Introduction equatorial Guinea is located in West Tropical Afri



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INTRODUCTION

Equatorial Guinea is located in West Tropical Afri-

ca occupying in total an area of 28051.46 km

2

divided in-



to two regions: the continental mainland, Río Muni with

26017 km2 and the “Island region”, which comprises

Bioko (formerly Fernando Poo), of 2017 km2 and Anno-

bón (Pagalú), with 17 km

2

. Rio Muni is located between



1°-2° 30’N and 9° 30’–11º 30’E in continental Africa.

Both, Bioko and Annobón are included in the volcanic

range crossing the Gulf of Guinea, with S. Tomé, Prín-

cipe, Mount Cameroon and reaching Lake Chad in the

mainland. Bioko is about 32 km off the coast of Came-

roon, opposite to Mount Cameroon, while Annobon is

about 400 km off the Gabonese coast. Some authors con-

sider in consequence Bioko as a semi-oceanic island

(Exell 1973: 327).

The island of Bioko is oriented from N to S and is

about 75 km long and c. 25 km wide. It is the largest is-

land in the Gulf of Guinea. It is entirely composed of ba-

saltic rocks and volcanic ashes that occupy the top of the

highest peaks of the island. Bioko is divided in two main

massifs, separated by the Musola depression, lower than

1000 m of altitude: The Northern Massif, with the highest

summit in the country (Pico Basilé, 3012 m) and the Sou-

thern Massif, with two well-defined areas, inactive volca-

noes: Biao (2009 m) in the East, and the “Caldera de Lu-

ba” (2261 m) in the western widening of the island. The

109

Botanica Complutensis 37: 109-133. 2013

ISSN: 0214-4565

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_BOCM.2013.v37.42275

Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island

(Equatorial Guinea)

Mauricio Velayos

1*

, Francisco Cabezas

1

, Patricia Barberá

1

, Manuel de la Estrella

2

, Carlos Aedo

1

,

Ramón Morales

1

, Alejandro Quintanar

1

, Guillermo Velayos

3

and Maximiliano Fero

4

Abstract: Velayos, M.; Cabezas, F.; Barberá, P.; Estrella, M.; Aedo, C.; Morales, R.; Quintanar, A.; Velayos, G. & Fero, M. 2013. Preliminary

checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bot. Complut. 37: 109-133.

We present a list of taxa of vascular plants growing on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). We are aware that there are still many unexplored areas,

so it should be consider just as a first draft list. It is based on both herbarium specimens and on bibliographic references. The complete data, sup-

porting each record, can be consulted in our online database at http://www.floradeguinea.com/herbario/. To the moment, there are known 2029

taxa from the island.



Key words: biodiversity, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Equatorial Guinea, Bioko, floristic.

Resumen: Velayos, M.; Cabezas, F.; Barberá, P.; Estrella, M.; Aedo, C.; Morales, R.; Quintanar, A.; Velayos, G. & Fero, M. 2013. Catálogo pre-

liminar de plantas vasculares de la isla de Bioko (Guinea Ecuatorial). Bot. Complut. 37: 109-133.

Presentamos el catálogo de táxones de plantas vasculares que crecen en Bioko (Guinea Ecuatorial). Somos conscientes de que existen aun

numerosas zonas inexploradas, de manera que debe ser considerada únicamente como una lista preliminar. El catálogo está basado tanto en ma-

terial de herbario como en referencias bibliográficas. Los datos sobre los que se basa cada cita pueden consultarse directamente en nuestra base

de datos en http://www.floradeguinea.com/herbario/. Hasta el momento se conocen 2029 taxones de la isla.



Palabras clave: biodiversidad, islas del golfo de Guinea, Guinea Ecuatorial, Bioko, florística.

Real Jardín Botánico (CSIC), Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014 Madrid, Spain.



Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Córdoba, Celestino Mutis, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.

c/ Ardemans 10, 28028 Madrid, Spain. 



Universidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, Av. Hassan II s. n., Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.

corresponding author: velayos@rjb.csic.es



Recibido: 18 febrero 2013. Aceptado: 5 abril 2013.

latitude of the island and the proximity to the African con-

tinent, are important climatic factors. 

The climate is equatorial with a monsoon component

in the S. There are two distinct seasons in Bioko, the dry

season “seca”, from November to March and a wet sea-

son, “lluviosa”, from April to October, characterized the

second by highly abundant and permanent rainfalls. Me-

an annual temperature is approximately 25 ºC in Malabo,

with mean of the warmest month of 26 °C, usually in Fe-

bruary, and minimum in September but with variations

that barely exceed 2 °C. Relative humidity has an avera-

ge of 90%. This value increases towards the S, by the high

level of rainfall and at altitudes of 1000-1500 m due to the

formation of a dense cloud belt. In the North, the mean

annual precipitation is about 1950 mm. However in the

South, this average value reaches figures of about 11000

mm. According to Terán (1962: 24) and Pérez Del Val

(1996: 14), on Ureka, the South end of the Island, it has

been recorded an absolute maximum c. 14000 mm, close

to the worldwide maximum of the Colombian Chocó.

Streams and rivers in Bioko, of pluvial origin, are lar-

gely conditioned by the relief. Due to the steep slopes, wa-

ters have great erosive force, forming waterfalls, rapids

and ravines. There are a few lakes in the craters of the vol-

canoes: Biao, Claret, Loreto, Eri, and some minor ponds

(De Castro & De la Calle 1985: 17).



Collections. Bioko has been frequently visited and co-

llected from the middle XIXth century to nowadays as a

result of this collection effort we can consider the Island

as a well-known territory. Calculating the Collection Den-

sity Index of Bioko (as number of collections/km

2

*100)



the figures reveal the high level of knowledge: Collections

from Bioko in our database: 7181, Bioko area: 2017 km

2

,

CDI = 356. Nevertheless if we plot the collection locali-



ties on the map (Fig.1) we observed they are clearly bia-

sed and some of inaccessible places still remain poorly

known thus the collection effort in the Island is still one

of our main tasks.

In the last five years several collecting trips were com-

plete to these less collected places of Equatorial Guinea:

in 2007, P. Barberá and P. Galán collected for the first ti-

me inside the Caldera de Luba; in total 211 specimens cu-



M. Velayos et al.

Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea)

110

Botanica Complutensis 37: 109-133. 2013

Fig. 1– Collection localities. Black spots: bibliographic origin, White spots: herbarium specimens

origin.


rrently in MA. Q. Luke of the East African Herbarium (EA)

in Kenya, acompanied by C. Posa (National University of

Equatorial Guinea, UNGE), J. Johansen and T. Lehman

(Arcadia University), collected in 2007 in the S of Bioko,

reaching Moaba. In 2008 he visited the E side of Pico Ba-

sile; and in 2009 inside the Caldera de Luba. He collected

a total of 700 specimens that are in the herbarium EA with

some duplicates in K, UNGE and MA. The Real Jardín

Botánico, in collaboration with the National University of

Equatorial Guinea (UNGE) has continued with the collec-

ting activity along the last five years, with at least an an-

nual field-trip. A comprehensive compilation of botanical

explorations in Bioko to 2001, can be found at http:

//www.floradeguinea.com/static/pdf/Botanica_Guinea_Ec

uatorial_2001_capitulo_colectores.pdf

Floristic knowledge. The territory of Bioko was in-

cluded in the scope of the Flora of West Tropical Africa

[Hutchinson & Dalziel, 1927-1936 (ed. 1.) & 1954-1972

(ed. 2, rev. by Keay, Hepper & Alston)]. A total of 1070

vascular plants were recorded from the island. Arthur Wa-

llis Exell (1944 &1973) studied the islands of the Gulf of

Guinea compiling a total list of 1348 species of angios-

perms (without Pteridophyta) for Bioko. In the 90’s Fer-

nández Casas, publishes 24 floristic lists with 210 (+ 1 pte-

ridophyta) new records for Bioko [Atkins (1992), Berg

(1996), Cebolla Lozano & Rivas Ponce (1994, 1995a, b),

Faden (1996), Fernández Casas (1992, 1994, 1996), Fer-

nández Casas & Morales (1995), Fernández Casas & Re-

gueiro y González-Barros (1996), Goyder (1994), Hepper

(1992), Leeuwenberg (1994), Lock (1993), Morales (1993,

1994a, b, 1995a, b), Paiva (1995), Vollesen (1992), Wilde

(1996), Wilkin (1994, 1995)]. The number of angiosperms

of the island rises to 1558 species.

Since 2001 we have been working with the Flora of

Equatorial Guinea. We have published some papers with

lists of plants: Aedo et al. (1999, 2001), Barquero & Ca-

bezas (2003), Cabezas & Barquero (2003), Cabezas et



al. (2004, 2005, 2009), Estrella et al. (2005, 2006, 2007,

2009, 2010a, b), Fero et al. (2002), Herrero et al. (2001),

Morales (2011), Parmentier & Geerinck (2003), Sente-

rre (2005), Velayos et al. (2001, 2008, 2010). Although

we are aware that there are still many underexplored are-

as, we want to anticipate a first draft of taxa that grow

on Bioko.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The list we present is based on both, herbarium specimens

and bibliographic references. The complete data supporting each

record can be consulted in our online database at http://www.flo-

radeguinea.com/herbario/. The list is organized in three major

groups: Pteridophytes, Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Wi-

thin each group, families, genera and species are arranged al-

phabetically, according with Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Vela-

yos  et al. 2008). Authors of plants names are abbreviated

according to Brummit & Powell (1992), with minor changes,

and to the updated version of “Authors of plant names” availa-

ble at http://www.ipni.org/ipni/query_author.html. We have mar-

ked with an asterisk the names of those taxa from which we ha-

ve not seen any herbarium specimen, but whose presence in

Bioko is reliable (i.e.: several herbarium collections or collec-

tion numbers indicated in the bibliographic records supporting

and/or herbarium where location is included). The presence of

taxa with a question mark is doubtful and must be corroborated,

since only imprecise information has been recorded.

Author contributions: MV, FC, PB, MF, identified herba-

rium specimens and co-prepare the complete manuscript. AQ,

CA, ME, RM, participate in the identification of Poaceae, Pte-

ridophytes, Legumes and Lamiaceae. GV, georeferenced and up-

to-dated the geographic coordinates.

M. Velayos et al.

Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea)

111

Botanica Complutensis 37: 109-133. 2013

CHECKLIST

PTERIDOPHYTA

Aspleniaceae

1

Asplenium abyssinicum Fée

2

Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm. fil.) Bech.

3

Asplenium africanum Desv.

4

Asplenium anisophyllum Kunze

5

Asplenium annetii (Jeanp.) Alston

6

Asplenium barteri Hook.

7

Asplenium biafranum Alston & F. Ballard ex Ballard

8

Asplenium buettneri Hieron.

9

Asplenium cancellatum Alston

10 Asplenium dregeanum Kunze

11 Asplenium emarginatum P. Beauv.

12 Asplenium erectum Bory ex Willd.

13 Asplenium friesiorum C. Chr.

14 Asplenium gemmiferum Schrad.

15 Asplenium hemitomum Hieron.

16 Asplenium hypomelas Kuhn

17 Asplenium inaequilaterale Bory ex Willd.

18 Asplenium isabelense Brause

19 Asplenium longicauda Hook.

20 Asplenium macrophlebium Baker

21 Asplenium mannii Hook.

22 Asplenium megalura Hieron.

23 Asplenium monanthes L.

24 *Asplenium nigritianum Hook.

25 *Asplenium paucijugum F. Ballard


26 Asplenium preussii Hieron.

27 Asplenium protensum Schrad.

28 Asplenium sandersonii Hook.

39 Asplenium subaequilaterale (Baker) Hieron.

30 Asplenium theciferum (Kunth) Mett.

31 Asplenium unilaterale Lam.

32 Asplenium variabile Hook.

Blechnaceae

1

Blechnum attenuatum (Sw.) Mett.

2

*Stenochlaena mildbraedii Brause

Cyatheaceae

1

Cyathea camerooniana Hook.

2

Cyathea dregei Kunze

3

Cyathea manniana Hook.



Davalliaceae

1

Davallia denticulata (Burm. fil.) Mett. ex Kuhn



Dennstaedtiaceae

1

Blotiella currorii (Hook.) R. M. Tryon

2

Blotiella glabra (Bory) R. M. Tryon

3

Blotiella mannii (Baker) Pic. Serm.

4

*Blotiella reducta (C. Chr.) R. M. Tryon

5

Blotiella tisserantii (Alston & Tardieu ex Tardieu) Pic.

Serm.

6

Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J. Sm.



7

Hypolepis rugosula (Labill.) J. Sm.

8

Hypolepis sparsisora (Schrad.) Kuhn

9

Lonchitis occidentalis Baker

10 Microlepia speluncae (L.) T. Moore

11 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn subsp. aquilinum

Dryopteridaceae

1

Athyrium ammifolium (Mett. ex Kuhn) C. Chr.

2

Callipteris prolifera (Lam.) Bory

3

*Ctenitis cirrhosa (Schumach.) Ching

4

Ctenitis lanuginosa (Willd. ex Kaulf.) Copel.

5

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.

6

Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw.) J. Sm.

7

Diplazium nemorale (Baker) Schelpe

8

Diplazium welwitschii (Hook.) Diels

9

Dryoathyrium boryanum (Willd.) Ching

10 Dryopteris manniana (Hook.) C. Chr.

11 Dryopteris pentheri (Krasser) C. Chr.

12 Dryopteris squamiseta (Hook.) Kuntze

13 Lastreopsis barteriana (Hook.) Tardieu

14 Lastreopsis currorii (Mett. ex Kuhn) Tindale

15 Lastreopsis nigritiana (Mett. ex Baker) Tindale

16 Lastreopsis subsimilis (Hook.) Tindale

17 Lastreopsis vogelii (Hook.) Tindale

18 Polystichum wilsonii Christ

19 Tectaria angelicifolia (Schumach.) Copel.

20 Tectaria barteri (J. Sm.) C. Chr.

21 Tectaria camerooniana (Hook.) Alston

22 Tectaria fernandensis (Baker) C. Chr.

23 Triplophyllum fraternum (Mett. ex Kuhn) Holttum

24 Triplophyllum jenseniae (C. Chr.) Holttum

25 Triplophyllum pilosissimum (T. Moore) Holttum

26 Triplophyllum protensum (Sw.) Holttum

27 Triplophyllum securidiforme (Hook.) Holttum

28 Triplophyllum vogelii (Hook.) Holttum

Gleicheniaceae

1

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. fil.) Underw.



Grammitidaceae

1

Xiphopteris cultrata (Bory ex Willd.) Schelpe

2

Xiphopteris flabelliformis (Poir.) Schelpe

3

Xiphopteris oosora (Baker) Alston

4

Xiphopteris serrulata (Sw.) Kaulf.

5

Xiphopteris villosissima (Hook.) Alston



Hymenophyllaceae

1

*Hymenophyllum capillare Desv.

2

Hymenophyllum hirsutum (L.) Sw.

3

Hymenophyllum kuhnii C. Chr.1

4

Hymenophyllum splendidum Bosch

5

Hymenophyllum triangulare Baker

6

*Trichomanes africanum Christ

7

Trichomanes borbonicum Bosch

8

Trichomanes chevalieri Christ

9

Trichomanes clarenceanum Ballard

10 Trichomanes erosum Willd.

11 *Trichomanes fallax Christ

12 Trichomanes guineense Afzel. ex Sw.

13 Trichomanes mannii Hook.

14 Trichomanes melanotrichum Schltdl.

15 Trichomanes mettenii C. Chr.

16 ?Trichomanes motleyi Bosch

17 Trichomanes radicans Sw.

18 Trichomanes rigidum Sw.

Isoetaceae

1

Isoetes biafrana Alston

2

Isoetes spinulospora Jermy & Schelpe

Lomariopsidaceae

1

Bolbitis acrostichoides (Afzel. ex Sw.) Ching

2

Bolbitis auriculata (Lam.) Alston

3

Bolbitis fluviatilis (Hook.) Ching

4

Bolbitis salicina (Hook.) Ching

5

Elaphoglossum acrostichoides (Hook. & Grev.) Schelpe

6

Elaphoglossum aubertii (Desv.) T. Moore

7

Elaphoglossum cinnamomeum (Baker) Diels

8

Elaphoglossum hybridum (Bory) Brack.

9

Elaphoglossum isabelense Brause

10 Elaphoglossum kuhnii Hieron.

11 Elaphoglossum salicifolium (Willd. ex Kaulf.) Alston

12 Lomariopsis decrescens (Baker) Kuhn

13 Lomariopsis guineensis (Underw.) Alston

14 *Lomariopsis hederacea Alston

15 Lomariopsis mannii (Underw.) Alston

16 Lomariopsis muriculata Holttum

17 Lomariopsis rossii Holttum

18 Lomariopsis warneckei (Hieron.) Alston

Lycopodiaceae

1

Huperzia brachystachys (Baker) Pic. Serm.

2

Huperzia mildbraedii (Herter) Pic. Serm.

3

Huperzia ophioglossoides (Lam.) Rothm.

4

Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) Rothm.

M. Velayos et al.

Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea)

112

Botanica Complutensis 37: 109-133. 2013


5

Huperzia verticillata (L. fil.) Trevis.

6

Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm.

7

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Marattiaceae

1

Marattia fraxinea J. Sm.



Nephrolepidaceae

1

Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott

2

Nephrolepis undulata (Afzel. ex Sw.) J. Sm.



Oleandraceae

1

Arthropteris cameroonensis Alston

2

Arthropteris monocarpa (Cordem.) C. Chr.

3

Arthropteris orientalis (J. F. Gmel.) Posth.

4

Arthropteris palisotii (Desv.) Alston

5

Oleandra annetii Tardieu

6

Oleandra distenta Kunze

Ophioglossaceae

1

*Ophioglossum gomezianum Welw. ex A. Br.

2

Ophioglossum reticulatum L.

Osmundaceae

1

Osmunda regalis L.



Polypodiaceae

1

*Belvisia spicata (L. fil.) Mirb. ex Copel.

2

Drynaria laurentii (H. Christ ex De Wild. & Durand) Hie-

ron.


3

Drynaria volkensii Hieron.

4

Lepisorus excavatus (Bory ex Willd.) Ching

5

Loxogramme lanceolata (Sw.) C. Presl

6

Loxogramme latifolia Bonap.

7

Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.

8

Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. fil.) Pic. Serm.

9

Platycerium stemaria (P. Beauv.) Desv.

10 Polypodium lanceolatum L.

11 Polypodium lycopodioides L.

Psilotaceae

1

*Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.



Pteridaceae

1

Acrostichum aureum L.

2

Adiantum philippense L.

3

Adiantum poiretii Wikstr.

4

Adiantum vogelii Mett. ex Keyserl.

5

Anogramma leptophylla (L.) Link

6

Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf.

7

Coniogramme africana Hieron.

8

Pellaea doniana J. Sm. ex Hook.

9

Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link

10 Pteris atrovirens Willd.

11 Pteris burtoni Baker

12 Pteris dentata Forssk.

13 Pteris hamulosa (H. Christ) H. Christ

14 Pteris intricata C. H. Wright

15 *Pteris linearis Poir.

16 Pteris manniana Mett. ex Kuhn

17 Pteris mildbraedii Hieron.

18 *Pteris preussii Hieron.

19 Pteris prolifera Hieron.

20 Pteris pteridioides (Hook.) F. Ballard

21 *Pteris similis Kuhn & Decken

22 Pteris togoensis Hieron.

23 Pteris tripartita Sw.



Schizaeaceae

1

Lygodium smithianum C. Presl ex Kuhn



Selaginellaceae

1

*Selaginella cathedrifolia Spring

2

Selaginella goudotiana Spring

3

Selaginella kalbreyeri Baker

4

Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A. Braun

5

Selaginella molleri Hieron.

6

Selaginella molliceps Spring

7



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