Rainfall 550 600 mm per year



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tarix18.08.2017
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Rainfall - 550 - 600 mm per year

  • Rainfall - 550 - 600 mm per year

  • The landscape has a temperate climate with the occurrence of sporadic frost confined to the bottomlands

  • Soils - The upland soils are sandy (6-15 % clay). In bottomlands, conditions of temporary water saturation prevail.







Depending on the clay content of the soil and the degree of heavy grazing the following two sub-associations in the bottomlands of this landscape can be differentiated viz.

  • Depending on the clay content of the soil and the degree of heavy grazing the following two sub-associations in the bottomlands of this landscape can be differentiated viz.

    • Aristida barbicollis / Acacia nigrescens / Combretum apiculatum-sub-association
    • Acacia gerrardii / Acacia nigrescens / Combretum apiculatum-sub-association


Combretum apiculatum, C. hereroense, C. imberbe

  • Combretum apiculatum, C. hereroense, C. imberbe

  • Acacia nigrescens, A. gerrardii, A. tortilis

  • Dichrostachys cinerea,

  • Grewia bicolor,

  • Dalbergia melanoxylon, Lannea stuhlmannii, Ziziphus mucronata, Pterocarpus rotundifolius, Cissus cornifolia, Commiphora africana, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Ehretia rigida, Albizia harveyi and Bolusanthus speciosus.



Aristida barbicollis-sub-association: Aristida congesta, Pogonarthria squarrosa and Andropogon gayanus are more dominant.

    • Aristida barbicollis-sub-association: Aristida congesta, Pogonarthria squarrosa and Andropogon gayanus are more dominant.
    • Acacia gerrardii-sub-association: Themeda triandra, Urochloa brachyura and Panicum coloratum are more dominant.
  • Grasses normally present in both these sub-associations are Digitaria eriantha, Panicum maximum, Aristida congesta, Schmidtia pappophoroides, Urochloa mosambicensis, Heteropogon contortus and Enneapogon cenchroides, but more specifically Cymbopogon plurinodis, Eragrostis superba, Bothriocloa radicans and Eragrostis rigidior





The Siyaya Coastal Park - about 42 km of unspoilt coastline - stretches from the mouth of the Umlalazi river to the southern boundary of the Amatikulu Nature Reserve.

  • The Siyaya Coastal Park - about 42 km of unspoilt coastline - stretches from the mouth of the Umlalazi river to the southern boundary of the Amatikulu Nature Reserve.

  • It includes two nature reserves as well as pristine coastal dune forest, mangrove forests, swamp forest, grassland and lala palm bushveld.

    • Umlalazi Nature Reserve (1 028 ha)
    • Amatikulu Nature Reserve (1 700 ha)




The reserve includes the estuarine area and the joint mouth of the Inyoni and Amatikulu Rivers.

  • The reserve includes the estuarine area and the joint mouth of the Inyoni and Amatikulu Rivers.

  • It contains vegetation zones from the beach, dunes, coastal dune forest, the vegetation along the river banks, swamp forest, Acacia woodland and grasslands.

  • Lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) is very common within the grasslands

  • The grasslands are being encroached by Acacia karroo

  • There is a thriving population of giraffe as well as zebra, waterbuck and smaller antelope in the reserve.



The vegetation is the Coastal Bushveld-Grassland vegetation type (Granger et al. 1998).

  • The vegetation is the Coastal Bushveld-Grassland vegetation type (Granger et al. 1998).

  • The grass component comprises species such as Aristida junciformis, a number of Eragrostis spp., Sporobolus spp., Hyparrhenia spp., Digitaria spp. and some Themeda triandra.

  • A short scrub layer is present within the grassland patches, comprising species such as Diospyros galpinii, Pachystigma venosum and Eugenia spp.

  • The woody component consists of (in wetter areas) species such as Millettia grandis, Vepris undulata, Protorhus longifolia, Trichilia emetica, Brachylaena spp. and Mimusops obovata. In the drier areas, the vegetation is comprised largely Acacia species such as A. karroo, A. nilotica and A. robusta.



Climate - + 1000 mm of rain, mostly in summer

  • Climate - + 1000 mm of rain, mostly in summer

  • Soils – highly leached

  • Fire – frequent; approx. biennial

  • Herbivory – giraffe, zebra, waterbuck, small antelope

  • Human activities – nature reserve surrounded by communal farming, with commercial sugar plantations to the south







Dry savanna – Cenchrus ciliaris

  • Dry savanna – Cenchrus ciliaris

  • Wet savanna – Eragrostis curvula



Dry savanna

  • Dry savanna

  • Acacia nigrescens

  • Colophospermum mopane

  • Combretum apiculatum

  • Combretum zeyheri





Appropriate rainfall (900+ mm per annum)

  • Appropriate rainfall (900+ mm per annum)

  • Acacia sieberiana naturally encroaches here

  • Communal ranching



Currently studied by a PhD student of mine,

  • Currently studied by a PhD student of mine,

  • Seraphine Grellier,

  • with a focus on ecohydrology and bush encroachment











Pretty cold in the winter - frost occurs here quite frequently.

  • Pretty cold in the winter - frost occurs here quite frequently.

  • Mean minimum temperature in July = 3 oC (max. temperature in July = 21 oC)





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