Lower Hunter Vegetation Mapping prn 1213-0235



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Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Lower Hunter Vegetation Mapping

PRN 1213-0235

13 June 2013






  1. Document information

Client: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Title: Lower Hunter Vegetation Mapping

Subtitle: PRN 1213-0235

Document No: 2117361A-ECO-REP-002 RevD



Date: 13 June 2013




Appendix ARev

Appendix BDate

Appendix CDetails

Appendix DA

Appendix E20/3/2013

Appendix FFinal Draft

Appendix GB

Appendix H21/05/2013

Appendix IDraft

Appendix JC

Appendix K07/06/2013

Appendix LFinal

Appendix MD

Appendix N13/06/2013

Appendix OFinal




  1. Author, Reviewer and Approver details

  1. Prepared by:

  1. Selga Harrington
    Tanya Bangel

  1. Date: 13/06/2013

  1. Signature:





  1. Reviewed by:

  1. Alex Cockerill

  1. Date: 13/06/2013

  1. Signature:



  1. Approved by:

  1. Alex Cockerill

  1. Date: 13/06/2013

  1. Signature:






  1. Distribution

  1. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Parsons Brinckerhoff file




Appendix P©Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited 2013

  1. Copyright in the drawings, information and data recorded in this document (the information) is the property of Parsons Brinckerhoff. This document and the information are solely for the use of the authorised recipient and this document may not be used, copied or reproduced in whole or part for any purpose other than that for which it was supplied by Parsons Brinckerhoff. Parsons Brinckerhoff makes no representation, undertakes no duty and accepts no responsibility to any third party who may use or rely upon this document or the information.




  1. Document owner

Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited

ABN 80 078 004 798

Level 2 54 Marcus Clarke Street


Canberra ACT 2600
GPO Box 331
Canberra ACT 2601
Australia
Tel: +61 2 6281 9500
Fax: +61 2 6281 9501
Email: canberra@pb.com.au
www.pbworld.com

Certified to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, AS/NZS 4801
A GRI Rating: Sustainability Report 2011


Funded by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities through the Sustainable Regional Development Program



Creative Commons

This report is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en).

Recommended citation: Cockerill, A., Harrington, S and Bangel, T. (2013). Lower Hunter Vegetation Mapping. Report funded by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities through the Sustainable Regional Development Program. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Canberra.

Contents



Page number

Appendix ARev 1

Appendix BDate 1

Appendix CDetails 1

Appendix DA 1

Appendix E20/3/2013 1

Appendix FFinal Draft 1

Appendix GB 1

Appendix H21/05/2013 1

Appendix IDraft 1

Appendix JC 1

Appendix K07/06/2013 1

Appendix LFinal 1

Appendix MD 2

Appendix N13/06/2013 2

Appendix OFinal 2

Appendix P©Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited 2013 2

Abbreviations 5

Executive summary 8

P.1.Introduction 10

P.1.Introduction 10

P.1.1Background 10

P.1.1Background 10

P.1.2Project aims 10

P.1.2Project aims 10

P.2.Methods 14

P.2.Methods 14

P.2.1Personnel 14

P.2.1Personnel 14

Appendix QAlex Cockerill 14

Appendix RBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix SProject Director – report review, consultation, field survey 14

Appendix TSelga Harrington 14

Appendix UBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix VProject Manager – report preparation 14

Appendix WAllan Richardson 14

Appendix XBEnvSc (Hons) 14

Appendix YBotanist – field surveys, vegetation mapping 14

Appendix ZPaul Rossington 14

Appendix AABSc, Dip WldMgt 14

Appendix ABBotanist – field surveys 14

Appendix ACTanya Bangel 14

Appendix ADBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix AEBotanist – field surveys, report preparation 14

Appendix AFSam Wilkins 14

Appendix AGDip GIS 14

Appendix AHGIS team lead 14

Appendix AIRob Suansri 14

Appendix AJBSc 14

Appendix AKGIS specialist 14

Appendix ALEmily Mitchell 14

Appendix AMBDevStud, Cert IV SIS 14

Appendix ANGIS specialist 14

AN.1.1Desktop review of existing data 14

AN.1.1Desktop review of existing data 14

Appendix AOVegetation Survey, Classification and Mapping Lower Hunter and Central Coast Region (LHCCREMS) 15

Appendix APLower Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy (2003) 15

Appendix AQGreater Hunter Native Vegetation Mapping (GHM) 15

Appendix ARSivertsen et al. (2011) 15

Appendix ASVegetation of the Cessnock-Kurri region, Cessnock LGA, New South Wales: Survey, Classification and Mapping 15

Appendix ATBell S and Driscoll C (2007) 15

Appendix AUState Forests Mapping of NSW State Forest 15

Appendix AVNSW State Forests (undated) 15

Appendix AWThe Native Vegetation of Yengo and Parr Reserves and Surrounds 15

Appendix AXDepartment of Environment & Climate Change (2008) 15

Appendix AYVegetation of the Tomago and Tomaree Sandbeds, Port Stephens, New South Wales. Management of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems. 15

Appendix AZBell S and Driscoll C (2006b) 15

Appendix BAThe Natural Vegetation of the Maitland LGA 15

Appendix BBHill L (2003) 15

Appendix BCVegetation Mapping of the Lake Macquarie LGA: Stages 1-3 15

Appendix BDBell S and Driscoll C (2012) 15

Appendix BEVegetation of Werakata, National Park, Hunter Valley, New South Wales 15

Appendix BFBell S (2004) 15

Appendix BGGlenrock State Conservation Area and Awabakal Nature Reserve Vegetation Survey 15

Appendix BHBell S (2006) 15

Appendix BIVegetation mapping of Watagans National Park and Jilliby State Conservation Area 15

Appendix BJBell S and Driscoll C (2006a) 15

Appendix BKWollemi National Park Vegetation Survey (1998) 15

Appendix BLBell S (1998) 15

Appendix BMBlue Gum Hills Vegetation 15

Appendix BN('Blue Gum Hills Vegetation' 1997) 15

Appendix BOVegetation and floristics of Columbey National Park, lower Hunter Valley, New South Wales 15

Appendix BPBell S (2009) 15

Appendix BQYengo National Park and Parr State Conservation Area Vegetation Survey for use in fire management 16

Appendix BRBell S et al. (1993) 16

BR.1.1Mapping refinement within Cessnock LGA 16

BR.1.1Mapping refinement within Cessnock LGA 16

BR.1.1.1Aerial Photographic Interpretation 16

BR.1.1.2Field surveys 16

BR.1.1.3Rapid Data Point survey 16

Appendix BSA 19

Appendix BT19,920 19

Appendix BU15 January to 6 February 2013 19

Appendix BV60 19

Appendix BW153 19

Appendix BXB 19

Appendix BY2,383 19

Appendix BZ12 February 2013 19

Appendix CA8 19

Appendix CB3 19

Appendix CCC 19

Appendix CD6301 19

Appendix CE17 to 23 January 2013 19

Appendix CF40 19

Appendix CG70 19

Appendix CHD 19

Appendix CI1450 19

Appendix CJ16 to 23 January 2013 19

Appendix CK20 19

Appendix CL13 19

Appendix CMTotal 19

Appendix CN30,054 19

Appendix CO15 January to 12 February 19

Appendix CP128 19

Appendix CQ239 19

CQ.1.1.1Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 19

CQ.1.2Consolidated vegetation mapping 19

CQ.1.2Consolidated vegetation mapping 19

CQ.1.3High Priority Conservation Areas 20

CQ.1.3High Priority Conservation Areas 20

CQ.1.4GIS 21

CQ.1.4GIS 21

CQ.1.4.1Preliminary work 21

CQ.1.4.2Field work assistance 21

CQ.1.4.3Data compilation 21

CQ.1.4.4GIS tasks 22

CQ.1.5Stakeholder consultation 22

CQ.1.5Stakeholder consultation 22

CQ.1.6Limitations 22

CQ.1.6Limitations 22

CQ.1.6.1Reliance on externally supplied data 22

CQ.1.6.2Additional mapping projects not included in source data 23

CQ.1.6.3Field survey limitations 23

CQ.1.6.4GIS limitations 24

CQ.2.Vegetation mapping 25

CQ.2.Vegetation mapping 25

CQ.2.1Review of existing mapping 25

CQ.2.1Review of existing mapping 25

CQ.2.2Refined vegetation map for Cessnock LGA 28

CQ.2.2Refined vegetation map for Cessnock LGA 28

CQ.2.3Vegetation map for Lower Hunter region 28

CQ.2.3Vegetation map for Lower Hunter region 28

Appendix CR52.61 32

Appendix CS15.44 32

Appendix CT4.17 32

Appendix CU53.83 32

Appendix CV999.57 32

Appendix CW1253.33 32

Appendix CX7.12 32

Appendix CY82.25 32

Appendix CZ12.63 32

Appendix DA2397.44 33

Appendix DB62.84 33

Appendix DC35.45 33

Appendix DD147.40 33

Appendix DE602.16 33

Appendix DF7156.86 33

Appendix DG4653.79 33

Appendix DH14857.67 33

Appendix DI3.11 33

Appendix DJ2979.05 33

Appendix DK3591.32 34

Appendix DL6771.19 34

Appendix DM893.79 34

Appendix DN4305.22 34

Appendix DO6548.50 34

Appendix DP11277.06 34

Appendix DQ1238.16 34

Appendix DR5931.67 34

Appendix DS787.48 34

Appendix DT14834.34 34

Appendix DU2219.53 35

Appendix DV911.09 35

Appendix DW2073.15 35

Appendix DX3195.51 35

Appendix DY804.11 35

Appendix DZ7836.65 35

Appendix EA62.66 35

Appendix EB823.42 35

Appendix EC0.24 35

Appendix ED26079.58 35

Appendix EE30.30 36

Appendix EF11.43 36

Appendix EG18599.16 36

Appendix EH10172.21 36

Appendix EI140.02 36

Appendix EJ214.17 36

Appendix EK4911.95 36

Appendix EL1691.89 36

Appendix EM12809.29 36

Appendix EN13.49 36

Appendix EO2763.36 37

Appendix EP561.14 37

Appendix EQ5039.44 37

Appendix ER1852.46 37

Appendix ES92.34 37

Appendix ET18795.24 37

Appendix EU953.38 37

Appendix EV201.81 37

Appendix EW63.59 37

Appendix EX308.31 37

Appendix EY9.22 38

Appendix EZ7215.85 38

Appendix FA1602.38 38

Appendix FB905.16 38

Appendix FC2307.18 38

Appendix FD270.97 38

Appendix FE230.43 38

Appendix FF158.58 38

Appendix FG287.28 38

Appendix FH31.42 38

Appendix FI297.59 39

Appendix FJ268.06 39

Appendix FK169.08 39

Appendix FL1443.00 39

Appendix FM796.07 39

Appendix FN65.14 39

Appendix FO534.51 39

Appendix FP444.64 39

Appendix FQ87.00 39

Appendix FR71.13 39

Appendix FS90.69 40

Appendix FT253.46 40

Appendix FU3689.09 40

Appendix FV570.68 40

Appendix FW412.99 40

Appendix FX336.42 40

Appendix FY12.97 40

Appendix FZ63.34 40

Appendix GA1232.60 40

Appendix GB133.33 40

Appendix GC18.06 41

Appendix GD3.30 41

Appendix GE180.00 41

Appendix GF18.37 41

Appendix GG4564.84 41

Appendix GH140.78 41

Appendix GI0.02 41

Appendix GJ3.37 41

Appendix GK192.69 41

Appendix GL107.83 41

Appendix GM83.02 42

Appendix GN5829.43 42

Appendix GO172.64 42

GO.1.Conservation values 43

GO.1.Conservation values 43

GO.1.1Matters of National Environmental Significance 43

GO.1.1Matters of National Environmental Significance 43

GO.1.1.1Threatened species and Threatened ecological communities 43

GO.1.1.2Migratory species 44

GO.1.1.3Wetlands of international importance 44

GO.1.1.4World Heritage and National Heritage 44

GO.1.2Regional wildlife corridors 44

GO.1.2Regional wildlife corridors 44

GO.2.High priority conservation areas 47

GO.2.High priority conservation areas 47

Appendix GPN 48

Appendix GQVegetation occurs adjacent to and forms part of Watagans National Park 48

Appendix GRLowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia 48

Appendix GSYes 48

Appendix GTYes 48

Appendix GULarge patch size 48

Appendix GVOccurs within the Lower Hunter Regional Green Corridor 48

Appendix GWNo 48

Appendix GX 48

Appendix GYR 48

Appendix GZYes, contains Wallarah National Park and parts of Munmorah National Park 48

Appendix HAContains small areas of Littoral Rainforest 48

Appendix HBYes, provides habitat for a range of threatened flora including Tetratheca juncea and Diuris praecox 48

Appendix HCYes, provides habitat for a range of fauna including Grey-headed Flying-fox 48

Appendix HDLarge 48

Appendix HENot within an identified corridor. 48

Appendix HFYes. Wallarah Peninsulat identified as having some of best examples of Littoral Rainforest 48

Appendix HHL 49

Appendix HIContains and is in proximity to Hunter Estuary National Park 49

Appendix HJSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh- nominated community 49

Appendix HKYes, Euphrasia arguta 49

Appendix HLYes, specifically migratory wading birds 49

Appendix HMLarge 49

Appendix HNForms part of Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 49

Appendix HOYes 49

Appendix HPRAMSAR listed, specifically due to their triggering RAMSAR threshold numbers for migratory wading birds 49

Appendix HQIdentified in expert workshop as high priority 49

Appendix HRHunter River estuary includes: Kooragang Island, Ash Island 49

Appendix HSC 49

Appendix HTYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Worimi Nature Reserve 49

Appendix HUSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh- nominated community 49

Appendix HVNot known 49

Appendix HWYes, important habitat for migratory species 49

Appendix HXLarge 49

Appendix HYForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 49

Appendix HZYes 49

Appendix IBB 49

Appendix ICYes, in proximity to Karuah National Park 49

Appendix IENot known 49

Appendix IFNot known 49

Appendix IGModerate 49

Appendix IHCorridor 49

Appendix IINo 49

Appendix IKJ 50

Appendix ILOccurs in proximity to Werakata National Park 50

Appendix INHinterland Sand Flats Forest and Woodland of the Sydney Basin Bioregion 50

Appendix IOand 50

Appendix IPHunter Valley Remnant Woodlands and Open Forests 50

Appendix IQYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 50

Appendix IRYes, including, Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 50

Appendix ISLarge 50

Appendix ITForms part of the Richmond Vale Corridor 50

Appendix IUYes 50

Appendix IWH 50

Appendix IXYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Werakata National Park 50

Appendix IZYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 50

Appendix JAYes, including Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 50

Appendix JBLarge 50

Appendix JCForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 50

Appendix JDYes 50

Appendix JFS 51

Appendix JGYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Werakata National Park 51

Appendix JIYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 51

Appendix JJYes, including Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 51

Appendix JKLarge 51

Appendix JLForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 51

Appendix JMYes 51

Appendix JOA 51

Appendix JPNo 51

Appendix JQThreatened Ecological Community 51

Appendix JRYes, Critically endangered Persoonia pauciflora known from only this location. Also, Macrozamia flexuosa 51

Appendix JSYes, including Southern Bent-wing Bat, Swift Parrot 51

Appendix JTLarge 51

Appendix JUOccurs within Molly Morgan Corridor 51

Appendix JVYes 51

Appendix JXO 51

Appendix JYYes, Connected to Watagan National Park 51

Appendix JZSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh 51

Appendix KAYes, including Prostanthera cineolifera 51

Appendix KBYes, including Regent Honeyeater, Swift Parrot, Helmeted Honeyeater, Grey-headed Flying-fox 51

Appendix KCLarge 51

Appendix KDNo 51

Appendix KENo 51

Appendix KGK 52

Appendix KHIncludes parts of Heaton and Awaba State Forests 52

Appendix KIContains small areas of Hunter Valley Remnant Woodland and Open Forest (nominated community) 52

Appendix KJNot known 52

Appendix KKYes, including Helmeted Honeyeater, Grey-headed Flying-fox 52

Appendix KLLarge 52

Appendix KMYes, is within the Lower Hunter regional Corridor and part of this area also forms part of the Richmond Vale Corridor. 52

Appendix KNNo 52

Appendix KPQ 52

Appendix KQIncludes Corrabare and Watagan State Forests. In proximity to Watagans National Park 52

Appendix KRContains small areas of Hunter Valley Remnant Woodland and Open Forest (nominated community) and Lowland Rainforest 52

Appendix KSYes, including Neoastelia spectabilis and Pimelea curviflora 52

Appendix KTYes, including Spotted-tailed Quoll, Regent Honeyeater 52

Appendix KULarge 52

Appendix KVNot within an identified corridor 52

Appendix KWYes 52

KX.1.Key threatening processes 56

KX.1.Key threatening processes 56

Appendix KYHighest 56

Appendix KZLand clearance 56

Appendix LAPrimary threat within region 56

Appendix LBConservation – conserve areas that contain high biodiversity conservation value such as those areas outlined in the CBMP. Ensure these areas are protected in reserves, national parks or under legislation. 56

Appendix LCRehabilitation programs – rehabilitate and revegetate areas that provide habitat for threatened species. Increase the quality of remaining habitat and revegetate areas that have been removed. 56

Appendix LDThreatened biodiversity – revise and assess species and communities within the Cessnock LGA for listing under the EPBC Act. 56

Appendix LECommunity awareness – educate the community & industry on the impacts associated with land clearing. Involve them in the rehabilitation programs such as Bushcare and Landcare. (Tischendorf & Fahrig 2000) 56

Appendix LFHigh 57

Appendix LGLoss and degradation of native plant and animal habitat by invasion of escaped garden plants and other weeds of national significance, including aquatic plants 57

Appendix LHWeed invasion is second greatest threat within the region, particularly at the interface of urban areas and native vegetation. 57

Appendix LIPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated weed control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to weeds). Focus weed control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity.as above. 57

Appendix LJNoxious weeds – identify weeds of greatest concern in the region). Generate management plan to eradicate or limit the spread of these species. 57

Appendix LKResearch – determine the significance of invasion of escaped garden and aquatic plants. Identify the level of control required to manage these such as chemical, manual, biological and/or mechanical controls. 57

Appendix LLCommunity awareness – educate community of the impacts and weed controls associated with escaped garden and aquatic plants. (With 2004) 57

Appendix LMHigh 57

Appendix LNLoss of climatic habitat caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases 57

Appendix LOAlthough effects not currently known, this has potentially drastic, broadscale impacts, particularly for saltmarsh and littoral rainforest. 57

Appendix LPEnergy efficiency – promote and educate the community to reduce the use of vehicles and machinery that emit large volumes of greenhouse gases. 57

Appendix LQThreatened species – adaptive requirements of species likely to be affected should be given a greater priority. (Gray & Macnish 1985) 57

Appendix LRHigh 57

Appendix LSMining2 57

Appendix LTIs one of the largest threats within the region, particularly in areas with coal seams. 57

Appendix LUPriority areas – identify areas of high conservational value that should not be impacted upon. For example Critically Endangered communities or vegetation likely to provide habitat for threatened species. 57

Appendix LVBiobanking – identify potential biodiversity offset areas for remnant vegetation likely to be impacted by mining. 57

Appendix LWRehabilitation – rehabilitate mine sites after completion to a condition that is equal to or better than the original remnant vegetation. 57

Appendix LXResearch – research methods of mining and rehabilitation to reduce the impacts of mining. 57

Appendix LYModerate 58

Appendix LZCompetition and land degradation by rabbits 58

Appendix MANot a major issue in the region, however, main threat to native vegetation as vectors to weeds 58

Appendix MBPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated rabbit control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to rabbits). Focus rabbit control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 58

Appendix MCResearch – conduct research on the benefits of different rabbit control methods and the effects rabbit control has for example on threatened species and communities. 58

Appendix MDCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of rabbit control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 58

Appendix MEMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Orell & Morris 1994) 58

Appendix MFModerate 58

Appendix MGPredation by European red fox 58

Appendix MHNot a major issue in the region, however, in coastal areas foxes are known to predate on coastal birds and also act as weed vectors, particularly asparagus weed 58

Appendix MIPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated fox control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to foxes). Focus fox control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 58

Appendix MJResearch – conduct research on the most cost-effective and effective in controlling foxes for example on threatened species and communities and within different habitat types. 58

Appendix MKCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of fox control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 58

Appendix MLMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Parnaby 1995) 58

Appendix MMModerate 59

Appendix MNPredation by feral cats 59

Appendix MOLargely unknown in region, however predation by domestic cats likely to occur particularly at interface of urban and conservation areas. 59

Appendix MPPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated feral cat control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to cats). Focus cat control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 59

Appendix MQStrategies – undertake appropriate management strategies in the focus areas: 59

Appendix MRResearch – conduct research on management techniques most suitable for feral cat eradication (best method of controlling cats), impacts feral cats on native species. 59

Appendix MSCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of fox control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 59

Appendix MTMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Parnaby 1995) 59

Appendix MUModerate 59

Appendix MVMyrtle Rust2 59

Appendix MWRecorded within the LGA (Yengo and Wollemi National Parks) and is likely to spread. 59

Appendix MXEducation – educate the community on strategies likely to minimise the spread and introduction of the fungus. 59

Appendix MYMonitoring – continual monitoring of identified infested sites and areas considered likely to be infected (e.g. close to infestations). 59

Appendix MZQuarantine – signage, creation of exclusion zones and barriers to isolate infested sites and to reduce the spread of the fungus. 59

Appendix NALow 60

Appendix NBInjury and fatality to vertebrate marine life caused by ingestion of, or entanglement in, harmful marine debris 60

Appendix NCLargely unknown in region, however injuries and fatality to marine life likely to occur within the coastal boundaries 60

Appendix NDResearch – conduct appropriate research including degradable pathways of synthetic debris in the marine environment. Monitor and investigate marine life harmed and killed by marine debris. Coordinate abatement strategies and recovery plans. 60

Appendix NEWaste management – promote best practise waste management strategies on land and sea and implement appropriate measures for waste management. 60

Appendix NFCommunity involvements – raise public awareness and improve education campaigns about the prevention of littering on land and at sea. 60

Appendix NGEvaluation – conduct an independent review of the plan’s effectiveness in accordance with the EPBC Act. Review should involve all key stakeholders and provide recommendations to revise the plan. 60

Appendix NHLow 60

Appendix NIPredation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs 60

Appendix NJLargely unknown in region 60

Appendix NKResearch – identify the distribution of feral pigs within the LGA and key management areas. These would include areas with high conservation value and areas free of or contain low numbers of feral pigs. 60

Appendix NLCollaborate current feral pig management with stakeholders and assess the need for development of more effective and humane techniques and strategies to manage feral pigs. 60

Appendix NMManagement plans and natural resource planning – identify key concerns, establish protocols and use available funding to improve consistency and coordination of management. 60

Appendix NNEducation – assess and update existing information regarding feral pigs, such as impacts and best management techniques. Prepare and distribute appropriate material to inform key groups concerned. 60

Appendix NOMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Dominelli 2000) 60

Appendix NPLow 61

Appendix NQCompetition and land degradation by unmanaged goats 61

Appendix NRLargely unknown in region 61

Appendix NSResearch – determine the significance of unmanaged goat competition and land degradation. Identify the level of control required to manage. 61

Appendix NTControl strategies – develop and implement control strategies to manage goats such as: 61

Appendix NUMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Turbill et al. 2008) 61

Appendix NVLow 61

Appendix NWInfection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis 61

Appendix NXLargely unknown in region 61

Appendix NYResearch – identify any infections. If present, monitor populations to gain a greater understanding of distribution and incidences of the fungus and to identify outbreaks. 61

Appendix NZFocus species – identify key threatened species to undertake management including restocking and treatment. 61

Appendix OAEducation – educate community and promote research programs and community programs to aid in the management. 61

Appendix OBOn-line database – developed and maintained to provide the latest data on where the disease has been observed for interested parties. (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2006) 61

Appendix OCLow 62

Appendix ODPsittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species 62

Appendix OELargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OFEducation – education and materials are required for field workers and wildlife managers to detect the presence of the disease in the Cessnock LGA and priority psittacine species. This will allow for the true impact of the disease, if any, to be identified. 62

Appendix OGProtocols – develop and implement correct handling, post-mortem, quarantine and transport of psittacine infected individuals. 62

Appendix OHOn-line database – develop and maintain an on-line database to provide the latest data on where the disease has been observed for interested parties. (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2005) 62

Appendix OILow 62

Appendix OJThe reduction in the biodiversity of Australian native fauna and flora due to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (fire ant) 62

Appendix OKLargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OLResearch – identify areas that are or are likely to be affected by fire ants, specifically areas that have threatened biodiversity susceptible to fire ants. 62

Appendix OMControl Strategies – identify areas that most require management and select control strategies most effective to eradicate. (Serena & Soderquist 1995) 62

Appendix ONLow 62

Appendix OODieback caused by the root-rot fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) 62

Appendix OPLargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OQQuarantine – monitor plant material entering NSW that has the potential to be infected by the pathogen, specifically in areas with high biodiversity and conservation value. (Environment Australia 2001b) 62

Appendix ORLow 62

Appendix OSThe biological effects, including lethal toxic ingestion, caused by Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) 62

Appendix OTCane toads uncommon in region. 62

Appendix OUResearch – conduct research into control methods (for example biological) that will eradicate the Cane Toad and reduce their rapid spread. (Department of Environment and Resource Management 2011) 62

Appendix OVLow 62

Appendix OWPredation by exotic rats on Australian offshore islands of less than 1,000 km2 (100,000 ha) 62

Appendix OXPotential issue on Cabbage Tree Island due to presence of critical habitat for Gould’s Petrel (rat predation on eggs and chicks may be of concern). 62

Appendix OYControl Strategies – conduct a feasibility study to determine the likely effectiveness of eradication and quarantine without adverse impacts on native wildlife (specifically on Gould’s Petrel populations on Cabbage Tree Island). 62

Appendix OZEducation –education for visitors and the community of how best to decrease spread and/or prevent the re-introduction of rats. 62

Appendix PAQuarantine – prevent and control re-introduction (Threatened Species Scientific Commitee 2006). 62

Appendix PBN/A 63

Appendix PCInvasion of northern Australia by Gamba Grass and other introduced grasses 63

Appendix PDN/A 63

Appendix PENot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PFN/A 63

Appendix PGIncidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations 63

Appendix PHN/A 63

Appendix PINot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PJN/A 63

Appendix PKIncidental catch (bycatch) of Sea Turtle during coastal otter-trawling operations within Australian waters north of 28 degrees South 63

Appendix PLN/A 63

Appendix PMNot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PNN/A 63

Appendix POLoss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean 63

Appendix PPN/A 63

Appendix PQNot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

PQ.1.KTP priority and importance within region was extrapolated from expert workshop and available literature. Therefore, information provided may not be comprehensive. 63

PQ.2.KTPs not listed under the EPBC Act. These threatening processes are however considered major threats within the Cessnock LGA and require prioritised action. 63

PQ.3.Conclusions and recommendations 65

PQ.3.Conclusions and recommendations 65

PQ.4.References 69

PQ.4.References 69

Appendix PR


Rapid Data Point form 72

PR.1.Rapid Data Point form 73

Appendix PS
Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 74

PS.1.Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 75

Appendix PT
EPBC listed species and communities 81



List of tables

Page number


List of figures



Page number


List of appendices



Appendix ARev 1

Appendix BDate 1

Appendix CDetails 1

Appendix DA 1

Appendix E20/3/2013 1

Appendix FFinal Draft 1

Appendix GB 1

Appendix H21/05/2013 1

Appendix IDraft 1

Appendix JC 1

Appendix K07/06/2013 1

Appendix LFinal 1

Appendix MD 2

Appendix N13/06/2013 2

Appendix OFinal 2

Appendix P©Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited 2013 2

P.1.Introduction 10

P.1.1Background 10

P.1.2Project aims 10

P.2.Methods 14

P.2.1Personnel 14

Appendix QAlex Cockerill 14

Appendix RBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix SProject Director – report review, consultation, field survey 14

Appendix TSelga Harrington 14

Appendix UBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix VProject Manager – report preparation 14

Appendix WAllan Richardson 14

Appendix XBEnvSc (Hons) 14

Appendix YBotanist – field surveys, vegetation mapping 14

Appendix ZPaul Rossington 14

Appendix AABSc, Dip WldMgt 14

Appendix ABBotanist – field surveys 14

Appendix ACTanya Bangel 14

Appendix ADBSc (Hons) 14

Appendix AEBotanist – field surveys, report preparation 14

Appendix AFSam Wilkins 14

Appendix AGDip GIS 14

Appendix AHGIS team lead 14

Appendix AIRob Suansri 14

Appendix AJBSc 14

Appendix AKGIS specialist 14

Appendix ALEmily Mitchell 14

Appendix AMBDevStud, Cert IV SIS 14

Appendix ANGIS specialist 14

AN.1.1Desktop review of existing data 14

Appendix AOVegetation Survey, Classification and Mapping Lower Hunter and Central Coast Region (LHCCREMS) 15

Appendix APLower Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy (2003) 15

Appendix AQGreater Hunter Native Vegetation Mapping (GHM) 15

Appendix ARSivertsen et al. (2011) 15

Appendix ASVegetation of the Cessnock-Kurri region, Cessnock LGA, New South Wales: Survey, Classification and Mapping 15

Appendix ATBell S and Driscoll C (2007) 15

Appendix AUState Forests Mapping of NSW State Forest 15

Appendix AVNSW State Forests (undated) 15

Appendix AWThe Native Vegetation of Yengo and Parr Reserves and Surrounds 15

Appendix AXDepartment of Environment & Climate Change (2008) 15

Appendix AYVegetation of the Tomago and Tomaree Sandbeds, Port Stephens, New South Wales. Management of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems. 15

Appendix AZBell S and Driscoll C (2006b) 15

Appendix BAThe Natural Vegetation of the Maitland LGA 15

Appendix BBHill L (2003) 15

Appendix BCVegetation Mapping of the Lake Macquarie LGA: Stages 1-3 15

Appendix BDBell S and Driscoll C (2012) 15

Appendix BEVegetation of Werakata, National Park, Hunter Valley, New South Wales 15

Appendix BFBell S (2004) 15

Appendix BGGlenrock State Conservation Area and Awabakal Nature Reserve Vegetation Survey 15

Appendix BHBell S (2006) 15

Appendix BIVegetation mapping of Watagans National Park and Jilliby State Conservation Area 15

Appendix BJBell S and Driscoll C (2006a) 15

Appendix BKWollemi National Park Vegetation Survey (1998) 15

Appendix BLBell S (1998) 15

Appendix BMBlue Gum Hills Vegetation 15

Appendix BN('Blue Gum Hills Vegetation' 1997) 15

Appendix BOVegetation and floristics of Columbey National Park, lower Hunter Valley, New South Wales 15

Appendix BPBell S (2009) 15

Appendix BQYengo National Park and Parr State Conservation Area Vegetation Survey for use in fire management 16

Appendix BRBell S et al. (1993) 16

BR.1.1Mapping refinement within Cessnock LGA 16

BR.1.1.1Aerial Photographic Interpretation 16

BR.1.1.2Field surveys 16

BR.1.1.3Rapid Data Point survey 16

Appendix BSA 19

Appendix BT19,920 19

Appendix BU15 January to 6 February 2013 19

Appendix BV60 19

Appendix BW153 19

Appendix BXB 19

Appendix BY2,383 19

Appendix BZ12 February 2013 19

Appendix CA8 19

Appendix CB3 19

Appendix CCC 19

Appendix CD6301 19

Appendix CE17 to 23 January 2013 19

Appendix CF40 19

Appendix CG70 19

Appendix CHD 19

Appendix CI1450 19

Appendix CJ16 to 23 January 2013 19

Appendix CK20 19

Appendix CL13 19

Appendix CMTotal 19

Appendix CN30,054 19

Appendix CO15 January to 12 February 19

Appendix CP128 19

Appendix CQ239 19

CQ.1.1.1Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 19

CQ.1.2Consolidated vegetation mapping 19

CQ.1.3High Priority Conservation Areas 20

CQ.1.4GIS 21

CQ.1.4.1Preliminary work 21

CQ.1.4.2Field work assistance 21

CQ.1.4.3Data compilation 21

CQ.1.4.4GIS tasks 22

CQ.1.5Stakeholder consultation 22

CQ.1.6Limitations 22

CQ.1.6.1Reliance on externally supplied data 22

CQ.1.6.2Additional mapping projects not included in source data 23

CQ.1.6.3Field survey limitations 23

CQ.1.6.4GIS limitations 24

CQ.2.Vegetation mapping 25

CQ.2.1Review of existing mapping 25

CQ.2.2Refined vegetation map for Cessnock LGA 28

CQ.2.3Vegetation map for Lower Hunter region 28

Appendix CR52.61 32

Appendix CS15.44 32

Appendix CT4.17 32

Appendix CU53.83 32

Appendix CV999.57 32

Appendix CW1253.33 32

Appendix CX7.12 32

Appendix CY82.25 32

Appendix CZ12.63 32

Appendix DA2397.44 33

Appendix DB62.84 33

Appendix DC35.45 33

Appendix DD147.40 33

Appendix DE602.16 33

Appendix DF7156.86 33

Appendix DG4653.79 33

Appendix DH14857.67 33

Appendix DI3.11 33

Appendix DJ2979.05 33

Appendix DK3591.32 34

Appendix DL6771.19 34

Appendix DM893.79 34

Appendix DN4305.22 34

Appendix DO6548.50 34

Appendix DP11277.06 34

Appendix DQ1238.16 34

Appendix DR5931.67 34

Appendix DS787.48 34

Appendix DT14834.34 34

Appendix DU2219.53 35

Appendix DV911.09 35

Appendix DW2073.15 35

Appendix DX3195.51 35

Appendix DY804.11 35

Appendix DZ7836.65 35

Appendix EA62.66 35

Appendix EB823.42 35

Appendix EC0.24 35

Appendix ED26079.58 35

Appendix EE30.30 36

Appendix EF11.43 36

Appendix EG18599.16 36

Appendix EH10172.21 36

Appendix EI140.02 36

Appendix EJ214.17 36

Appendix EK4911.95 36

Appendix EL1691.89 36

Appendix EM12809.29 36

Appendix EN13.49 36

Appendix EO2763.36 37

Appendix EP561.14 37

Appendix EQ5039.44 37

Appendix ER1852.46 37

Appendix ES92.34 37

Appendix ET18795.24 37

Appendix EU953.38 37

Appendix EV201.81 37

Appendix EW63.59 37

Appendix EX308.31 37

Appendix EY9.22 38

Appendix EZ7215.85 38

Appendix FA1602.38 38

Appendix FB905.16 38

Appendix FC2307.18 38

Appendix FD270.97 38

Appendix FE230.43 38

Appendix FF158.58 38

Appendix FG287.28 38

Appendix FH31.42 38

Appendix FI297.59 39

Appendix FJ268.06 39

Appendix FK169.08 39

Appendix FL1443.00 39

Appendix FM796.07 39

Appendix FN65.14 39

Appendix FO534.51 39

Appendix FP444.64 39

Appendix FQ87.00 39

Appendix FR71.13 39

Appendix FS90.69 40

Appendix FT253.46 40

Appendix FU3689.09 40

Appendix FV570.68 40

Appendix FW412.99 40

Appendix FX336.42 40

Appendix FY12.97 40

Appendix FZ63.34 40

Appendix GA1232.60 40

Appendix GB133.33 40

Appendix GC18.06 41

Appendix GD3.30 41

Appendix GE180.00 41

Appendix GF18.37 41

Appendix GG4564.84 41

Appendix GH140.78 41

Appendix GI0.02 41

Appendix GJ3.37 41

Appendix GK192.69 41

Appendix GL107.83 41

Appendix GM83.02 42

Appendix GN5829.43 42

Appendix GO172.64 42

GO.1.Conservation values 43

GO.1.1Matters of National Environmental Significance 43

GO.1.1.1Threatened species and Threatened ecological communities 43

GO.1.1.2Migratory species 44

GO.1.1.3Wetlands of international importance 44

GO.1.1.4World Heritage and National Heritage 44

GO.1.2Regional wildlife corridors 44

GO.2.High priority conservation areas 47

Appendix GPN 48

Appendix GQVegetation occurs adjacent to and forms part of Watagans National Park 48

Appendix GRLowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia 48

Appendix GSYes 48

Appendix GTYes 48

Appendix GULarge patch size 48

Appendix GVOccurs within the Lower Hunter Regional Green Corridor 48

Appendix GWNo 48

Appendix GX 48

Appendix GYR 48

Appendix GZYes, contains Wallarah National Park and parts of Munmorah National Park 48

Appendix HAContains small areas of Littoral Rainforest 48

Appendix HBYes, provides habitat for a range of threatened flora including Tetratheca juncea and Diuris praecox 48

Appendix HCYes, provides habitat for a range of fauna including Grey-headed Flying-fox 48

Appendix HDLarge 48

Appendix HENot within an identified corridor. 48

Appendix HFYes. Wallarah Peninsulat identified as having some of best examples of Littoral Rainforest 48

Appendix HHL 49

Appendix HIContains and is in proximity to Hunter Estuary National Park 49

Appendix HJSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh- nominated community 49

Appendix HKYes, Euphrasia arguta 49

Appendix HLYes, specifically migratory wading birds 49

Appendix HMLarge 49

Appendix HNForms part of Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 49

Appendix HOYes 49

Appendix HPRAMSAR listed, specifically due to their triggering RAMSAR threshold numbers for migratory wading birds 49

Appendix HQIdentified in expert workshop as high priority 49

Appendix HRHunter River estuary includes: Kooragang Island, Ash Island 49

Appendix HSC 49

Appendix HTYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Worimi Nature Reserve 49

Appendix HUSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh- nominated community 49

Appendix HVNot known 49

Appendix HWYes, important habitat for migratory species 49

Appendix HXLarge 49

Appendix HYForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 49

Appendix HZYes 49

Appendix IBB 49

Appendix ICYes, in proximity to Karuah National Park 49

Appendix IENot known 49

Appendix IFNot known 49

Appendix IGModerate 49

Appendix IHCorridor 49

Appendix IINo 49

Appendix IKJ 50

Appendix ILOccurs in proximity to Werakata National Park 50

Appendix INHinterland Sand Flats Forest and Woodland of the Sydney Basin Bioregion 50

Appendix IOand 50

Appendix IPHunter Valley Remnant Woodlands and Open Forests 50

Appendix IQYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 50

Appendix IRYes, including, Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 50

Appendix ISLarge 50

Appendix ITForms part of the Richmond Vale Corridor 50

Appendix IUYes 50

Appendix IWH 50

Appendix IXYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Werakata National Park 50

Appendix IZYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 50

Appendix JAYes, including Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 50

Appendix JBLarge 50

Appendix JCForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 50

Appendix JDYes 50

Appendix JFS 51

Appendix JGYes, is adjacent to and forms part of Werakata National Park 51

Appendix JIYes, including Grevillea parviflora ssp parviflora, Acacia bynoeana, Eucalyptus glaucina, Eucalytpus parramattensis ssp decadens, Rutidosis heterogama 51

Appendix JJYes, including Swift Parrot, Regent Honeyeater, Koala, Grey-headed Flying-fox 51

Appendix JKLarge 51

Appendix JLForms part of the Lower Hunter Regional Corridor 51

Appendix JMYes 51

Appendix JOA 51

Appendix JPNo 51

Appendix JQThreatened Ecological Community 51

Appendix JRYes, Critically endangered Persoonia pauciflora known from only this location. Also, Macrozamia flexuosa 51

Appendix JSYes, including Southern Bent-wing Bat, Swift Parrot 51

Appendix JTLarge 51

Appendix JUOccurs within Molly Morgan Corridor 51

Appendix JVYes 51

Appendix JXO 51

Appendix JYYes, Connected to Watagan National Park 51

Appendix JZSubtropical and temperate coastal saltmarsh 51

Appendix KAYes, including Prostanthera cineolifera 51

Appendix KBYes, including Regent Honeyeater, Swift Parrot, Helmeted Honeyeater, Grey-headed Flying-fox 51

Appendix KCLarge 51

Appendix KDNo 51

Appendix KENo 51

Appendix KGK 52

Appendix KHIncludes parts of Heaton and Awaba State Forests 52

Appendix KIContains small areas of Hunter Valley Remnant Woodland and Open Forest (nominated community) 52

Appendix KJNot known 52

Appendix KKYes, including Helmeted Honeyeater, Grey-headed Flying-fox 52

Appendix KLLarge 52

Appendix KMYes, is within the Lower Hunter regional Corridor and part of this area also forms part of the Richmond Vale Corridor. 52

Appendix KNNo 52

Appendix KPQ 52

Appendix KQIncludes Corrabare and Watagan State Forests. In proximity to Watagans National Park 52

Appendix KRContains small areas of Hunter Valley Remnant Woodland and Open Forest (nominated community) and Lowland Rainforest 52

Appendix KSYes, including Neoastelia spectabilis and Pimelea curviflora 52

Appendix KTYes, including Spotted-tailed Quoll, Regent Honeyeater 52

Appendix KULarge 52

Appendix KVNot within an identified corridor 52

Appendix KWYes 52

KX.1.Key threatening processes 56

Appendix KYHighest 56

Appendix KZLand clearance 56

Appendix LAPrimary threat within region 56

Appendix LBConservation – conserve areas that contain high biodiversity conservation value such as those areas outlined in the CBMP. Ensure these areas are protected in reserves, national parks or under legislation. 56

Appendix LCRehabilitation programs – rehabilitate and revegetate areas that provide habitat for threatened species. Increase the quality of remaining habitat and revegetate areas that have been removed. 56

Appendix LDThreatened biodiversity – revise and assess species and communities within the Cessnock LGA for listing under the EPBC Act. 56

Appendix LECommunity awareness – educate the community & industry on the impacts associated with land clearing. Involve them in the rehabilitation programs such as Bushcare and Landcare. (Tischendorf & Fahrig 2000) 56

Appendix LFHigh 57

Appendix LGLoss and degradation of native plant and animal habitat by invasion of escaped garden plants and other weeds of national significance, including aquatic plants 57

Appendix LHWeed invasion is second greatest threat within the region, particularly at the interface of urban areas and native vegetation. 57

Appendix LIPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated weed control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to weeds). Focus weed control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity.as above. 57

Appendix LJNoxious weeds – identify weeds of greatest concern in the region). Generate management plan to eradicate or limit the spread of these species. 57

Appendix LKResearch – determine the significance of invasion of escaped garden and aquatic plants. Identify the level of control required to manage these such as chemical, manual, biological and/or mechanical controls. 57

Appendix LLCommunity awareness – educate community of the impacts and weed controls associated with escaped garden and aquatic plants. (With 2004) 57

Appendix LMHigh 57

Appendix LNLoss of climatic habitat caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases 57

Appendix LOAlthough effects not currently known, this has potentially drastic, broadscale impacts, particularly for saltmarsh and littoral rainforest. 57

Appendix LPEnergy efficiency – promote and educate the community to reduce the use of vehicles and machinery that emit large volumes of greenhouse gases. 57

Appendix LQThreatened species – adaptive requirements of species likely to be affected should be given a greater priority. (Gray & Macnish 1985) 57

Appendix LRHigh 57

Appendix LSMining2 57

Appendix LTIs one of the largest threats within the region, particularly in areas with coal seams. 57

Appendix LUPriority areas – identify areas of high conservational value that should not be impacted upon. For example Critically Endangered communities or vegetation likely to provide habitat for threatened species. 57

Appendix LVBiobanking – identify potential biodiversity offset areas for remnant vegetation likely to be impacted by mining. 57

Appendix LWRehabilitation – rehabilitate mine sites after completion to a condition that is equal to or better than the original remnant vegetation. 57

Appendix LXResearch – research methods of mining and rehabilitation to reduce the impacts of mining. 57

Appendix LYModerate 58

Appendix LZCompetition and land degradation by rabbits 58

Appendix MANot a major issue in the region, however, main threat to native vegetation as vectors to weeds 58

Appendix MBPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated rabbit control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to rabbits). Focus rabbit control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 58

Appendix MCResearch – conduct research on the benefits of different rabbit control methods and the effects rabbit control has for example on threatened species and communities. 58

Appendix MDCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of rabbit control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 58

Appendix MEMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Orell & Morris 1994) 58

Appendix MFModerate 58

Appendix MGPredation by European red fox 58

Appendix MHNot a major issue in the region, however, in coastal areas foxes are known to predate on coastal birds and also act as weed vectors, particularly asparagus weed 58

Appendix MIPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated fox control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to foxes). Focus fox control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 58

Appendix MJResearch – conduct research on the most cost-effective and effective in controlling foxes for example on threatened species and communities and within different habitat types. 58

Appendix MKCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of fox control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 58

Appendix MLMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Parnaby 1995) 58

Appendix MMModerate 59

Appendix MNPredation by feral cats 59

Appendix MOLargely unknown in region, however predation by domestic cats likely to occur particularly at interface of urban and conservation areas. 59

Appendix MPPriority areas – identify areas that would best benefit from coordinated feral cat control, specifically in areas with high biodiversity conservation value (for example areas that contain threatened species susceptible to cats). Focus cat control budgets in these areas that are likely to be most effective, cost-efficient and protect threatened biodiversity. 59

Appendix MQStrategies – undertake appropriate management strategies in the focus areas: 59

Appendix MRResearch – conduct research on management techniques most suitable for feral cat eradication (best method of controlling cats), impacts feral cats on native species. 59

Appendix MSCommunity involvement – educate the community and relevant landowners of fox control methods. Coordinate and integrated management between key groups. 59

Appendix MTMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Parnaby 1995) 59

Appendix MUModerate 59

Appendix MVMyrtle Rust2 59

Appendix MWRecorded within the LGA (Yengo and Wollemi National Parks) and is likely to spread. 59

Appendix MXEducation – educate the community on strategies likely to minimise the spread and introduction of the fungus. 59

Appendix MYMonitoring – continual monitoring of identified infested sites and areas considered likely to be infected (e.g. close to infestations). 59

Appendix MZQuarantine – signage, creation of exclusion zones and barriers to isolate infested sites and to reduce the spread of the fungus. 59

Appendix NALow 60

Appendix NBInjury and fatality to vertebrate marine life caused by ingestion of, or entanglement in, harmful marine debris 60

Appendix NCLargely unknown in region, however injuries and fatality to marine life likely to occur within the coastal boundaries 60

Appendix NDResearch – conduct appropriate research including degradable pathways of synthetic debris in the marine environment. Monitor and investigate marine life harmed and killed by marine debris. Coordinate abatement strategies and recovery plans. 60

Appendix NEWaste management – promote best practise waste management strategies on land and sea and implement appropriate measures for waste management. 60

Appendix NFCommunity involvements – raise public awareness and improve education campaigns about the prevention of littering on land and at sea. 60

Appendix NGEvaluation – conduct an independent review of the plan’s effectiveness in accordance with the EPBC Act. Review should involve all key stakeholders and provide recommendations to revise the plan. 60

Appendix NHLow 60

Appendix NIPredation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs 60

Appendix NJLargely unknown in region 60

Appendix NKResearch – identify the distribution of feral pigs within the LGA and key management areas. These would include areas with high conservation value and areas free of or contain low numbers of feral pigs. 60

Appendix NLCollaborate current feral pig management with stakeholders and assess the need for development of more effective and humane techniques and strategies to manage feral pigs. 60

Appendix NMManagement plans and natural resource planning – identify key concerns, establish protocols and use available funding to improve consistency and coordination of management. 60

Appendix NNEducation – assess and update existing information regarding feral pigs, such as impacts and best management techniques. Prepare and distribute appropriate material to inform key groups concerned. 60

Appendix NOMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Dominelli 2000) 60

Appendix NPLow 61

Appendix NQCompetition and land degradation by unmanaged goats 61

Appendix NRLargely unknown in region 61

Appendix NSResearch – determine the significance of unmanaged goat competition and land degradation. Identify the level of control required to manage. 61

Appendix NTControl strategies – develop and implement control strategies to manage goats such as: 61

Appendix NUMonitoring – undertake monitoring of strategies used to identify native species recovery and effectiveness of strategies. Modify management strategies according to results. (Turbill et al. 2008) 61

Appendix NVLow 61

Appendix NWInfection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis 61

Appendix NXLargely unknown in region 61

Appendix NYResearch – identify any infections. If present, monitor populations to gain a greater understanding of distribution and incidences of the fungus and to identify outbreaks. 61

Appendix NZFocus species – identify key threatened species to undertake management including restocking and treatment. 61

Appendix OAEducation – educate community and promote research programs and community programs to aid in the management. 61

Appendix OBOn-line database – developed and maintained to provide the latest data on where the disease has been observed for interested parties. (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2006) 61

Appendix OCLow 62

Appendix ODPsittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species 62

Appendix OELargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OFEducation – education and materials are required for field workers and wildlife managers to detect the presence of the disease in the Cessnock LGA and priority psittacine species. This will allow for the true impact of the disease, if any, to be identified. 62

Appendix OGProtocols – develop and implement correct handling, post-mortem, quarantine and transport of psittacine infected individuals. 62

Appendix OHOn-line database – develop and maintain an on-line database to provide the latest data on where the disease has been observed for interested parties. (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2005) 62

Appendix OILow 62

Appendix OJThe reduction in the biodiversity of Australian native fauna and flora due to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (fire ant) 62

Appendix OKLargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OLResearch – identify areas that are or are likely to be affected by fire ants, specifically areas that have threatened biodiversity susceptible to fire ants. 62

Appendix OMControl Strategies – identify areas that most require management and select control strategies most effective to eradicate. (Serena & Soderquist 1995) 62

Appendix ONLow 62

Appendix OODieback caused by the root-rot fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) 62

Appendix OPLargely unknown in region 62

Appendix OQQuarantine – monitor plant material entering NSW that has the potential to be infected by the pathogen, specifically in areas with high biodiversity and conservation value. (Environment Australia 2001b) 62

Appendix ORLow 62

Appendix OSThe biological effects, including lethal toxic ingestion, caused by Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) 62

Appendix OTCane toads uncommon in region. 62

Appendix OUResearch – conduct research into control methods (for example biological) that will eradicate the Cane Toad and reduce their rapid spread. (Department of Environment and Resource Management 2011) 62

Appendix OVLow 62

Appendix OWPredation by exotic rats on Australian offshore islands of less than 1,000 km2 (100,000 ha) 62

Appendix OXPotential issue on Cabbage Tree Island due to presence of critical habitat for Gould’s Petrel (rat predation on eggs and chicks may be of concern). 62

Appendix OYControl Strategies – conduct a feasibility study to determine the likely effectiveness of eradication and quarantine without adverse impacts on native wildlife (specifically on Gould’s Petrel populations on Cabbage Tree Island). 62

Appendix OZEducation –education for visitors and the community of how best to decrease spread and/or prevent the re-introduction of rats. 62

Appendix PAQuarantine – prevent and control re-introduction (Threatened Species Scientific Commitee 2006). 62

Appendix PBN/A 63

Appendix PCInvasion of northern Australia by Gamba Grass and other introduced grasses 63

Appendix PDN/A 63

Appendix PENot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PFN/A 63

Appendix PGIncidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations 63

Appendix PHN/A 63

Appendix PINot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PJN/A 63

Appendix PKIncidental catch (bycatch) of Sea Turtle during coastal otter-trawling operations within Australian waters north of 28 degrees South 63

Appendix PLN/A 63

Appendix PMNot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

Appendix PNN/A 63

Appendix POLoss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean 63

Appendix PPN/A 63

Appendix PQNot applicable. Outside Lower Hunter region 63

PQ.1.KTP priority and importance within region was extrapolated from expert workshop and available literature. Therefore, information provided may not be comprehensive. 63

PQ.2.KTPs not listed under the EPBC Act. These threatening processes are however considered major threats within the Cessnock LGA and require prioritised action. 63

PQ.3.Conclusions and recommendations 65

PQ.4.References 69

Appendix PR
Rapid Data Point form 72

PR.1.Rapid Data Point form 73

Appendix PS
Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 74

PS.1.Vegetation communities within Cessnock LGA 75



Appendix PT
EPBC listed species and communities 81




Каталог: system -> files -> pages -> 25570c73-a276-4efb-82f4-16f802320e62 -> files
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pages -> Wildlife Trade Operation proposal Harvest and export of native wildlife. Introduction
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pages -> Appendix b – additional information about the ecological community
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