7. Species ac
sabrina, the Latin name of the river nymph,
Sabrina, who according to Celtic mythology was believed
to dwell in, and be one with, the Severn River in the United
Callistemon sabrina (Craven) Udovicic &
Shrub or tree
1–4 m tall; bark fibrous.
10–59 mm long, 1–3.5 mm wide, 8–27 times as long as
wide, short- or long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, pubes-
cent to sericeous-pubescent, very narrowly elliptic, very
narrowly obovate, linear-elliptic or linear-obovate, in
transverse section transversely linear, sublunate or obsub-
lunate, the base very narrowly attenuate, very narrowly
cuneate or parallel (blade width equals petiole width), the
apex very shortly acuminate or acute, the veins pinnate,
spicate, interstitial or pseudoterminal,
with 5–25 monads, 30–50 mm wide.
abaxially hairy, 1–1.9 mm
long, herbaceous to the margin or scarious in a marginal
band 0.2–0.3 mm wide.
deciduous, 3.2–5.3 mm
49–73 per flower; filaments red to pinkish
red, 17–24 mm long; anthers yellow.
20–26 mm long.
c. 100–200 per locule.
3.5–3.8 mm long, the
calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland, New South Wales:
the Stanthorpe–Tenterfield district.
ite sand among boulders, and on alluvial stream banks.
oil at best. The oil that was present was dominated by
monoterpenes. The principal monoterpenes detected were
1,8-cineole (30.9%) and a-terpineol (18.8%). These com-
pounds were accompanied by lesser amounts of a-pinene
(2.7%), limonene (1.7%), p-cymene (2%), g-terpinene
(1.7%), linalool (1.5%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.0%). Ses-
quiterpenes were not plentiful and the major identified
components were globulol (1.5%), cubeban-11-ol (1.1%)
and spathulenol (1.2%). A significant amount of the oil
(approximately 30%) remains unidentified.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.1%.
salicina, from Salix, a genus of Salicaceae,
and in keeping with the earlier epithet saligna that appar-
ently was given due to a perceived similarity between the
leafy stems of this species and those of a species of Salix
Metrosideros saligna Sm.; Callistemon salignus
Tree or shrub
2–15 m tall; bark papery,
white or grey.
alternate, 38–144 mm long, 5–16 mm wide,
4–15 times as long as wide, long-petiolate; blade gla-
brescent, sericeous, very narrowly ovate, very narrowly
elliptic, narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate, in transverse
section transversely linear or broadly v-shaped, the base
very narrowly attenuate or attenuate, the apex acute, the
veins pinnate, 19–29,
dense to sparse, distinct
or obscure, scattered.
minal or interstitial, sometimes also upper axillary, with
10–40 monads, 20–35 mm wide.
2.5–3.5 mm long.
abaxially hairy (with
cilia on the margin only), 0.8–1.3 mm long, herba-
ceous to the margin.
deciduous, 2.6–4 mm long.
48–65 per flower; filaments green, greenish-
yellow, creamy-green, very pale yellow or white, 9–14 mm
12–16 mm long.
c. 100–150 per locule.
3.8–4.4 mm long; cotyledons obvolute or subobvo-
lute (almost planoconvex).
Queensland, New South Wales:
from the Biloela–Bundaberg district in Queensland to the
Nowra district in New South Wales.
Recorded as occurring in flat open eucalypt
forest, swamp woodland, coastal sand plain, Melaleuca
quinquenervia swamp woodland, damp creek flats, noto-
phyll vine forest on flat, near creek bed in gully between
rocky ridges, with mangrove on tidal river flat, on sand,
alluvial clay loam, black soil, brown silt, red-brown vol-
canic loam, and rocky outcrops.
Recorded as flowering from Septem-
ber to December.
This species produced an oil in which
1,8-cineole (61–69%) was the principal component. This
was accompanied by lesser amounts of a-pinene (6–7%),
b-pinene (1–2%), limonene (7–15%) and a-terpineol
(7–9%). The major sesquiterpenes, which overall accounted
for less than 10% of the oil, were b-caryophyllene (1–2%),
globulol (0.1–0.3%) and spathulenol (0.3–0.4%).
Brophy et al. 1998, as
When transferring this species to Melaleuca, a
new specific epithet was necessary because saligna was
already in use in Melaleuca for the next species listed here.
Melaleuca salicina is a popular large shrub or small tree for
planting in gardens, parks and on road verges as it develops
into a bushy, well-foliaged plant. A bonus is the brightly
coloured flushes of new growth and in some respects these
are more appealing than the flowers.
aticae 2: 927 (1843)
saligna, from Salix, a genus of Salicaceae,
apparently in reference to a perceived similarity between
the leafy stems of this species and those of a species of Salix
1–20 m tall; bark papery,
whitish, brownish or grey.
sericeous-pubescent to pubescent with some shorter
pubescent hairs also, or short-sericeous.
30–120 mm long, 5–18 mm wide, 5–14 times as long as
wide, long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, lanuginulose
to lanuginulose-puberulous overlaid with sericeous to
sericeous-pubescent hairs, or sericeous-pubescent or
appressed sericeous, narrowly elliptic or very narrowly
elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear, the base
attenuate, the apex acuminate to narrowly acute, the veins
moderately dense, distinct
to obscure, scattered.
spicate or capitate,
pseudoterminal, with 5–15 triads, up to 23 mm wide.
hairy, 1–2.2 mm long.
glabrescent, 0.5–0.8 mm long, scarious in a marginal band
0.1–0.3 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.8–2.2 mm long.
6–9 per bundle; filaments white, 5–8 mm long, the
bundle claw 1.3–3.2 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long as the
5–8.5 mm long.
c. 40–50 per locule.
1.5–2.5 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering away
(the extreme basal portion may become woody and persist
as a low ring or series of undulations on the hypanthium
rim); cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland: Cape York
seasonal swamps, sclerophyll woodland, gallery forest,
sand dunes, edge of tidal saltwater creek, freshwater lake
edges, waterhole edges, riverbanks, on sand, solodic soil
with laterite, and alluvium.
Recorded as flowering from February
both mono- and sesquiterpenes, with sesquiterpenes
dominating in both number and yield. The principal ses-
quiterpenes were b-caryophyllene (5–8%), a-humulene
(2–4%), b-selinene (3–10%), a-selinene (3–8%), globulol
(4–6%) and viridiflorol (3–6%). The principal monoter-
penes encountered were 1,8-cineole (8–28%), a-pinene
(2–4%) and limonene (4–8%)
Brophy and Doran
This broad-leaved paperbark species should not be
confused with Callistemon salignus, the name of which in
Melaleuca is M. salicina (see preceding species).
Botany 12: 901 (1999)
sapientes, from the Latin sapiens, wise,
knowing, in honour of Robert (Rob) and Ann Smart of
Girraween farm near Jerramungup, Western Australia,
who assisted research on Melaleuca quite considerably,
both through sharing their knowledge of the genus within
the Jerramungup region and through their generous
0.2–3 m tall; bark papery, white
as long as wide, subsessile to short-petiolate or sessile;
blade usually hairy (eventually glabrescent), sericeous
or rarely sericeous-pubescent, very narrowly elliptic,
very narrowly obovate or linear, in transverse section
sublunate, transversely linear, transversely semielliptic,
shallowly lunate, transversely narrowly elliptic or sub-
circular, the base attenuate to narrowly cuneate, parallel
(blade width equals petiole width) or truncate, the apex
acuminate, the veins longitudinal, 3,
capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes
also upper axillary, with 2–6 triads, up to 20 mm wide.
hairy, 1.8–2 mm long.
0.1–0.2 mm wide or scarious throughout.
7–9 per bundle; filaments
mauve, purple, pink or magenta, 6–10.5 mm long, the
bundle claw 1–2.8 mm long, 0.2–0.3 times as long as
7.5–8 mm long.
c. 15–20 per
3–4.5 mm long,
with sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes weathering away;
Hyden–Jerramungup district eastwards to the Salmon
Gums – Ponier Rock district.
Recorded as occurring in low eucalypt wood-
land with dense shrub understorey, low shrub and heath
vegetation, Melaleuca heathland, mallee with dense Mela-
leuca understorey, on sand over laterite, calcareous plain
with powdery clay, sand over clay, sandy loam, and salt
by monoterpenes. The principal component was 1,8-cin-
eole (49–61%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts
of a-pinene (9–16%), limonene (3–5%), E-b-ocimene
(0.7–3.0%), geraniol (1–2%) and a-terpineol (6–7%).
Sesquiterpenes did not contribute much to the oil. The
principal members were globulol (2–4%), viridiflorol
(1–3%) and viridiflorene (0.7–1.0%).
Melaleuca sapientes is an excellent ornamental
shrub and has been cultivated in Australia for many
years under the name M. holosericea (Holliday 2004). The
mauve-pink flowers contrast very well with the silvery-
greyish foliage and the species should be tried more
generally in Mediterranean climates.
scabra, from the Latin scaber, rough, scabby,
mangy, in reference to the appearance of the leaves
0.2–1.2 m tall.
alternate, 5.5–21 mm long, 0.8–1.3 mm wide,
5–20 times as long as wide, subsessile to short-petiolate;
blade glabrous, linear, linear-obovate or narrowly oblong,
subfalcate to falcate, in transverse section semicircular,
flattened transversely semielliptic or transversely elliptic
to subcircular (often the adaxial surface may be more or
less channelled or the midrib area may be raised), the base
attenuate to narrowly cuneate or parallel (blade width
equals petiole width), the apex acuminate to narrowly
acute or obtuse to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense, obscure to distinct, scattered
to more or less in rows.
minal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 1–5 triads,
up to 22 mm wide.
glabrous or hairy, 1.8–
2.5 mm long.
abaxially glabrous (rarely a very
few scattered hairs may be present towards the sepal apex),
0.3–0.7 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.3 mm
wide or herbaceous to the margin.
1–2 mm long.
3–7 per bundle; filaments purple,
pink, mauve, magenta or deep bright pink, 6–9.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 1.3–3.8 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long
as the filaments.
6–9.5 mm long.
3–4 mm long, the
calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the Hope-
toun – Israelite Bay district extending eastwards to the Mt
Recorded as occurring in low closed heath,
high eucalypt shrubland, sand plain, swamps, low open
heathland, on sandy loam, sand over clay, among granite
boulders, sandy silt, and sandy gravel.
ing significant amounts of both mono- and sesquiterpenes.
The principal monoterpenes encountered were a-pinene
(4.2%), b-pinene (6.9%), 1,8-cineole (4.5%) and myrtenal,
trans-pinocarveol, a-terpineol and myrtenol (each 2–3%).
The principal sesquiterpenes encountered in the leaf oil
were a-cadinol (12.2%), spathulenol (6.9%) and T-cadinol,
T-muurolol, d-cadinene, ledol and caryophyllene oxide
The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was <0.3%.
The name M. scabra has been misapplied to
numerous pink- to magenta-flowered species of Melaleuca
in southern Western Australia. Following studies of the
‘pom-pom’ species of the genus, M. scabra is now known
to be restricted to a region in the far south of Western
Australia as given above.
Australian Systematic Botany, 17: 267 (2004)
scalena, from the Latin scalenus, uneven,
unequal, odd, in reference to the discordant facies that this
species presents in nature, especially when it co-occurs
with other species of the complex such as M. hamata, as
M. scalena plants usually appear unthrifty relative to plants
of other broombush species
to 3 m tall; bark papery, peel-
glabrescent, with sericeous or
ascending or spread-
ing-ascending, 19–85 mm long (often 20–50), 0.8–1.5 mm
wide, 16–57 times as long as wide, petiole 0.2–1.5 mm
long; blade glabrescent, sericeous or lanuginose-sericeous,
linear or linear-obovate, in transverse section transversely
elliptic, transversely broadly elliptic, depressed obo-
vate or subcircular, in lateral view straight, incurved or
recurved, the base parallel or very narrowly cuneate, the
apex narrowly acuminate, narrowly acute, acuminate or
1–1.5 mm long, 1–1.9 mm
5, indistinctly free, abaxially glabrous,
0.15–0.5 mm long.
caducous or rarely deciduous,
broadly ovate, 0.9–1.3 mm long, oil glands circular to
3–9 per bundle, the filaments whitish
yellow or pale lemon yellow, 3–7.2 mm long, the bun-
dle claw 0.7–2.9 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as the
4.8–5.7 mm long.
15–18 per loc-
longer than wide (rarely as wide as
long and very rarely shorter than wide), 6–8 mm wide, the
constituent fruits closely packed and not retaining a sig-
nificant separate identity (the fruiting hypanthia closely
packed for their full length). Seeds 0.5–0.8 mm long, the
Craven & Lepschi
Wyalkatchem – Mount Walker district southwards to the
Recorded as occurring in Eucalyptus–Mela-
leuca–Acacia woodland, mallee eucalypt–Melaleuca
shrubland, with Casuarina huegeliana, Eucalyptus–Santa-
lum–Melaleuca–Casuarina woodland, on brown sandy clay
loam, grey sandy clay loam, light brown sandy clay loam
over laterite, brown sandy clay loam with ironstone gravel
over granite, yellow brown gravelly (decomposed granite?)
soil, and grey brown sandy loam.