‹çindekiler Önsöz xiii Parazitoloji’de Temel Kavramlar



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‹çindekiler
Önsöz ............................................................................................................ xiii
Parazitoloji’de Temel Kavramlar................................. .........
2
PARAZ‹T HASTALIKLARININ ÖNEM‹..........................................................
3
PARAZ‹TOLOJ‹N‹N TAR‹H‹..........................................................................
4
B‹RL‹KTE YAfiAM ÇEfi‹TL‹L‹⁄‹ ....................................................................
4
PARAZ‹OLOJ‹DE SIK KULLANILAN TANIMLAMALAR ..............................
5
PARAZ‹TL‹⁄E UYUM, YAfiAM DÖNGÜSÜ VE ÇO⁄ALMA........................
7
PARAZ‹T KONAK ‹L‹fiK‹LER‹ .......................................................................
9
Parazitlerin Konak Üzerindeki Etkileri.........................................................
9
Kona¤›n Parazit Üzerindeki Etkileri .............................................................
10
Parazitler ve Kona¤›n Yatk›nl›¤›...................................................................
10
PARAZ‹T HASTALIKLARININ EP‹DEM‹YOLOJ‹S‹ VE
BULAfiMA YOLLARI ......................................................................................
11
Parazitlerin Kayna¤› ......................................................................................
11
Parazitlerin Kona¤a Girifl Yollar›..................................................................
11
Parazitlerin Yay›l›fl Co¤rafyas› ve Görülme S›kl›¤› ......................................
12
PARAZ‹T HASTALIKLARINDA BEL‹RT‹ VE BULGULAR  ...........................
13
PARAZ‹T HASTALIKLARINDA TANI VE KORUNMA YÖNTEMLER‹NE 
GENEL BAKIfi................................................................................................
14
Parazit Enfeksiyonlar›nda Tan› Yöntemleri .................................................
14
Etkene Yönelik ‹nceleme..............................................................................
15
Dolayl› (‹ndirekt) Tan› Yöntemleri ..............................................................
16
Parazit Enfeksiyonlar›nda Tedavi Yöntemleri..............................................
16
Korunma ve Kontrol .....................................................................................
17
Özet ...............................................................................................................
18
Kendimizi S›nayal›m .....................................................................................
19
Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 20
S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar› .............................................................................. 20
Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar ...............................................
20
‹nsanda Yerleflen Parazitlerin S›n›fland›r›lmalar› ve 
Genel Özellikleri...................................................................... 22
PARAZ‹TLER‹N SINIFLANDIRILMASI VE ‹S‹MLEND‹R‹LMES‹ ..................
23
TIBB‹ ÖNEM‹ OLAN PARAZ‹T PROTOZOONLAR ....................................
28
Filum:Sarcomastigophora  ............................................................................
28
Filum: Sporozoa (Apicomplexa= Sporlular) ...............................................
30
Filum: Ciliophora (Ciliata= Silliler)  .............................................................
31
TIBB‹ ÖNEM‹ OLAN HELM‹NTLER (SOLUCANLAR) 
PARAZ‹TLER‹N SINIFLANDIRILMASI VE PARAZ‹TL‹KLER‹  ......................
32
Filum: Planthelminthes (Yass›kurtlar) .........................................................
33
Clasis: Trematoda (Karaci¤er Kelebekleri) ............................................
33
Clasis: Cestoda (fieritler, Tenyalar)  .......................................................
34
Filum: Nematoda (Yuvarlak Solucanlar)  ....................................................
35
Filum: Acanthocephala (Bafl› Dikenliler).....................................................
37
TIBB‹ ÖNEM‹ OLAN ARTHROPOD (EKLEMBACAKLI) PARAZ‹TLER.......
37
PARAZ‹TER HASTALIKLARIN ‹S‹MLEND‹R‹LMES‹......................................
41
‹çindekiler
iii
1. ÜN‹TE
2. ÜN‹TE
 

Özet ...............................................................................................................
42
Kendimizi S›nayal›m .....................................................................................
43
Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 44
S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar› .............................................................................. 44
Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar ...............................................
45
Parazitolojide Kullan›lan Tan› Yöntemleri ........................... 46
G‹R‹fi ..............................................................................................................
47
GASTRO‹NTEST‹NAL S‹STEM ÖRNEKLER‹N‹N  .........................................
PARAZ‹TOLOJ‹K ‹NCELENMES‹...................................................................
48
Gastrointestinal Örneklerin Toplanmas› ......................................................
48
D›flk› Örneklerinin Toplanmas› ..............................................................
48
Perianal Örneklerin Toplanmas› ............................................................
49
Duoedonal Örneklerin Toplanmas› (Entero-Test) ................................
50
Sigmoidoskopik ‹ncelemeler ........................................................................
50
Karaci¤er Apseleri ...................................................................................
51
D›flk› Örneklerinin Makroskobik ‹ncelenmesi.............................................
51
D›flk› örneklerinin Mikroskobik ‹ncelenmesi ..............................................
52
Direkt ‹nceleme.......................................................................................
52
Ço¤altma Yöntemleri ..............................................................................
55
Boyama Yöntemleri ................................................................................
57
Parazitlerin Kültürü .................................................................................
61
D›flk› Örneklerinin ‹ncelenmesinde Kullan›lan Koruyucular  ....................
64
KAN ÖRNEKLER‹N‹N ‹NCELENMES‹...........................................................
67
Kan Örneklerinin Toplanmas› ve Laboratuvara Tafl›nmas›.........................
68
Kan Örneklerinin Korunmas› ve Depolanmas› ...........................................
68
Kan Örneklerinin Parazitolojik ‹ncelenmesi................................................
69
‹nce Yayma ve Kal›n Damla Kan Preparatlar›n›n Haz›rlanmas› ..........
69
Kan Yayma Preparatlar›n›n Boyanmas› .................................................
71
Kan Örneklerinin ‹ncelenmesinde Kullan›lan Ço¤altma ............................
Yöntemleri .....................................................................................................
74
Buffy coat yöntemi..................................................................................
74
Knott Ço¤altma Yöntemi ........................................................................
74
QBC Mikrohemotokrit Santrifüj Yöntemi ile Ço¤altma ........................
75
Membran Filtrasyon Yöntemi .................................................................
75
Tripanosomlar ‹çin Üçlü Santrifüj Yöntemi...........................................
76
VAJ‹NAL VE ÜRETRAL ÖRNEKLER‹N PARAZ‹TOLOJ‹K ‹NCELENMES‹....
76
Vajinal ve Üretral Örneklerinin Direkt ‹ncelenmesi....................................
76
Trichomonas Vaginalis Tan›s›nda Kültür ve Antijen Saptama Yöntemi ....
77
TIBBI PARAZ‹TOLO‹J‹DE KULLANILAN SEROLOJ‹K.................................
TANI YÖNTEMLER‹ ......................................................................................
77
Antijen Saptama.............................................................................................
77
Parazit DNA’s›n›n Belirlenmesi.....................................................................
78
HAYVAN DENEYLER‹ VE KSENOD‹AGNOZ‹S...........................................
79
Özet ...............................................................................................................
80
Kendimizi S›nayal›m .....................................................................................
81
Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 82
S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar› .............................................................................. 82
Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar ...............................................
83
‹çindekiler
iv
3. ÜN‹TE

Sindirim Sisteminde Yaflayan Protozoonlar......................... 84
PARAZ‹T PROTOZOONLARIN ÖNEM‹  ......................................................
85
AMEB‹AS‹S (AM‹PL‹ D‹ZANTER‹)  ..............................................................
86
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi  ...........................................................................
88
Hastal›k belirtileri ..........................................................................................
88
Tan› ...............................................................................................................
89
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................
90
Sindirim Sisteminde Yerleflen Di¤er Amipler .............................................
90
Özgür Yaflayan Amipler ve Sebep Olduklar› Hastal›klar  ..........................
91
Naegleria Türleri  ..........................................................................................
92
Acanthamoeba Türleri  .................................................................................
93
G‹ARD‹OS‹S: ................................................................................................
94
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................
94
Hastal›k Belirtileri .........................................................................................
95
Tan› ................................................................................................................
95
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................
96
Ba¤›rsaklarda Yaflayan Di¤er Kamç›l›lar .....................................................
96
ISOSPOR‹AS‹S ..............................................................................................
96
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................
96
Hastal›k Belirtileri..........................................................................................
97
Tan› ................................................................................................................
97
Tedavi ve Kontrol .........................................................................................
98
CRYPTOSPOR‹D‹OS‹S ..................................................................................
98
Epidemiyolojisi ..............................................................................................
98
Hastal›k Belirtileri..........................................................................................
99
Tan› ................................................................................................................
99
Tedavi ve Kontrol ......................................................................................... 100
BLASTOCYSTOS‹S......................................................................................... 100
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................. 100
Hastal›k Belirtileri.......................................................................................... 100
Tan› ................................................................................................................ 101
Tedavi ............................................................................................................ 101
CYCLOSPOR‹OS‹S......................................................................................... 101
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................. 102
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 102
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 102
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 103
M‹CROSPOR‹D‹OS‹S ..................................................................................... 103
Epidemiyolojisi ............................................................................................. 104
Hastal›k Belirtileri.......................................................................................... 104
Tan› ................................................................................................................ 104
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 104
D‹ENTAMOEB‹AS‹S....................................................................................... 104
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................. 105
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 105
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 105
Tedavi ve Kontrol ......................................................................................... 106
BALANT‹D‹OS‹S ............................................................................................ 106
‹çindekiler
v
4. ÜN‹TE

Epidemiyolojisi ............................................................................................. 106
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 106
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 107
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 107
Özet ............................................................................................................... 108
Kendimizi S›nayal›m ..................................................................................... 109
Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 110
S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar› .............................................................................. 110
Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar ............................................... 111
Kan-Doku ve ürogenital Sistemde Yaflayan Protozoonlar... 112
KAN VE DOKULARDA YAfiAYANLAR  ....................................................... 113
MALAR‹AS‹S (Malarya-S›tma)  ...................................................................... 113
Epidemiyolojisi ............................................................................................. 115
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 116
Tan› ................................................................................................................ 117
Tedavi ve Kontrol ......................................................................................... 117
BABES‹OS‹S .................................................................................................. 118
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................. 119
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 119
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 119
Tedavi ve Korunma  ..................................................................................... 120
TOXOPLASMOS‹S  ....................................................................................... 120
Epidemiyolojisi .............................................................................................. 121
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 121
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 122
Tedavi  ........................................................................................................... 123
SARCOCYST‹S ............................................................................................... 123
Epidemiyolojisi ............................................................................................. 124
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 124
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 124
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 125
LE‹SHMAN‹OS‹S   ......................................................................................... 125
Epidemiyolojisi  ............................................................................................. 126
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 127
Tan› ................................................................................................................ 127
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 128
TRYPANOSOM‹AS‹S .................................................................................... 128
Epidemiyolojisi  ............................................................................................. 129
Hastal›k belirtileri ......................................................................................... 130
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 130
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 130
Hastal›k Belirtileri.......................................................................................... 131
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 131
Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 131
ÜROGEN‹TAL S‹STEM PARAZ‹TLER‹  ......................................................... 131
Trichomoniasis  ............................................................................................ 131
Epidemiyoloji  ............................................................................................... 132
Hastal›k Belirtileri ......................................................................................... 132
Tan› ............................................................................................................... 132
‹çindekiler
vi
5. ÜN‹TE

Tedavi ve Kontrol  ........................................................................................ 133
Özet ............................................................................................................... 134
Kendimizi S›nayal›m ..................................................................................... 134
Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 136
S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar› .............................................................................. 136
Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar ............................................... 137
Nematodlar (Yuvarlak Solucanlar) ...................................... 138
G‹R‹fi ............................................................................................................. 139
BA⁄IRSAK NEMATODLARI  ........................................................................ 140
Ascariosis ...................................................................................................... 140
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi  ..................................................................... 142
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 142
Tan› .......................................................................................................... 143
Tedavi ve Kontrol  .................................................................................. 143
Ankilostomiyoz/Nekatoriyoz (Çengelli Solucanlar) .................................... 143
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi  ..................................................................... 145
Hastal›k Belirtileri.................................................................................... 145
Tan› ......................................................................................................... 145
Tedavi ve Kontrol  .................................................................................. 146
Strongilloidiosis ............................................................................................. 146
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi  ..................................................................... 147
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 147
Tan› ......................................................................................................... 147
Tedavi ve Kontrol  .................................................................................. 148
Trichostrongillosis ........................................................................................ 148
Enterobiosis ................................................................................................... 148
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi  ..................................................................... 149
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 150
Tan› .......................................................................................................... 150
Tedavi ve Kontrol ................................................................................... 150
Trichuriosis  ................................................................................................... 150
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi ...................................................................... 151
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 152
Tan› ......................................................................................................... 152
Tedavi ve Kontrol ................................................................................... 152
Trichinosis (Triflinler) .................................................................................... 152
Hastal›¤›n Epidemiyolojisi ...................................................................... 153
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 154
Tan› ......................................................................................................... 154
Tedavi ve Korunma ................................................................................ 154
DOLAfiIM S‹STEM‹ VE DOKU NEMATODLARI .......................................... 154
Wuchereria Bancrofti .................................................................................. 155
Hastal›k Belirtileri.................................................................................... 155
Tan›   ....................................................................................................... 156
Tedavi ve Korunma  ............................................................................... 156
Onchocerca Volvulus ................................................................................... 156
Hastal›k Belirtileri  .................................................................................. 156
Tan› ......................................................................................................... 157
Tedavi ve Kontrol ................................................................................... 157
‹çindekiler
vii



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