2015; 3(5): 375-382
Published online October 22, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajls)
ISSN: 2328-5702 (Print); ISSN: 2328-5737 (Online)
Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Environnement, Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire
Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unité Biodiversité et Paysage, Gembloux, Belgium
Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Agroforesterie, Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire
firstname.lastname@example.org (A. T. M. Kouakou), email@example.com (Y. S. S. Barima), firstname.lastname@example.org (A. K. Kouakou),
email@example.com (François N’guessan Kouamé), firstname.lastname@example.org (J. Bogaert), email@example.com (J. Y. Kouadio)
To cite this article:
Akoua Tamia Madeleine Kouakou, Yao Sadaiou Sabas Barima, Apollinaire Kouassi Kouakou, N’guessan François Kouamé, Jan Bogaert,
Justin Yatty Kouadio. Forest Dynamics in the North of the Classified Forest of Haut-Sassandra During the Period of Armed Conflicts in Ivory
Coast. American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 375-382. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20150305.17
Ivory Coast (or Côte d'Ivoire) has experienced a succession of political and military crises from 2002 to 2011. This
has resulted in a general degradation of the environment. In rural areas, the natural formations such classified forest of
Haut-Sassandra (CFHS) in the West Central, underwent severe human pressure. This study, which took place in the northern part
of the CFHS, aimed to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of the forest and its floristic composition during this time of
conflicts. Two satellite images dated from 2001 and 2013 were the subject of a supervised classification from the maximum
likelihood algorithm. Floristic surveys were used to determine the current state floristic diversity of CFHS compared to the
situation prior to the conflicts. The results show that forest areas, representing 94 % of the area in 2001, increased to 34 % in 2013,
representing an annual rate of 5 % of deforestation. About 13 % of species recorded before the conflict had disappeared in 2013.
However, with 239 inventoried northern of CFHS remains a refuge area of the Ivorian plant diversity.
Armed Conflicts, Human Pressure, Spatial Transformations, Flora, Endemic Plant Species
The biodiversity of forest ecosystems is a wealth for local
population and the rest of humanity. The deforestation in
tropical areas is hence at the center of international debate on
the conservation of natural resources . Yet the majority of
developing countries, especially in tropical areas are familiar
with high rates of deforestation and forest degradation .
Countries that have the most difficulty in maintaining their
forest patrimony are those where poverty is highest and / or
who are affected by armed conflicts . These countries
constitute a fertile ground for the development of inequality
and corruption leading to illegal exploitation of natural
resources, particularly forest. Ivory Coast or Côte d’Ivoire has
experienced since 2002 a series of political and military crises.
Several actions were taken in order to achieve peace and social
balance but have not always incorporated the protection of
protected areas. During these conflicts, pressures on these
environments have increased, affecting the functioning of
these ecosystems; however, no studies have been conducted to
date in order to assess the impact on forest ecosystems.
The classified forest of Haut-Sassandra (CFHS), located in
the West Central, is one of the most important biodiversity
areas in the country and is a suitable site to conduct such an
assessment. Before the outbreak of conflicts, CFHS housed
25.4 % of plant species present in Ivory Coast  including 68
West African endemic plant species and 8 Ivorian endemic
plant species (Chrysophyllum taiense, Eugenia tabouensis,
Geophila afzelii, Gymnostemon zaizou, Hibiscus comoensis,
Piptostigma fugax, Psychotria abouabouensis et Sapium
aubrevillei) . These species represent 10.8 % of the Ivorian
The Ivorian crisis gave rise to a partition of the country with
Akoua Tamia Madeleine Kouakou et al.: Forest Dynamics in the North of the Classified Forest of Haut-Sassandra
During the Period of Armed Conflicts in Ivory Coast
groups, and other parts in government administration. CFHS
was under the legal authority but was also the border between
rebel areas and the part under government control during the
conflicts. Near rebel areas, CFHS remained without legal
forest authority and therefore experienced a disruption of
conservation activities. Thus, illegal installations have
occurred in this forest, favorable to its degradation. Large
movements of population fleeing the fight zones have also
been observed in this region.
Our research hypothesis was that in the west, the absence of
forest authority during the period of political and military
crises has encouraged deforestation of protected areas in the
region, leading to disappearance of plant species.
The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics
of the northern part of the CFHS, transitional space between
government and the area under rebel control. This was to
evaluate the evolution of the area and the floristic composition
of the forest at the end of ten years of armed conflicts.
2. Material and Method
2.1. Location of Classified Forest of Haut-Sassandra
CFHS located in the West Central (Fig. 1), since 1974
belongs to the permanent forest domain of the Ivorian state. It
is located between 6° 52' and 7° 24' north latitude and 6° 59'
and 7 ° 10' west longitude. It covers an area of 102,400
hectares and belongs to the administrative departments of
Vavoua and Daloa. The climate is bimodal Guinean forest.
The temperature minima average monthly between 2002 and
2013 was 22° C; maximum temperatures oscillate between 28
and 35° C. This forest belongs to the mesophilic sector of
Guinean domain, characterized by dense semi-deciduous
forest at Celtis spp and Triplochiton scleroxylon .
Two multi-spectral satellite imagery from SPOT sensor,
dating from December 2001 (SPOT 4, 20 m resolution) and
December 2013 (SPOT 5, 10 m resolution) covering the
northern part of the CFHS were used. The spectral data have
been corrected before distribution by the supplier, avoiding
the geometric and radiometric corrections before their
exploitation. However, to facilitate comparison, the images
will not have the same resolution; we conducted resampling of
the image of 2001 to 10 m resolution by the nearest neighbor
method. Then a color combination in false colors on the
images obtained from the combination of bands XS3 / XS2 /
XS1 was performed. These bands correspond to the spectral
bands of the near infrared, red and green. Training plots of 600
to 900 m
have been delimited on this combination for
classes results of field observations and documentation such
as the work of . These are the classes «dense
semi-deciduous forest on land», «forest on hydromorphic
soils», «crop» and «degraded forest». A supervised
classification from the maximum likelihood algorithm was
carried out. After classification, confusion matrix and Kappa
coefficient was calculated to verify the performance of our
classification. These operations were made for the 2013 image
from 30 control plots of 400 m
each, delimited during field
delimited on the basis of work already carried out in the study
area ; . Image processing was done using ENVI 4.4
Figure 1. Presentation of the study area and floristic survey sites.
American Journal of Life Sciences 2015; 3(5): 375-382
Sampling sites were chosen after analysis of the land use
map of CFHS taking into account the types of forest classes
and accessibility. After analysis, 14 sites were chosen on each
of which a small square of 20 m x 20 m was materialized (Fig.
1). Flora inventories were conducted in plots by collecting
samples of all species encountered. Species lists were
supplemented by species obtained from surveys conducted
between plots. The different samples were used in the making
herbarium before identification at the National Floristic
Center of Felix Houphouet Boigny University in Abidjan. The
scientific work treat of the floristic composition of the study
area before the starting of crises in Ivory Coast have been
exploited ; ; . These data were compared to ours in
order to analyze the change in the floristic composition of the
CFHS during the conflict.
Many indices have been designed for the vegetation study
from satellite data. They were classified into families
according clues of whether they take into account external
factors to plant cover such as the influence of atmosphere,
the soil spectral contribution, the water content of plants. The
NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) calculated
from red and near infrared bands permit to measure the
greenness of forests in a given area, and indicates the
vegetation mass present in it. However, errors resulting from
the atmospheric correction can affect this index . Other
indices such as the EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) are less
affected by this problem. Calculated using near infrared and
blue bands, the EVI corrects the combined effects of soil and
the atmosphere. Compared to NDVI, EVI does not saturate
in areas with high biomass and should be adapted in our
study area under humid tropical climate. However, SPOT5
sensor imagery does not have a blue spectral channel does
not allow the use of the EVI. In any case, the NDVI and EVI
are both suitable for the detection of changes in land cover
. Thus, we calculated and compared the images NDVI of
2001 and 2013. The NDVI is calculated according to
The collected botanical data were used to determine the
present floristic composition of our study area. Endemic
species were also determined and their typology was obtained
based on the IUCN Red List . Changes in the floristic
composition of our study area were identified by comparing
our data with those from the work done in the study area
before the conflict by  and . The Sørensen similarity
coefficient was calculated to quantify the degree of
resemblance of the two lists. It is obtained as follows:
with PS the Sørensen similarity coefficient; a, the number of
species at the end of conflicts; b, the number of species before
the conflict; and c, the number of common species to both
periods. A comparison of the lists of endemic species and
dominant families was assured. We considered dominant
family every family whose species number collected was
greater than or equal to 10.
15005 (49.51 %) 10400 (34.32 %) -30.69 %
0.00 (0.00 %)
1531 (5.05 %)
The Kappa coefficient obtained from the confusion matrix
(Table 1) of 2001image classification was 74.9 %. All classes
were relatively classified well, the best pixel classification
rate in class « dense forests » (88.1 %), while 11.6 % of the
pixels belonging to the class «forest on hydromorphic soils »
were classified in class «crop-degraded forest». The
resulting confusion matrix for 2013 image classification
(Table 1) also reflects a good performance with a value of
Kappa coefficient of 80.4 %. In 2013, the class « forest on
hydromorphic soils » has disappeared of the forest landscape
and only the classes «dense forests» and «crop-forest
degraded» were still visible in the landscape. Despite the
high value of the Kappa coefficient, confusion was observed
«degraded forests» classified in «dense forest» and 6.9 % of
pixels of «dense forests» class put into the « crop-degraded
forest » class. The land cover map of 2001 (Fig. 2, map A)
showed a landscape in which forests represented 94.9 % of
the matrix (Table 2). Large forests on hydromorphic soils
were located in the northern part of the study area around the
rivers. In 2001, only 5 % of the landscape was occupied by
crops (Table 2). In 2013, the landscape matrix now consists
of «crop-degraded forests» (Fig. 2, map B) with a proportion
of 65.7 % at the expense of «dense forest» (34.3 %) (Table 2).
Cultivated areas and degraded forests exhibit a growth rate
of 1200 % against a sharp decline of forest areas marked by a
30 % regression rate. These are now represented by forest
fragments and occupy only 34 % of the total superficies of
study area, against 94 % in 2001 (Table 2). This conversion
of forest areas is confirmed by the values of NDVI of the two
images. Calculating means NDVI values gives a value of
0.319 for 2001 image, and 0.044 for 2013 whither 86.2 %
Figure 2. Land use map of 2001 (A) and 2013 (B) in northern classified forest of Haut-Sassandra.
3.2. Floristic Diversity
The synthesis of the literature on the northern part of
CFHS before conflicts in Ivory Coast has identified 273
species distributed among 200 genera and 59 families (Table
3). Of the 273 recorded species, three are endemic to Ivory
Coast: Eugenia tabouensis (Myrtaceae), Gymnostemon
(Euphorbiaceae). The most represented families were
decreasing order Rubiaceae, Annonaceae, Fabaceae,
Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Sterculiaceae (Table 3).
The inventories carried at the end of the decade of conflicts
identified 239 species distributed among 179 genera and 61
families (Table 3). The most represented families in number
of species were Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, the
Sterculiaceae, the Apocynaceae and Moraceae (Table 3). The
floristic list at conflicts end presented three Ivorian endemic
(Sapotaceae). The list also presented West African endemic
species, rain forest species of Guinea-Congo region, the
common species at the Guinea-Congo region and the
Sudan-Zambezian region, species of Sudano-Zambezian
region (savannas and open forests) and introduced or
cultivated species (Fig. 3).
Figure 3. Chorological affinities of northern species of the classified forest of
Using remote sensing for characterizing changes in CFHS
allowed to characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of
this forest. A classification of the remote sensing images has
highlighted the evolution of each thematic class during the
study period. In 2001, a prevalence of the rainforest and the
forest on hydromorphic soils in northern CFHS was observed.
However, we noted that there were some farm plots inside the
forest, suggesting that populations had started penetration this
forest for agriculture prior conflicts, as observed by  and .
These agricultural zones are generally located on the outskirts
of CFHS, and consequently, come into contact with the rural
sector (Fig. 2, map A). There were little or no farms in the
heart of the forest. At that time, the human impact on the
reserved forest was mainly due to the extension of plantations
of perennial crops (coffee and cocoa) maintained by
indigenous populations living in enclaves, including that
Gbeubly located north of classified forest. However, 
argued that despite its cover forest was radically modified, this
same forest has not been the cause of the anthropisation of the
classified area. Until 2001, conversions of forests surfaces
were exclusively happening inside the enclave. Classified
forest infiltrations would be rather the fact of non-indigenous
populations in search of arable land. Changes in the forest
cover of the CFHS were not solely due to agriculture, but were
also the result of logging. This forest harvesting was entrusted
to a private company (named SIFCI), which, in turn, was
expected to undertake forest management. The establishment
of this company resulted in forest degradation or conversion
of the forest cover to a savannah system . After conflicts,
the land use map revealed a fragmented forest landscape with
an extension of agricultural plots to the detriment of the forest.
This fact is borne out by 86.2 % decrease in the NDVI,
compared to its value in 2001. However, decreases in the
NDVI does not equate to a decrease in vegetation, because this
index is likely to be influenced by climate-related factors such
as precipitation . Precipitation data of our study area
showed little variation between the two periods under
registered, while in 2013 only 6 mm of precipitation was
During conflicts, populations penetrated the classified
forest, mainly because forest policy agents were mobilized on
the various war fronts. During this period, forest areas
declined to more than 30 % of the original cover (Table 2) in
our study area, with a "disappearance" of the «forest on
hydromorphic soils». The absence of this class in 2013 could
be linked to the classification method used. In fact, the sizes of
island forest on hydromorphic soils that are still likely to be
found in northern CFHS are smaller than 100 m² (pixel
resolution), and does not allow the classification algorithm to
create a homogeneous class. Using a finer-resolution image
(2.5 m) would help correct this artifact. Despite this probable
error, the «forests on hydromorphic soils» observed before the
beginning of conflicts disappeared from the CFHS in 2013.
Indeed, during our field visits, we noted that there were cocoa
crops in river beds or grasses will significantly different from
«forest on hydromorphic soils». This decline in the forest area
is part of the spatial dynamics of forests worldwide, and
particularly in Africa. The net loss of forest area per year is
estimated at 5.3 million hectares for the whole of Africa that is
0.78 % of the total forest area . West African forest
countries are the most affected by such decline . In this
area, the loss of forest cover is essentially caused by
agriculture. Indeed, indigenous people consider the forest as a
setting with the most suitable lands for farming. As a matter of
fact, forest ensures soil fertility, lowers the proliferation of
weeds and insects, favors good moisture retention, limits the
effect of wind and erosion, etc. . Indigenous people
believe that cocoa, for example, can only be sown on a newly
deforested plot. In such process, and in striving to increase
their production or renew their old orchards, farmers are
constantly clearing sites, therefore reducing protected areas.
Consequently, the forest is now replaced by cocoa plantations.
Degraded forests shown by 2013 map are just the first phase of
the introduction of cocoa farming. Indeed, this class shows
crops under forests. Due to their illegal presence in this
protected area, farmers strive to keep the forest landscape
intact in the early stages of plant development in order to
cover them up. The cocoa tree is a rainforest plant, and this
cultivation technique serves it well. In this context, if action is
not taken to curb human intrusion in our study area, the whole
surface will be covered by crops.
4.2. Analysis of the Floristic Composition of the Classified
Sampling conducted before conflicts outbreak has given a
total of 273 species  of which 106 are common to our list
obtained at the end of conflicts. Sørensen similarity coefficient
(41 %) calculated based on the two lists is less than 50 %. This
floristic dissimilarity appears in Table 3. The Moraceae family,
poorly represented in 1998 represented a significant
proportion (4.06 %) in the current list to the point of being part
of the ruling families, and may result from changes in
environmental conditions . At local scale, northern CFHS
is currently dominated by cocoa plantations. This conversion
of forest cover leads to a proliferation of species adapted to
environmental constraints attached to it. The Rubiaceae
family remained the best represented, confirming the
membership of the CFHS to the Guinea-Congolese region that
has the right conditions for the proliferation of Rubiaceae ;
; . Nine endemic species to West Africa and three
endemic to Ivory Coast before the conflicts identified in
CFHS were not found in the current list (Table 4). We only
inventoried the northern CFHS, cumulating in plots surface
and transects which, placed end to end, reaching 2300
protected areas during the conflicts seems to be changing
biodiversity according to what is generally observed in
protected areas of West Africa ; ; . Although
much of the CFHS has been converted to crops, it has kept a
high species richness with 239 species against 273 species
over 10 years earlier. However, species richness is not always
synonymous with diversity . Indeed, environment
anthropisation could bring up a new procession of pioneer
species and / or better adapted to the disturbed environment
Table 4. List and status of West African endemic species (GCW) and Ivorian
(GCi) present in Northern classified forest of Haut-Sassandra in 1998 (before
conflicts) and have not been found in 2013 (after conflicts).
Afzeliabella var. gracilior
4.3. Conflict, Dynamics of Forest Landscapes and Floristic
African tropical forest ecosystems are recognized for their
biodiversity is nonetheless an alarming deterioration. The
technical use of existing land in this region of the world, such
as slash and burn agriculture and industrial monoculture, lead
serious degradation of forest resources . Armed conflict
has intensified during the last decade natural resource
degradation as to cause a considerable regression of protected
areas superficies, a reduction in the density of the tree cover
and changes in floristic composition, as has been manifest in
the Democratic Republic of Congo . This human pressure
can lead to savannah forest landscape . The main effect of
human impact is the dominance of species with high growth
capacity to the detriment of competitors within species  as
is the case in tropical forest  and therefore in the CFHS,
changing this protected area.
4.4. Armed Conflicts and Protected Areas
greatly the preservation of several protected areas in Africa
. This is mainly due to the strong increase in population
but also problems of political instability. Conflicts lead to
destruction of these areas invaded by population looking for
new farmland. The displacement of populations during armed
conflicts periods causes changes occupation mode of space
that affect land systems and exploitation of natural resources.
In CFHS, these changes have led to environmental
degradation reducing the forest cover. In the Haut-Sassandra
region in general, human action was accentuated by the
dispossession of landowners in the conflict period, which has
resulted in extensive land clearing.
This study highlighted the large spatial configurations of
different classes of land use and the development of their
respective superficies to the northern part of the CFHS during
the conflicts in Ivory Coast. The results obtained from the
images classifications from 2001 and 2013 show a significant
decline in forest area of this protected area for the benefit of
agricultural areas. Indeed, over 60 % of forest surface were
converted to agriculture land or degraded forest during and
after decade of conflicts. Regarding the floristic composition
of this area, 12.4 % of the species appear to have disappeared
during the crisis. Restoration and conservation measures
should be taken to safeguard the still existing forest relics and
rebuild areas covered by agriculture
The study was conducted as part of the project
«renforcement des capacités et accès aux données satellitaires
pour le suivi des forêts en Afrique» GEOFORAFRI, funded
Fonds français pour l’Environnement Mondial with technical
support from the «Institut de Recherche pour le
Développement». This study also received support from the
Strategic Support Programme for Scientific Research in Ivory
Coast (PASRES), the Academy of Sciences, Arts, African
Cultures and African Diaspora (ASCAD, Ivory Coast) and
The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS). The study was
made possible by to the agreement of SODEFOR who
authorized access to classified forest of Haut-Sassandra.
 J. Oszwald, Dynamique des formations agroforestières en Côte
d’Ivoire (des années 1980 aux années 2000) suivi par
télédétection et développement d’une approche cartographique.
Thèse de doctorat de géographie. Université des sciences et
technologies de Lille, 2005, p. 304.
 C. L. Meneses-tovar, L’indice différentiel normalisé de
végétation comme indicateur de la dégradation, Unasylva, vol
262, pp. 39-46, 2011.
 R. K. N’goran, Application de l’évaluation environnementale
stratégique dans un contexte conflictuel en Côte d’Ivoire. Essai
l’obtention du grade de Maître en environnement, P. 83, 2010.
 N. Kouamé, H. F. Tra Bi, T. D. Etien, and D. Traore, Végétation
et flore de la forêt classée du Haut-Sassandra en Côte d’Ivoire,
Revue CAMES, vol. 00, pp. 28-35, 1998.
 N. F. Kouamé, Influence de l’exploitation forestière sur la
végétation et la flore de la forêt classée du Haut-Sassandra
(Centre-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire). Thèse de Doctorat de troisième
cycle de l’Université de Cocody (Abidjan), p. 203, 1998.
 J-L. Guillaumet, E. Adjanohoun, La végétation de la Côte
d’Ivoire. In: AVENARD, J. M., Eldin, E., Girard, G., Sircoulon,
J., Touchebeuf, P., Guillaumet, J-L., Adjanohoun, E., Perraud,
A., (eds). Le milieu naturel de la Côte d’Ivoire. ORSTOM,
Paris, 1971, pp. 57-266.
 E. N’guessan, M. Bellan, and F. Blasco, Suivi par télédétection
spatiale d’une forêt tropicale humide protégée soumise à des
pressions anthropiques, Télédétection, vol. 3, pp. 443-456, 2003.
 A. Dorais, and R. De Koninck, Mesurer l’évolution des stocks
forestiers de carbone: un véritable défi à Borneo,
M@ppemonde, vol. 102, pp. 1-17, 2011.
 D. Lu, P. Mausel, E. Brondizio, and E. Moran, Change
detection techniques, International journal of remote sensing,
vol. 12, pp. 2365-2407, 2004.
 UICN, Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for
Conservation of Nature Version 2010, 2010.
 J. Oszwald, S. Bigot, and Y. T. Brou, Evolution géo-historique
de la forêt classée du Haut-Sassandra (Côte d’Ivoire), p. 9,
Rapport principal, études FAO, forêts, Rome, p. 140, 2001.
 T. M. Inoussa, I. T. Imorou, M. C. Gbegbo and B. Sinsin,
Structure et composition des forêts denses sèches des monts
Kouffé au Bénin, Applied Biosciences, vol. 64 pp. 4787-4796,
l’amenuisement des terres forestières dans les paysanneries
ivoiriennes: quelles solutions pour une agriculture durable en
Côte d’Ivoire, Cuadernos Geograficos, vol. 45 pp. 13-29, 2009.
 R. Pélissier, S. Dray, and D. Sabatier, Within-plot relationships
between tree species occurrences and hydrological soil
constraints: an example in French Guiana investigated through
canonical correlation analysis. Plant Ecology, vol. 162 pp.
 L. Aké-assi, Flore de la Côte d’Ivoire: catalogue systématique,
biogéographie et écologie. Boissiera, vol. 58, p. 401, 2002.
 D. H. N’da, Y. C. Y. Adou, K. E. N’guessan, M. Kone, and Y. C.
Sangne, Analyse de la diversité floristique du parc national de
la Marahoué, Centre Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. Afrique
sciences, vol. 4 pp. 552-579, 2008.
 B. S. Bouko, B. Sinsin, and B. G. Soule, Effet de la dynamique
d’occupation du sol sur la structure et la diversité floristique
des forêts claires et savanes au Bénin, Tropicultura, vol. 25 pp.
Kouame, and J. Bogaert, Modélisation de la dynamique du
paysage forestier dans la région de transition forêt-savane à
l’est de la côte d’ivoire, Télédétection, vol. 9 pp. 129-138,
 Y. S. S. Barima, D. M. Angaman, D. C. Cannière, and J.
forest-savannah transition in Eastern Ivory Coast. International
Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 6 pp.
 J-F Molino, and D. Sabatier, Tree diversity in tropical rain
forests: A validation of the Intermediate Disturbance
Hypothesis, Science, vol. 294, pp. 1702-1704, 2001.
 P. W. Takou, T. Boukpessi, and M. Djangbedja, Apports de la
télédétection et des Systèmes d’Information Géographiques
dans l’étude de la dynamique des paysages végétaux de l’ouest
de la région des plateaux au Togo, Actes du troisième Colloque
des sciences, cultures et technologies de l’UAC-Bénin, vol. 1,
pp. 669-687, 2012.
 O. Shuku, Evaluation environnementale des conflits armés.
Cas de la RDC. Communication, p. 5, 2003.
 Y. S. S. Barima, N. Barbier,, B. Ouattara,, et J. Bogaert,
Relation entre la composition floristique et des indicateurs de la
fragmentation du paysage dans une région de transition
forêt-savane ivoirienne, Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society &
Environment, vol. 14 pp. 617-625, 2010.
 M. Arim, S. R. Abades, P. E. Neill, M. Lima, and P. A Marquet,
Spread dynamics of invasive species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
USA, vol. 103 pp. 374-378, 2006.
 J. Nackoney, G. Molinario, P. Potapov,, S. Turubanova,, M. C.
Hansen, and T. Furuichi, Impacts of civil conflict on primary
forest habitat in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo,
1990–2010. Biological Conservation, vol. 170, pp. 321-328,