Pollen Flora of Pakistan XIII. Campanulaceae



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Pollen Flora of Pakistan - XIII. 

Campanulaceae

Anjum PERVEEN, Mohammad QAISER

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-PAKISTAN

Received: 04.03.1998

Accepted: 16.10.1988

Tr. J. of Botany

23 (1999) 45-51

© TÜBİTAK

45

Abstract: The pollen morphology of 10 species belonging to the 3 genera of the family 

Campanulaceae were investigated with a

light microscope and sacanning microscope. It is eurypalynous in nature. Pollen grains are mostly oblate-spheroidal, rarely prolate-

spheroidal or spheroidal, often suboblate. Tectum striate-rugulate, often subpsilate with spinules. On the basis of apertural types 2

distinct pollen types are recognized viz. 

Campanula latifolia - type, Codonopsis clematidea - type.

Key Words: Pollen morphology, Campanu, Pakistan.

Pakistan’ın Polen Florası - XIII. 

Campanulaceae

Özet: Pakistan’da yetişen 

Campanulaceae familyasına dahil 3 cinse ait 10 türün polen morfolojisi ışık ve taramalı elektron mikroskobu

kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Familya polen morfolojisi açısından çeşitlilik göstermektedir (öripalinoz). Polenler çoğunlukla oblat-sfer-

oyidal, nadiren prolat-sferoyidal ya da sferoyidal, sıklıkla sub-oblattır. Tektum sitriat-rugulat, sıklıkla spinüllü sub-psilattır. Apertür

tiplerine bağlı olarak iki belirgin polen tipi belirlenmiştir. Bunlar 

Campanula latifolia - tip ve Codonopsis clematidea - tipdir.

Anahtar Sözcükler: Polen morfolojisi, Campanulaceae, Pakistan.

Introduction

Campanulaceae is a large cosmopoliton family with

about 87 genera and 1950 species, distributed mainly in

the northern hemisphere (1, 2). It is represented in

Pakistan by 3 genera and c. 26 native species (3).

Cronquist (4) divided the family 

Campanulaceae into

three subfamilies i.e., 

Campanuloidae, Cyhioideae,

Lobelioideae. The comparative pollen morphology of the

family 

Campanulaceae has been studied by Chapman (5).



Dunbar & Wellentinus (6) utilized the palynological data

of the family 

Campanulaceae in numerical taxonomy.

Sahay (7) examined the pollen morphology of some

members of the family 

Campanulaceae from Eastern

India. Dunbar (8) studied the pollen morphology of

Campanulaceae and related familise with special reference

to ultrastructure. Avetisian (9) described the palynology

of the order 

Campanulales. Oybak and Pinar (10)

examined the pollen morphology of some species of the

family 

Campanulaceae



from Turkey. The pollen

morphology of the family 

Campanulaceae has also been

studied by Tarvashi (11), Avetisian (12, 13), Geslor &

Medas (14), Erdtman (15), Fernandes (16), Badre et al.

(17), Belem (18), Inceoglu (19-21) and Moore & Webb

(22). There are no previous reports available dealing with

the pollen morphology of the family 

Campanulaceae from

Pakistan. The present investigation is based on the pollen

morphology of 10 species distributed in 3 genera.

Materials and Methods

Pollen samples were obtained from Karachi University

Herbarium (KUH) or were collected from the field. The

list of voucher specimens is deposited in KUH. The pollen

grains were prepared for light (LM) and scanning

microscopy (SEM) by the standard methods described by

Erdtman (15). For light microscopy, the pollen grains

were mounted in unstained glycerine jelly and

observations were made with a Nikon Type 2 microscope,

under (E40, 0.65) and oil immersion (E100, 1.25), using

a 10x eye piece. For SEM studies, pollen grains were

suspended in a drop of water and directly transferred

with a fine pipette to a metallic stub using double-sided

adhesive tape and coated with gold in a sputtering

Research Article


Pollen Flora of Pakistan - XIII. 

Campanulaceae

chamber (Ion suptter JFC-1100). Coating was restricted

to 150Å. The S.E.M examination was carried out under a

Jeol microscope JSM-T200. The measurements were

based on 15-20 readings from each specimen. Pollen

diameter, polar axis (P) and equatorial diameter (E), colpi

length, apocolpium, mesocolpium and exine thickness

were measured (Tables 1 & 2).

The terminology used is in accordance with Erdtman

(15); Kremp (23); Faegri & Iversen (24) and Walker &

Doyle (25).

46

Name of taxa



Shape

Aperture


Polar length

Equatorial diameter

Pore diameter

No.


(P) in µm

(E) im µm

in µm

Asyneuma thomsonii



Pr-sph

4

28.12(34.08±0.66)



25.12(33.84±0.66)

5.38(6.48±0.21)

(Hook. f.) Bornm.

37.6


37.76

7.18


Campanula

Sph


3

25.13(27.1±0.78)

25.12(27.18±1.13)

4.38(5.67±0.21)

leucoclada Boiss

35.91


35.9

7.18


C. aristata

Pr-sph


6-7

25.4(28.8±0.36)

26.9(30.70±0.51)

3.22(3.77±0.13)

Wall.

30.6


32.31

5.38


C. latifolia L. Ob-sph

3

29.7(32.56±0.39)



29.97(32.63±0.11)

5.9(6.54±0.11)

34.91

35.99


6.99

C.tenuissima

Ob-sph

3

19.98(20.1±0.25)



20.31(23.8±0.22)

2.99(3.57±0.15)

Dunn

21.64


23.31

4.99


C. argyrotricha

Ob-sph


3

25.3(27.36±0.37)

25.3(28.51±0.17)

3.59(6.08±0.29)

Wall.

29.11


28.71

7.18


C. cashmeriana

Ob-sph


3

21.8(28.61±0.62)

25.11(28.91±0.47)

-

Royle



33.02

32.31


C. pallida

Ob-sph


3

28.72(34.41±0.72)

25.11(33.6±0.66)

5.38(5.71±0.17)

Wall.

39.4


39.4

6.82


Name of taxa

Shape


Aperture

Polar length

Equatorial Diameter

Colpus length

No.

(P) in µm



(E) im µm

in µm


Codonopsis clematidea

Sub-ob


8-10

43.08(46.31±1.45)

50.26(54.11±1.20)

32.31(37.01±0.18)

(Schrenk) C.B. Clarke

46.61


57.41

43.03


C. obtusa

Sub-ob


6-7

43.08(49.31±5.45)

48.07(48.19±1.20)

35.31(46.01±0.32)

(Chipp) Nannf.

65.44


54.5

34.49


Table 1.

General pollen characters of species found in pollen type 

Campanula latiƒolia.

Table 2.


General pollen characters of species found in pollen type 

Codonopsis clematidea.



A. PERVEEN, M. QAISER

Observations

General pollen characters of the family

Campanulaceae

Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical,

isopolar, rarely apolar, mostly oblate-spheroidal, rarely

prolate-spheroidal or suboblate, often spheroidal,

colpate-porate. Sexine thicker or thinner than the nexine,

often as thick as the nexine. Tectum rugulate-reticulate or

rugulate-striate, rarely subpsilate with spinules. On the

basis of apertural types 2 distinct pollen types are

recognized viz. 

Campanula latifolia - type, codonopsis

clematidea - type,

Pollen type I: 

Campanula latifolia - type (Fig. 1 A-I;

Fig. 2 A-D; Fig. 3 A-D).

Pollen class: Triporate rarely 4-7-porate

P/E ratio: Subtransverse to semi-erect, rarely

semitransverse.

47

Figure 1.



Scanning Electron micrographs of pollen grains.

Asyneuma thomsonii: A, Equatorial view; B, Exine pattern. Campanula argyrotricha: C, polar view. D, Exine pattern. C. Cashmeriana: E,

Equatorial view; F, Exine pattern. C. latifolia G, Exine pattern; H, Equatorial view. 

C. teniussima: I, Exine pattern.

Scale bar = A, C-I = 10 µm; B = 1 µm.


Pollen Flora of Pakistan - XIII. 

Campanulaceae

Shape: Prolate-spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal, rarely

spheroidal.

Apertures: Ectoaperture-pori small circular, often

with operculum.

Exine: Sexine thicker than the nexine, rarely thinner

than the nexine, often as thick as the nexine.

Ornamentation: Tectum finely reticulate-rugulate,

often finely punctate with spinules, 0.71-1.88 um in size.

Measurements:

Polar length (P) 19.98

(29.94±0.13) 39.9 µm, Equatorial diameter (E) 20.6

(29.75±1.41) 39.41 µm, pori 2.29 (5.35±1.94) 7.81

µm in diameter. Mesoporium 10.7 (18.54±0.22) 21.5

µm. Apoporium 7.12 (18.54±0.36) 29.11 µm. Exine

0.33 (1.57±0.19) 2.81 µm thick.

Species included:

Asyneuma thomsonii (Hook. f.) Bornm., Campanula

argyrotricha Wall., C. aristata Wall., C. leucoclada Boiss.,

C. latifolia L., C. pallida Wall., C. tenuissima Dunn,

48

Figure 2.



Scanning Electron micrographs of pollen grains.

Campanula tenuissima: A, polar view; B, Equatorial view. C. aristata: C, polar view; D, exine pattern. Codonopsis clematidea: E, Polar view;

F, Exine pattern. 

Codonopsis obtusa: G, Polar view; H, Equatorial view, I, Exine surface.

Scale bar = A-I = 10 µm.


A. PERVEEN, M. QAISER

Key to the species

1. + Pollen grains prolate-spheroidal - - - - - - - - 2

- Pollen grains oblate-spheroidal or spheroidal- 3

2. + Tectum finely striate with spinules - 

Asyneuma


thomsonii

3. + Pollen grains spheroidal -

Campanula leucoclada

- Pollen grains oblate-spheroidal - - - - - - - - - 4

4. + Polar length 19.9 -21.61 µm - - 

C. tenuissima

- Polar length 21.9-39.41 µm- - - - - - - - - - - 5

5. + Tectum subpsilate with spinules

C. cashmeriana

- Tectum not as above- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6

6. + Apoporium 12.5-14.3 µm - - - 

C. argyrotricha

- Apoporium 7.18-10.81 µm - - - - - - 

C. pallida

Pollen type II: 

Codonopsis - type (Fig. 2E-I).

Pollen class: 6-10-colpate, zonoaperturate.

P/E ratio: Semitransverse.

Shape: Suboblate.

Apertures: Ectoaperture-colpi medium, narrow with

acute ends. Endoaperture: absent.

Exine: Sexine thicker than the nexine rarely thinner

than the nexine.

Ornamentation: Tectum finely reticulate-rugulate

with spinules.

Measurements:

Polar length (P) 43.08

(54.11±0.13) 65.4 µm, Equatorial diameter (E) 43.09

(50.05±1.41) 57.27 µm, colpus 32.2 (37.64±1.94)

43.06 µm long. Mesocolpium 14.36 (17.87.6±0.22)

49

Figure 3.



Light micrographs of pollen grains.

Campanula artistata: A, polar view; B, Equatorial view. C. leucoclada: C, polar view; D, Equatorial view.

Scale bar = A-D = 20


Pollen Flora of Pakistan - XIII. 

Campanulaceae

21.6 µm. Apocolpium 7.18 (9.87±0.36) 12.6 µm. Exine

0.72 (1.97±0.19) 3.28 µm thick. P/E ratio: 0.75-1.10

(Table 2).

Species included

Codonopsis clematidea (Schrenk) C.B. Clarke, C.

obtusa (Chipp) Nannf.

Key to the species

1. + Tectum finely reticulate-rugulate with spinules

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Codonopsis clematidea

- Tectum striate-rugulate with spinules

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

C. obtusa

Discussion

Campanulaceae is a eurypalynous family in which the

pollen morphology is significantly useful at generic and

specific level. Erdtman (15) also reported a similar type

of pollen in this family.

In our study the most striking variation was found in

apertural types. The pollen grains are radially

symmetrical, isopolar, rarely apolar, oblate-spheroidal to

suboblate or prolate-spheroidal, porate or colpate, sexine

thicker or thinner than the nexine, often as thick as the

nexine. Tectum rugulate-reticulate or rugulate-striate

often finely punctate with spinules.

On the basis of apertural types 2 pollen types are

recognized viz 

Campanula latifolia - type and Codonopsis

clematidea - type.

Pollen type I is easily distinguished by its three pores

(rarely 4-7). Tectum finely striate - rugulate, rarely finely

punctate (

Asyneuma thomsonii (Hook. f.) Bornm.,

Campanula argyrotricha Wall.) with spinules. The pollen

grains are generally subtransverse to semi-erect rarely

semitransverse. This pollen type includes all the studied

species of the genus 

Campanula L., Campanula

argyrotricha Wall., C. aristata Wall., C. cashmeriana

Royle, 

C. leucoclada Boiss., C. latifolia L., C. pallida Wall.,



C. tenuissima Dunn, and a single species (Asyneuma

thomsonii (Hook. f.) Bornm) of the genus Asyneuma

Griseb. et Schrenk. A similar type of pollen grain in the

same genus has also been reported by Inceoglu (19).

However, species of 

Campanula L., genus show

considerable variation in their shape, size, apoporium and

exine ornamentation which are significant enough for

characterizing the species (see key to the species).

Pollen type II is easily recognized by its 6-10-colpate

pollen grains. Tectum is finely reticulate to striate-

rugulate with spinules. Shape is usually suboblate, 2

species of genus (

Codonopsis Wall.) are included in this

pollen type. Although the species are alike palynologically,

they show little variation in their tectum type. In

Codonopsis clematidea (Schrenk) C.B. Clarke, the tectum

is finely reticulate-rugulate with spinules, whereas 

C.

obtusa (Chipp) Nannf. has a striate-rugulate tectum with



spinules. Erdtman (15) also described a similar type of

pollen in this genus.



References

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