Publication: in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic Botany 12: 884 (1999) Derivation



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210

Melaleuc

a laetific

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 884 (1999)

Derivation:

 laetifica, from the Latin laetus, joyful, glad, 

pleasant and -fex, doer, maker, agent, in reference to the 

pleasing yellow flowers of this species



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.4–1 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

puberulous to shortly pubescent overlaid with a sparser 

layer of longer, coarse pubescent hairs. 



Leaves 

alter-


nate, 5.5–12 mm long, 0.5–1.5 mm wide, 6–20 times as 

long as wide, subsessile to rarely short-petiolate; blade 

glabrescent, pubescent, linear-obovate, linear or rarely 

linear-elliptic, in transverse section transversely elliptic, 

depressed obovate, circular, the base parallel (blade width 

equals petiole width) or very narrowly cuneate, the apex 

acute to rounded, obtusely shortly acuminate or rarely 

acuminate, the veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct, more or less in rows. 

Flowers 

capitate, 

pseudoterminal, with 4–10 flowers apparently in mon-

ads, up to 23 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 2.5–3 mm 

long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 2–2.5 mm long, 

scarious throughout. 

Petals 

deciduous, 2.5–4 mm long. 



Stamens 

12–20 per bundle; filaments yellow, cream, 

very pale lemon or creamy-yellow, ageing to pinkish, 

9–11.5 mm long, the bundle claw 4–5(–6.5) mm long, 

0.4–0.5 times as long as the filaments. 

Style 

12–14 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

15–25 per locule. 



Infructescences 

peg-fruited. 



Fruit 

4–6 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering away or 

rarely replaced by sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Kalbarri 

– Hutt River district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland with low 

shrubs, sand plain, low open shrubland, on sandy clay, 

sandstone, and laterite with sand.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to February.

Essential oils:

 The oil obtained from this species 

contained significant amounts of both mono- and 

sesquiterpenes. The principal monoterpene was 1,8-cin-

eole (24–49%) and this was accompanied by lesser 

amounts of a-pinene (1–5%), linalool (0.8–1.0%) and 

a-terpineol (1–4%). The principal sesquiterpenes were 

spathulenol (14–33%), globulol (2–4%), viridiflorol (1–2%) 

and a-cadinol (1–4%). There was also, however, a con-

siderable number of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, in small 

amounts, which were not identified.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.

Notes:

 Forms of this species with strongly coloured flow-

ers provide a spectacular display and the species warrants 

further trialling in areas with a dry Mediterranean climate 

as a small ornamental shrub.

Melaleuca 

laetifica

Craven


211

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a lanc

eolat

a

Publication:

 in Nees, Horae physicae Berolinenses col-

lectae 36 (1820)

Derivation:

 lanceolata, from the Latin lancea, a light 

spear, hence lanceolatus, lanceolate, in reference to the 

shape of the leaf blade

Synonyms:

 Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. occidentalis 

Barlow; Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. planifolia Barlow; 

Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. thaeroides Barlow

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1–10 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glab-


rescent, lanuginulose-puberulous to lanuginulose or rarely 

puberulous, often with some scattered longer pubes-

cent hairs, rarely approaching sericeous-lanuginulose. 

Leaves 

alternate, 3.1–12.5 mm long, 0.7–1.9 mm wide, 

3–9 times as long as wide, short-petiolate to rarely 

subsessile; blade glabrescent, lanuginulose to lanuginulose-

puberulous, rarely with some puberulous hairs or at the 

base of the leaf/petiole with sericeous-lanuginulose hairs, 

very narrowly elliptic, linear-elliptic, very narrowly ovate, 

linear-ovate, narrowly elliptic or rarely narrowly ovate or 

linear, in transverse section transversely elliptic (often 

broady so), depressed obovate or transversely oblong, the 

base attenuate, the apex obtuse or sometimes rounded, the 

veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

moderately dense, obscure, 

more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal 

and sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–12 triads, up 

to 23 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrous or glabrescent to 

hairy, 1.5–3.3 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 

0.5–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band up to 

0.2 mm wide or herbaceous to the margin. 



Petals 

decidu-


ous, 1.5–3 mm long. 

Stamens 

7–20 per bundle; filaments 

white, 4.5–7.5 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–3 mm long, 

0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

3.9–9.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

30–50 per locule. 



Fruit 

3–7.5 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away or sepaline teeth present (these 

occasionally reduced to a low rim around the apex of the 

fruiting hypanthium); cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia, South 

Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria: from 

southern Western Australia eastwards to southern South 

Australia, western Victoria, New South Wales and south-

eastern Queensland.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in a wide range of 

vegetation types, including mallee woodland, closed tall 

Melaleuca woodland, samphire-grassland, brigalow–belah 

open forest, coastal Melaleuca–Leptospermum community, 

Casuarina–Acacia low open woodland with chenopods, 

coastal heathland, salmon gum woodland, on light brown 

sand, deep white sand on coastal dunes, on salt lake edge, 

yellow sand beside creek, red sand dunes, limestone on cliff 

top, brown clay loam with quartzite outcrops, grey sand 

over granite, stony calcareous hillside sand over laterite, 

and on black sandy soil.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to December.

Essential oils:

 The oil from this species was monoter-

penoid in character, though there were significant amounts 

of sesquiterpenes present. The principal monoterpenes 

identified were a-pinene (10–20%), 1,8-cineole (21–33%), 

limonene (3–5%) and a-terpineol (1–3%). A second col-

lection gave a-pinene (7–13%) and 1,8-cineole (48–68%). 

The main sesquiterpenes encountered were globulol 

(3–8%), viridiflorol (2–5%) and spathulenol (11–15%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was poor 

at <0.1%. The sample containing the larger proportion of 

1,8-cineole gave a yield of 0.4%.

Notes:

 Melaleuca lanceolata is a variable taxon and four 

subspecies have been proposed previously, i.e. lanceolata, 

Melaleuca 

lanceolata

Otto


Melaleuc

a lanc

eolat

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


212

Melaleuc

a lanc

eolat

(c

on



tinued

) 



 7

. Species ac

counts

occidentalis, planifolia and thaeroides. There are certainly 



some distinctive morphs represented in the available col-

lections but their taxonomic status needs to be clarified. 

Until the morphological and geographical limits of the 

morphs are more fully known, the complex is best treated 

as a single taxon.

The species is suitable for planting in a broad range 

of environments, from coastal areas that experience salt 

winds, to saline soil areas, and to calcareous soil regions. 

Care should be taken to obtain seed for propagating 

planting stock from an appropriate genotype to optimise 

performance.


213

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a lar

a

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 885 (1999)



Derivation:

 lara, from the Greek laros, agreeable, 

pleasant, lovely, in reference to the attractive flowers of 

this species



Description:

 

Shrub 

1–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabres-


cent, pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 4.5–8.5 mm long, 

2.8–3.8 mm wide, 1.5–3 times as long as wide, subses-

sile to short-petiolate; blade glabrescent, ciliate with 

some sparse pubescent hairs on the adaxial and (rarely) 

abaxial surfaces of the blade also, obovate or elliptic, in 

transverse section transversely linear, the base cuneate, 

the apex rounded to obtuse or rarely acute, the veins 

longitudinal (some poorly developed reticulate veins are 

present also), 3, 



oil glands 

moderately dense, distinct, 

more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoter-

minal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 2–5 triads, 

up to 25 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.5–3 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous or glabrescent, 0.7–1.5 mm 

long, scarious throughout or rarely scarious in a marginal 

band 1–1.1 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.9–3 mm long. 



Stamens 

9–13 per bundle; filaments yellow, ageing to 

red, 8–10.5 mm long, the bundle claw 3–4.3 mm long, 

0.3–0.5 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

12–15.5 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

c. 15–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

peg-


fruited. 

Fruit 

4–5.5 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering 

away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Kalbarri 

district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland, sand plain 

over river gorge, and on sand.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September 

and October.

Essential oils:

 This species produced a predominantly 

monoterpenoid leaf oil. The principal monoterpenes 

encountered were a-pinene (30.8%) and 1,8-cineole 

(28.1%). These were accompanied by lesser amounts of 

limonene (2.6%), a-terpineol (4.2%), linalool (1.7%) and 

b-pinene (1.8%). The principal sesquiterpenes encountered 

were globulol (4.9%), viridiflorol (2.4%), spathulenol 

(2.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2%.



Melaleuca 

lara

Craven


214

Melaleuc

a lasiandr

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae 3: 115 

(1862)


Derivation:

 lasiandra, from the Greek lasio-, lasi-, hairy, 

woolly, and andros, male, in reference to the hairy staminal 

filaments



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

0.5–8 m tall; bark papery, 

white or grey-white. 

Branchlets 

hairy, sericeous to 

sericeous-pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 12–50 mm long, 

2–11 mm wide, 2–10.5 times as long as wide, short-pet-

iolate; blade hairy, sericeous, narrowly obovate, narrowly 

elliptic, very narrowly obovate, very narrowly elliptic or 

obovate, in transverse section transversely linear, the base 

attenuate, the apex acuminate or acute, the veins longitu-

dinal, 5–7, 



oil glands 

moderately dense or dense, distinct 

to rarely obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

spi-


cate, pseudoterminal and sometimes also upper axillary, 

with 2–11 triads, up to 22 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 


1.5–2.2 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy, 0.9–1.5 mm 

long, herbaceous to the margin to rarely scarious in a mar-

ginal band up to 0.3 mm wide. 



Petals 

caducous, 1.8–3 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

6–20 per bundle; filaments hairy, yellow, 

white, cream, pale greenish or pinkish, 5–9 mm long, the 

bundle claw 1.2–4.2 mm long, 0.3 times as long as the fila-

ments. 

Style 

8–10.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

50–60 per locule. 



Fruit 

2–3 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering away or the 

basal portion of the sepals may become more or less woody 

and persist as a low woody ring or undulations around the 

aperture; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia, Northern 

Territory, Queensland: from the Pilbara and Kimberley 

regions of Western Australia eastwards through the North-

ern Territory to western and south-central Queensland.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in shrubland, mixed 

woodland, sand plain, rocky gullies, flood plains, on sand, 

clayey soil, sand over limestone, sandy loam, sandy gravel, 

and at base of a granite outcrop.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to September.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi-

nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were 

a-pinene (24–31%) and limonene (28–32%), with lesser 

amounts of b-pinene (8–11%), a-terpineol (2–4%), 

1,8-cineole (0.1–5.0%) and terpinen-4-ol (1–2%). Sesqui-

terpenes did not contribute much to the oil, with the major 

compounds being globulol (0.7–8.0%) and spathulenol 

(0.2–3.0%). Benzaldehyde (1–2%) was also detected in 

the oil.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.

References on essential oils:

 Brophy et al. 1988; 

Brophy and Doran 1996



Notes:

 The hairy staminal filaments are a very diagnostic 

feature of M. lasiandra. The species was reported by Hol-

liday (2004) to be in cultivation as an ornamental tree in 

Carnarvon, Western Australia, and it may well be suited 

for cultivation more widely in arid to semi-arid regions.



Melaleuca 

lasiandra

F.Muell.


215

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a lat

er

alis

Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 339 (1852)

Derivation:

 lateralis, from the Latin lateralis, lateral, 

in reference to the inflorescences being inserted on the 

branchlets and branches below the leaves



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.5–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon 


glabrescent, the lanuginulose to lanuginulose-puberulous 

to lanuginulose hairs ephemeral. 



Leaves 

alternate, 

2–7 mm long, 0.5–1.3 mm wide, 2.4–6 times as long 

as wide, subsessile; blade soon glabrescent, the lanug-

inulose-puberulous to lanuginulose hairs ephemeral, 

linear-obovate, linear-elliptic, narrowly suboblong or rarely 

narrowly obovate, in transverse section depressed obovate 

or semicircular to transversely semielliptic, the base nar-

rowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex obtuse, obtusely 

shortly acuminate, rounded or rarely bluntly acute, 

1-veined, 

oil glands 

moderately dense, obscure, in rows. 



Inflorescences 

capitate, lateral, with 4–15 monads, up to 

12 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrous (rarely with a few scat-

tered puberulous hairs but effectively glabrous), 1–1.8 mm 

long. 


Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.3–0.6 mm long, 

herbaceous to the margin or scarious in a marginal band 

up to 0.3 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long. 

Stamens 4–12 per bundle; filaments pink, reddish-pink or 

mauve, 4–5.5 mm long, the bundle claw 0.8–1.9 mm long, 

0.2–0.4 times as long as the filaments. 

Style 

5.5–7 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

35–40 per locule. 



Fruit 

2.6–3 mm long, the 

calyx lobes weathering away (although the woody bases of 

the lobes may be visible on younger fruits as small undula-

tions); cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Stirling Range eastwards to the Lake King district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in low mallee with 

heath understorey, tall shrubland, open mallee woodland, 

on sandy loam, sand over clay, and gravel.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to October.

Essential oils:

 This species presented a monoterpenoid 

oil. The principal component was 1,8-cineole (64.8%) and 

this was accompanied by lesser amounts of limonene 

(7.3%), a-pinene (3%), b-pinene (1.4%), myrcene (1.7%) 

and a-terpineol (0.9%). Sesquiterpenes, while plentiful, 

did not contribute much to the oil. The main members 

were globulol (2.8%), viridiflorol (2.8%), spathulenol 

(1.1%), cubeban-11-ol (1%) and an unknown oxygenated 

sesquiterpene (1.3%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.

Notes:

 This species should be trialled more widely for use 

as an ornamental shrub as the clustered, pinkish to mauve 

flowers can be very showy.



Melaleuca 

lateralis

Turcz.


216

Melaleuc

a lat

eriflor

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Flora Australiensis 3: 136 (1867)

Derivation:

 lateriflora, from the Latin lateralis, lateral, 

and -florus, flowered, in reference to the inflorescences 

being inserted on the branchlets and branches below the 

leaves


Description:

 

Shrub 

0.2–4 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon 


glabrescent (the lanuginulose hairs ephemeral). 

Leaves 

alternate, 4–11.5 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide, 

5–12 times as long as wide, subsessile to short-petiolate; 

blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulose-puberulous to 

lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, linear-obovate, 

linear-ovate, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly 

ovate, in transverse section transversely narrowly elliptic, 

transversely elliptic, subcircular or flattened transversely 

semielliptic, the base broadly attenuate or narrowly cune-

ate, the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate, 

narrowly acute, acute or rounded, the veins longitudi-

nal, 3, 


oil glands 

sparse, obscure, more or less in rows. 



Inflorescences 

capitate, lateral or pseudoterminal and 

then approaching interstitial, with 1–15 monads, up to 

12 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrescent, 1–2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrescent or glabrous, 0.6–

1.2 mm long, herbaceous to (or almost to) the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long. 



Stamens 

6–13 per 

bundle; filaments white or creamy-white, 1.5–5.5 mm long, 

the bundle claw 0.2–0.3 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as 

the filaments. 

Style 

4–6 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–40 per loc-

ule. 

Fruit 

3–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons 

subobvolute (almost planoconvex).

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

East Yuna – Mullewa district south to the Stirling Range 

area and eastwards to the Coolgardie–Zanthus district.

Ecology:




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