Table 1S [Section 0] pico questions



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Table 1S [Section 1.0] PICO Questions

Informal Questions

PICO Question

Population

Intervention (s)

Comparator

Outcome

PICO 1: Pain Management and Symptom Relief

Patients with lung cancer

Pain management
(NSAIDs, narcotics/opioids, analgesics, acupuncture, marijuana/cannabinoids, corticosteroids, ketamine, transcutaneous nerve stimulation

none

symptom relief (pain relief/control, improved quality of life)

PICO 2: Dyspnea and Symptom Relief

Patients with lung cancer and dyspnea / shortness of breath

Control of Dyspnea (oxygen, inhalers; bronchodilators; inhaled corticosteroids, narcotics/opiates, oral corticosteroids, anxiolytics, antidepressants, airway management of obstruction, marijuana, position, relation technique, psychosocial support, coping strategies, hypnosis, fans)

none

symptom relief (control of shortness of breath, control of dyspnea and quality of life)

PICO 3: Airway Obstruction and Symptom Relief

Patients with lung cancer with: shortness of breath/dyspnea, hemoptysis, endobronchial tumor, airway obstruction

Opening airway (laser, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, microdebriedment, photodynamic therapy, rigid bronchoscopy, balloon dilatation, therapeutic bronchoscopy, intubation, mechanical debulking/debridement, brachytherapy, surgery)

none

symptom relief (quality of life and shortness of breath)

PICO 4: Cough Suppression and Symptom Relief

Patients with lung cancer

Cough Suppression / Control (cough suppressants, bronchodilators, narcotic/opiates, corticosteroids, lidocaine, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, endobronchial management; laser, argon plasma coagulation, electrocautery, stenting, photodynamic therapy; surgery)

none

symptom relief (pain relief/control of cough, improved quality of life)

PICO 5: Brain Metastasis and Symptom Control

Lung cancer patients with brain metastasis

management of brain metastasis (surgical resection, corticosteroids, radiation therapy--whole brain, stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy, chemotherapy, proton beam therapy)

none

symptom control (quality of life, relief--headache, dizziness, confusion, delirium, morbidity)

PICO 6: Bone Metastasis and Symptom Control

patients with lung cancer with: bone metastasis and bone pain

management of symptoms/pain (bisphosphonates, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation therapy, surgery, surgical fixation, intramedullary nailing)

none

symptom control (pain relief, stabilization of fractures, quality of life)

PICO 7: Spinal Cord Compression and Symptom Relief

patients with lung cancer and spinal cord compression / metastasis

control of symptoms (corticosteroids, radiation therapy, surgery)

none

symptom relief (pain relief, neurologic symptoms, paralysis, quality of life)

PICO 8: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome and Symptom Relief

patients with lung cancer with SVC syndrome

management of SVC (systemic corticosteroids, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, stenting/vascular stent, balloon angioplasty)

none

symptom relief

PICO 9: Hemoptysis and Symptom Control

patients with lung cancer and hemoptysis, massive hemoptysis and coughing up blood

control bleeding (narcotics, intubation, embolization, therapeutic bronchoscopy, rigid bronchoscopy, lung resection)

none

symptom control (mortality, coughing up blood, control of hemoptysis)

PICO 10: Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Symptom Control of Airway Contamination

patients with lung cancer with: tracheoesophageal fistula and bronchoesophageal fistula

close fistula (surgery, airway stent, esophageal stent, fibrin glue, cyanoacrylate glue)

none

symptom control of airway contamination (respiratory failure, eating, cough, shortness of breath, respiratory contamination, aspiration, pneumonia

PICO 11: Malignant Pleural Effusions and Symptom Relief

Patient with lung cancer and malignant pleural effusion

Management of malignant pleural effusions (systemic therapy, chest tube drainage, therapeutic thoracentesis, pleurodesis, talc pleurodesis, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery, surgical pleurodesis, indwelling catheter, Pleurx catheter, intrapleural fibrinolysis, pigtail catheter, pleuroperitoneal shunting

none

symptom relief (quality of life, survival, dyspnea)

PICO 12: Venous Thromboembolic Disease and Symptom Management

LC patients and: VTE, DVT and PE

management of symptoms (anticoagulation, heparin, LMWH, warfarin/Coumadin, enoxaparin/Lovenox, dalteparin/Fragmin, tinzaparin/Innohep, inferior vena cava filter)

none

symptom relief (symptom control, quality of life, mortality)

PICO 13:Depression, Fatigue, Insomnia Management

LC patients and: depression, fatigue, anxiety, anorexia, cognitive dysfunction, delirium, insomnia

management of symptoms (pharmacologic therapy--anxiolytics, antidepressants, meditation, relaxation technique, psychosocial support, coping mechanisms, hypnosis, nutritional support)

none

symptom management

PICO 14: Anorexia and Weight Loss Management

Lung cancer patients and anorexia, weight loss, cachexia, muscle wasting, asthenia

Management of symptoms (nutritional support, appetite stimulants, nutritional assessment

none

symptom management

LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; PE, pulmonary embolism; SVC, Superior vena cava; VTE, venous thromboembolism;


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