contents
- Animal Farm
- George Orwell
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