Chapter # 15: Treatment Free Association

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Chapter # 15: Treatment

Free Association

-psychoanalytic technique in which the person says the first thing that comes to mind, letting true unconscious direct association


-therapeutic release of emotions, usually anger


-psychoanalytic occurrence in which the patient shifts thoughts and feelings about certain people or events onto the therapist


-client-centered therapy: therapist shows unconditional + regard

-help client realize full potential

-therapist is open, honest, and expressive of feelings with the client

Non-Directive Therapy

-client directs course/subject dealt with in therapy, not the therapist

Client Centered Therapist

-qualities: warmth, empathy, genuineness, positive regard, active listening skills

-objective, caring and professional view of the patient’s life and issues

Aversion Therapy

-subject is exposed to a negative consequence for displaying a behavior

Systematic Desensitization

-behavior treatment for phobias in which the client is trained to relax to increasingly fearful stimuli

-ex: Antabuse for alcoholism (drug makes a person violently ill if he consumes alcohol)

Token Economy

-behavioral therapy technique in which a person earns a reinforcement for displaying desired behavior

Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)

-cognitive treatment developed by Ellis, which is based on facing the irrational thoughts in a rather confrontational way

-changing irrational thinking will lead to a change in irrational behavior

-goal: see world and one’s place accurately, reduce self-blame

Albert Ellis

-cognitive therapy for depression

-RET: rational emotive therapy

Aaron Beck

-cognitive therapy for depression

-proposed the concept of cognitive triad: theorized that many unhappy people have negative thoughts about themselves, the world, and the future

-emphasized taking a realistic, objective look at these interpretations


-most work by enhancing effects of seratonin and norepinephrine




-MAO inhibitors

Mao Inhibitors

-used to treat depression and anxiety

-MAO inhibitors mop up norepinephrine and seratonin at the synapse

-increase amount of serotonin and norepinephrine in synaptic cleft

-produce this increase by blocking monoamine oxidase which is responsible for breakdown of neurotransmitters

-effective but toxic and require special dietary modifications

Tricyclics (TCA)

-original anti-depressants

-blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine & seratonin at presynaptic (sending) terminals

-amitriptyline and imipramine are tricyclics that increase the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine

Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

-used to treat depression by blocking the reuptake of only seratonin


Lithium Carbonate

-a salt used to treat bipolar disorder

Antipsychotic Drugs

-most work as dopamine antagonists


-relieves positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but causes tardive dyskinesia


-relieves positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Anti-Anxiety Drugs

-called anxiolyptics

Ex: Benzodiazapenes (CNS depressants, increase availability of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, reduce anxiety)


-stimulant used to treat AD/HD


-used to treat severe depression

ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy)

-form of treatment in which fairly high voltages of electricity are passed across a patient’s head

-causes a temporary amnesia

-successful in treatment of major depression

Psychosurgery: Prefrontal Lobotomy

-parts of the frontal lobes are cut off from the rest of the brain

-popular treatment for violent patients from 1930s-1950s

-left patients in zombie-like or catatonic state



-growth in use of drug therapies beginning in 1960s led to the trend this trend

Rosenhan’s Study

-1970s: pseudo-patients admitted to psychiatric hospital when they reported they were hearing voices

-pseudo-patients returned to normal behavior after inside institution

-no member of professional health staff “caught on” they were healthy

-application of label influences how each subsequent behavior is perceived

-patients in study released and told they were “in remission” – not cured or absent altogether, labels stick

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