pachyphylla, from the Greek, pachys, thick,
and phyllon, leaf, in reference to the thick leaves
Callistemon pachyphyllus Cheel
0.5–3 m tall.
sericeous to pubescent, sometimes overlaid with veluti-
alternate, 25–119 mm long, 3–15 mm
wide, 4.5–25 times as long as wide, short-petiolate; blade
glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous-pubescent, very nar-
rowly obovate, narrowly obovate or narrowly elliptic, in
transverse section transversely linear or sublunate, the base
very narrowly cuneate or very narrowly attenuate, the apex
obtusely shortly acuminate or very shortly acuminate, the
veins pinnate, 11–22,
sparse, obscure, scattered.
spicate, pseudoterminal or interstitial, with
30–90 monads, 45–65 mm wide.
glabrescent, 3.6–5 mm long.
1–2.3 mm long, herbaceous to the margin.
27–45 per flower; filaments
red or green (once described as creamish), 23–31 mm long;
anthers purple or greenish-yellow.
28–37 mm long.
c. 250–350 per locule.
3.9–7.5 mm long, the
calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland, New South Wales:
from the Hervey Bay district in Queensland to the Port
Stephens district in New South Wales.
Recorded as occurring in swampy heathland,
wet places in wallum flats, Melaleuca quinquenervia wood-
land, steep rocky north-facing slope, open forest, on sand,
skeletal light-brown soil on rock, and peat swamp.
Recorded as flowering from January
This species produced an oil in which
monoterpenes predominated, though sesquiterpenes were
numerous. The principal monoterpenes were a-pinene
(37.5%), a-phellandrene (11.7%) and 1,8-cineole (19.1%),
with lesser amounts of b-pinene (1.8%), limonene (5.5%),
myrcene (1.8%) and a-terpineol (2.7%). The main ses-
quiterpenes encountered (of many) were b-caryophyllene
(3.8%), globulol (1.1%) and spathulenol (0.5%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.1%.
Reference on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 1998, as
There is variation in flower colour within this
species and it should be possible to select superior colour
forms for use as ornamental shrubs in subtropical and
temperate regions. Bushiness should also be a selection
criterion as Elliot and Jones (1993) and Wrigley and Fagg
(1993) reported that pruning is required to produce a
7. Species ac
pallescens, from the Latin palleo, to be pale,
in reference to the pale colour of the flowers
Melaleuca tamariscina subsp. pallescens
Tree or shrub
1–4 m tall; bark hard or
somewhat flaky, black or dark grey.
alternate, peltate, 1.3–5.5 mm long, 0.7–1.2 mm
wide, 1.4–10 times as long as wide, sessile; blade glabrous
or sometimes glabrescent (a few minute marginal cilia
may be present), ovate, narrowly ovate or very narrowly
ovate (more or less rounded angular-ovate), in trans-
verse section strongly depressed obtriangular, the base
truncate, the apex acuminate to narrowly acute, obtusely
shortly acuminate or narrowly acuminate, the veins
moderately dense, obscure,
spicate, interstitial or pseudoter-
minal, with 3–12 triads (rarely monads and then 1–8 per
inflorescence; monads occur in southern populations
through suppression of lateral buds), up to 18 mm wide.
glabrescent or rarely glabrous, 1–1.8 mm long.
abaxially glabrescent or rarely glabrous, costate,
0.6–0.8 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm
deciduous, 1.5–1.6 mm long.
white, 6–8.2 mm long, the bundle claw 3.5–4.1 mm long,
0.5–0.6 times as long as the filaments.
5–9 mm long.
c. 15–40 per locule.
2.5–4 mm long, the calyx
lobes usually weathering away (the extreme basal portion
may become more or less woody and persist as undulations
on the hypanthium rim); cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland: from the central
region south to southern and south-eastern Queensland.
and shrubland, mallee scrubland, open eucalypt woodland,
dense scrubland, on sandy loam, clay pan, and sandy loam
ber to November.
monoterpenes, based on the pinene skeleton, were the
major contributors. The principal components identi-
fied were a-pinene (21–43%), a-pinene oxide (3–6%),
pinocamphone (7–14%), several unknown oxygenated
monoterpenes (up to 10%) and a-terpineol (3–5%). Ses-
quiterpenes did not contribute much to the oil. The main
components were aromadendrene (1–3%) and globulol
(2–5%). An unknown, molecular weight 236, suspected
of being a phenolic ether (4–9%), was also present.
Brophy and Doran 1996
This pinkish-mauve-flowered species is suited to
subtropical regions and can be used as a background or
screening shrub (Holliday 2004).
pallida, from the Latin palleo, to be pale, in
reference to the pale colour of the flowers
Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl.) DC.
1–25 m tall; bark fibrous or
somewhat papery, hard, yellowish-brown, light brown or
glabrescent, sericeous to sericeous-
alternate, 20–79 mm long, 4–17 mm
wide, 2.3–7.5 times as long as wide, long- to short-petio-
late; blade glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous-pubescent,
narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate, elliptic or obovate, in
transverse section transversely linear, sublunate or broadly
v-shaped, the base attenuate or very narrowly attenuate,
the apex shortly acuminate or obtusely shortly acuminate,
the veins pinnate, 6–16,
sparse or moderately
dense, distinct or obscure, scattered.
or interstitial, with 15–50 monads, 20–45 mm wide.
hairy to glabrous, 3.1–4.2 mm long.
abaxially hairy or glabrescent, 1–2.2 mm long,
herbaceous to the margin.
deciduous, 2.9–6 mm
34–70 per flower; filaments pale yellow, yel-
low, lemon or rarely pink or pinkish-red, 8–16 mm long;
12–21 mm long.
c. 70–150 per
3.9–6.6 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous;
Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania: from the border ranges area
of Queensland and New South Wales south to eastern
Victoria and Tasmania.
forest along streams, dense shrubbery on river edge,
Eucalyptus delegatensis forest, margin of coastal heath
on upper cliff face, swamp, rocky hillside, snow gum
open forest, gully areas in dry sclerophyll forest, margin
of Nothofagus temperate rainforest, Eucalyptus pulchella
woodland with low shrub understorey, on an exposed
ridge, limestone, and dolerite.
Recorded as flowering from October
This species produced a monoterpenoid
oil in which the principal components were a-pinene (44–
88%) and 1,8-cineole (0.1–37.0%). There were also lesser
amounts of camphene (0.2–2.0%), limonene (1–4%) and
a-terpineol (0.9–5.0%). There were many other monoter-
penes in amounts of less than 0.5% of the total oil. The
major sesquiterpenes were spathulenol (0.4–0.9%) and
Callistemon pallidus, C. macrandus (an unpublished name)
This is a very variable species, usually occur-
ring as a shrub but a tree form occurs in Tasmania. It is
commonly cultivated as an ornamental garden shrub in
temperate Australia but the tree form should be trialled
for use in parks and larger gardens. Use of the tree form in
hybridisation with red-flowered bottlebrush species, such
as M. citrina, may give rise to a range of cultivars with tree
form but novel flower colours.
paludicola, from the Latin palus, swamp,
marsh, and -cola, inhabitant, dweller, the epithet having
been selected to retain a link with an early name of the
species, Callistemon paludosus
Callistemon paludosus F.Muell.; Callistemon
Shrub or tree
0.6–8 m tall; bark fibrous or
flaking, hard, pale grey to blackish.
puberulous to sericeous.
alternate, 20–68 mm long,
1.3–8 mm wide, 6–30 times as long as wide, short- to
long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, lanuginose to sericeous,
very narrowly elliptic, very narrowly obovate, linear-obovate
or linear-elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear,
sublunate or obsublunate, the base very narrowly attenu-
ate or very narrowly cuneate, the apex acute or obtuse, the
veins pinnate, 11–18,
dense or moderately dense,
distinct or obscure, scattered.
terminal or interstitial, with 10–40 monads, 20–30 mm
glabrous or hairy, 2.3–3.2 mm long.
abaxially hairy (sometimes only with cilia on
the margin), 0.9–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band
0.3 mm wide or herbaceous to the margin.
2.6–4.2 mm long.
48–67 per flower; filaments yel-
lowish-cream, cream, yellow or rarely pink, 7–11 mm long;
10–15 mm long.
c. 110–150 per
3–4.3 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous;
South Australia, Queensland,
New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria:
the Mt Lofty Ranges – Adelaide district in South Australia,
and the Warwick – border region of Queensland, extend-
ing across the tablelands and coastal regions of New South
Wales to central and eastern Victoria.
dry sclerophyll forest, gorges, sand ridges between flood
channels, on pale brown silty sand, rocky alluvium, and
sand among granite rocks.
The oil from this species was predomi-
nantly monoterpenoid in nature, with 1,8-cineole (66%)
being the major component. This was accompanied by
lesser amounts of a-pinene (2.5%), b-pinene (1.6%),
limonene (10.0%), p-cymene (1.8%) and a-terpineol
(6.3%). Sesquiterpenes contributed approximately 10% of
the oil, with the principal identified members being spathu-
lenol (1.4%), b-caryophyllene (1.0%) and globulol (0.6%).
This oil was obtained from a population at Girraween
National Park, Queensland. Collections from Armidale,
Rye Park and Braidwood, all New South Wales, produced
no discernible oil.
Brophy et al. 1998, as
This bottlebrush species most recently was known
as Callistemon sieberi but when transferring the species to
Melaleuca a new epithet was necessary because sieberi had
already been used for a plant from coastal Queensland,
M. sieberi Schauer. Melaleuca paludicola previously had
been confused with M. pityoides (as C. pityoides).
20: 192 (1998)
Pancher (1814–1877), a French explorer and botanist who
collected extensively in New Caledonia
Callistemon pancheri Brongn. & Gris
to 10 m tall; branchlets
hairy, the hairs woolly.
40–70 mm long, 15–20 mm
wide, short- to long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, the hairs
woolly, narrowly obovate, the base attenuate, the apex
rounded, the veins longitudinal, 7–10.
3–3.5 mm long.
with long appressed hairs on the abaxial surface,
1.2–1.8 mm long.
3–5.5 mm long.
flower; filaments yellow to yellowish green, 16–24 mm long.
24–30 mm long.
3 mm long.
New Caledonia: the southern
part of Grande Terre.
Recorded as occurring in rainforests of hills or
plains, or in maquis, in lateritic, more or less deep, colluvial
soils on ultramafic substrates.
quiterpenes than monoterpenes, though the principal
component was a-pinene (24.8%). This compound
was accompanied by lesser amounts of linalool (4.0%),
b-pinene and limonene (both 1.0%) and a-terpineol
(5.6%). The major sesquiterpenes identified were b-caryo-
phyllene (14.1%), caryophyllene oxide (8.4%), spathulenol
(7.3%) and globulol (2.8%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.
Hnawia et al. 2012
It is unfortunate that this very attractive species
cannot be widely grown in subtropical regions but experi-
ence has been that plants from the ultramafic soils of New
Caledonia are extremely difficult to cultivate.
(Brongn. & Gris) Craven & J.W.Dawson
Botany 12: 894 (1999)
papillosa, from the Latin papilla, nipple,
teat, in reference to the papillate leaf surface
0.5–1.2 m tall.
alternate, 6.5–14.5 mm long,
1–1.7 mm wide, 5–11.5 times as long as wide, subsessile
to short-petiolate; blade glabrescent, more or less matted
sericeous to lanuginose-sericeous, generally becoming
more or less lanuginose-pubescent to lanuginose distally,
linear-obovate, linear or narrowly suboblong, subfalcate
to falcate, in transverse section depressed obovate, trans-
versely semielliptic to semicircular or transversely elliptic,
the base narrowly cuneate to attenuate or parallel (blade
width equals petiole width), the apex acuminate or obtuse
to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3,
dense, obscure, more or less in rows to in rows or scattered.
capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes
also upper axillary, with 1–3 triads, up to 18 mm wide.
hairy, glabrescent or glabrous, 2–3 mm
abaxially glabrous or hairy, 0.4–1 mm
long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide or
herbaceous to the margin.
deciduous, 1.2–2 mm
4–7 per bundle; filaments pink, purple,
mauve or purplish-mauve, 6–9.7 mm long, the bundle
claw 1.4–3.1 mm long, 0.2–0.4 times as long as the fila-
6.5–13 mm long.
c. 10–20 per locule.
3.8–5 mm long, with
sepaline teeth (these sometimes weakly developed); coty-
ald River district.
mallee heath, on sandy loam, quartz sand, and sandy clay
Recorded as flowering in September
predominantly sesquiterpenoid in nature; monoterpenes
contributed approximately 30% of the oil. The principal
monoterpene encountered was a-pinene (20.5%). This
was accompanied by lesser amounts of 1,8-cineole (8.1%),
linalool (2.1%), b-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, limonene and
a-terpineol (all <1.5%). The principal sesquiterpenes
encountered were E,E-farnesol (19.4%), globulol (7.4%),
viridiflorol (6.0%), bicyclogermacrene (4.9%) and cube-
ban-11-ol (3.2%). The presence of so much E,E-farnesol is
unusual in a Melaleuca oil.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.
Turcz. ex Craven