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Soosaimichael Mary Jelastin Kala
Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Ethnopharmacology Unit, Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin-628008, Tamil Nadu, India.
The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of E. floccosa leaf administered orally at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, were
evaluated in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema were used to evaluate the acute effect of the plant extract. The ethanol
extract of E. floccosa showed significant reduction in the paw edema volume (60.9%) at a dose of 300 mg/kg after 3h carrageenan
injection. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, glycosides and
Keywords: E. floccosa, anti-inflammatory, carrageenan, saponin.
nflammation is considered as a defense mechanism
that helps body to protect itself against infection,
burns, toxic chemicals, allergens or other noxious
stimuli. An uncontrolled and persistent inflammation may
act as an etiologic factor for many of these chronic
. Although it is a defense mechanism, the
reaction can induce, maintain or aggravate many
. Currently used anti-inflammatory drugs are
development of potent anti-inflammatory drugs with
fewer side effects is necessary.
Eugenia floccosa Bedd is one of the medicinally important
plants belongs to Myrtaceae family. The ethanol extract
of E. floccosa has been reported for its anti-tumour
activity, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and in vitro
The objective of this investigation was to ascertain the
scientific basis of its use in treatment of inflammation on
which there is no previous data available. Hence, in the
present study effort has been made to establish the
scientific validity to the anti-inflammatory property of E.
edema in experimental rats.
The leaves of Eugenia floccosa Bedd were freshly
collected from the well grown healthy plants inhabiting
the natural forests of Kothiayar, Agasthiarmalai Biosphere
Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamilnadu. The plant were
identified and authenticated in Botanical Survey of India,
Southern Circle, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. A voucher
specimen was deposited in Ethnopharmacology Unit,
Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram
College, Tuticorin, Tamilnadu.
The E. floccosa leaves were shade dried at room
temperature and the dried leaves were powdered in a
Wiley mill. Hundred grams of powdered E. floccosa leaves
was packed in a Soxhlet apparatus and extracted with
ethanol The extract were subjected to qualitative test for
the identification of various phytochemical constituents
as per the standard procedures
.The ethanol extracts
Adult Wistar albino rats of either sex (150-200g) were
used for present investigation. Animals were housed
under standard environmental conditions at temperature
(25±2ºC) and light and dark (12:12h). Rats were feed
standard pellet diet (Goldmohur brand, Ms Hindustan
Lever Ltd., Mumbai, India) and water ad libitum.
Acute toxicity study
Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD –
423 guidelines (acute toxic class method), albino rats
(n=6) of either sex selected by random sampling were
used for acute toxicity study
. The animals were kept
which the extracts were administered orally at 5mg/kg
body weight by gastric intubations and observed for 14
days. If mortality was observed in two out of three
animals, then the dose administered was assigned as
toxic dose. If mortality was observed in one animal, then
the same dose was repeated again to confirm the toxic
dose. If mortality was not observed, the procedure was
mg/kg body weight.
Albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200g were divided
into four groups of six animals each. The dosage of the
drugs administered to the different groups was as
follows, Group I - Control (normal saline 0.5ml/kg), Group
II – Leaf extract of E. floccosa (150 mg/kg, p.o.), Group III
– leaf extract of E. floccosa (300mg/kg, p.o.) and Group
IV-Indomethacin (10mg/kg). All the drugs were
After one hour of the administration of the drugs, 0.1ml
of 1% w/v carageenan solution in normal saline was
injected into the subplantar tissue of the left hind paw
and the right hind paw of the rat was served as the
control. The paw volume of the rats were measured in
the digital plethysmograph (Ugo basile, Italy), at the end
of 0 min., 60min., 120min., 180min. The percentage
increase in paw oedema of the treated groups was
compared with that of the control and the inhibitory
effect of the drugs were studied. The relative potency of
the drugs under investigations was calculated based upon
the percentage inhibition of the inflammation.
The percentage inhibition of the inflammation was
calculated from the formula:
Percentage Inhibition = D
×100, where D
average inflammation (hind paw oedema) of the control
group of rats at a given time; and D
was the average
reference indomethacin) rats at the same time.
The phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of E.
coumarin, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, steroid, phenol,
glycoside, terpenoid and xanthoprotein. Acute toxicity
study revealed the nontoxic nature of the ethanol extract
of E. floccosa.
The inhibitory effect of the ethanol extract of E. floccosa
on carrageenan induced paw edema is shown in Table 1.
For each of the two doses of extract tested (150 and 300
mg/kg) the ethanol extract exerted considerable
inhibitory effect on paw increase 1 hour after
carrageenan administration with about a 50% inhibition
for the dose 300 mg/kg. The maximum inhibition 60.9%
(p<0.01) elicited by the ethanol extract of E. floccosa was
Indomethacin which is a reference drug showed a similar
inhibitory effect 3 hours after carrageenan administration
Inflammation has different phases; the first phase is
caused by an increase in vascular permeability, the
second one by infiltrate by leucocytes and the third one
by granuloma formation. In the present study, anti-
inflammatory activity was determined by using inhibition
of carrageenan induced inflammation which is one of the
most feasible methods to screen anti-inflammatory
agents. The development of carrageenan induced edema
is bi-phasic; the first phase is attributed to the release of
histamine, serotonin and kinins and the second phase is
related to the release of prostaglandins and bradykinins
carrageenan-induced paw edema in the dose dependent
manner. This response tendency of the extract in
carrageenan induced paw edema revealed good
peripheral antiinflammatory properties of the ethanol
extract. This anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract
of E. floccosa may be due to the presence of flavonoids. It
has been reported that a number of flavonoids possess
. The presence of flavonoid
activity in ethanol extract. Tau-Muurolol, α-Cadinol,
phytol and oleic acid were reported in the ethanol extract
of E. floccosa leaf by GC-MS analysis
. These compounds
studies will be carried out to isolate and characterize
other anti-inflammatory chemical constituents present in
the ethanol extract of this plant.
No. of animal / in each group 6 Data expressed in mean ± SEM * p < 0. 05 when compared to control. ** p < 0.01
Advisor, Samsun Clinical Research Laboratory, Tirupur for
their assistance in animal studies. The last two authors
are thankful to University Grants Commission – New
Delhi, for their financial support (Ref. No: 39-
429/2010(SR) dated 7
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