Bipindi akom II lolodorf region, southwest



Yüklə 5.01 Kb.
Pdf просмотр
səhifə9/24
tarix01.08.2017
ölçüsü5.01 Kb.
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   24
slopes has not been affected by shifting cultivation practices.  
 
7.3.11 Du2: hilly uplands below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
The western lowlands of the TCP area are predominately covered by hilly uplands, which 
cover a total area of 23 950 ha. The uplands are strongly dissected and an estimated 5 to 
10% of them is covered by valley bottoms. The predominating soils of the slope and summit 
areas are of the Ebimimbang type, i.e. moderately well drained with sandy topsoils and less 
than 40% clay in the subsoils. The valley bottoms are typically poorly to very poorly 
drained. The vegetation of the moderately well drained parts of the units is Diospyros - 
Polyalthia forest (IIc). The swamp forest of the Carapa -Mitragyna community (III) covers 
the valley bottoms.  
 
Shifting cultivation has affected the hilly uplands only to a limited extent and appears to be 
restricted to those areas bordering the high intensity shifting cultivation areas of the rolling  
uplands and dissected erosional plains units. The vegetation in the shifting cultivation areas is 
a mosaic of forest of the Diospyros - Polyalthia community (IIc), with young secondary 
vegetation of the Xylopia - Musanga community (IV), and the Macaranga - Chromolaena 
community (V). Field observations suggest that most of the forest in these units have suffered 
commercial logging activities in the recent past.  
 
7.3.12 Du1: rolling uplands below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
Rolling uplands below 350 m asl are restricted to the western part of the TCP area, where they 
cover a surface area of 11,620 ha. Some 10 to 15% of the rolling uplands are occupied by valley 
bottoms. The slope and summit areas of the rolling uplands have predominately Ebimimbang soils, 
whereas those of the valley bottoms are typically poorly to very poorly drained. The vegetation in 

 
 
74
the moderately well drained areas is primary and old secondary lowland forest of the Diospyros 
- Polyalthia community (IIc), whereas the vegetation of the valley bottoms belongs to the 
Carapa - Mitragyna community (III).  
 
The units Du1 and Dpd contain the main shifting cultivation areas of the TCP area. Favorable 
soils and landforms have resulted in a long tradition of agricultural practice, especially near the 
village of Bipindi. Moreover, repeated logging for commercial timber has taken place in the 
last decennia. As a result the primary forest vegetation in these units is mostly disturbed, 
leaving only small patches of relatively undisturbed forest. Based on the air photographs of 
1984-85 and field observations both high and low intensity shifting cultivation areas have been 
designated. Field observations, however, show that neither the surface of these areas nor their 
boundaries are static. 
 
Within the shifting cultivation areas the vegetation is a mosaic of actual fields, thickets of the 
Macaranga - Chromolaena community (V) on recently abandoned fields, young secondary forest 
of the Xylopia - Musanga community (IV), and patches of lowland forest of the Diospyros - 
Polyalthia community (IIc).  
 
7.3.13 Dpd: dissected erosional plains below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
The dissected erosional plains are found in the northwest of the TCP area. The low relief 
intensity and low altitude (40 to 200 m asl) are a characteristic features of the landscape. These 
units cover a surface area of 11,260 ha and an estimated 10-15% of them are valley bottoms. The 
soils are an association of Ebimimbang and Valley Bottom soils.  
 
No significant stretch of natural forest is found within these units which are the core of the 
shifting cultivation area of the TCP area. These units have at least three times been logged for 
commercial timber. The units have been identified as high intensity shifting cultivation areas and 
the vegetation is a mosaic of actual fields, recently abandoned fields with the Macaranga - 
Chromolaena community (V), young secondary forest (Xylopia - Musanga community (IV)) and 
obviously disturbed lowland forest (Diospyros - Polyalthia community (IIc)). 
 
7.3.14 Ev: valley bottom; poorly to very poorly drained soils 
Valley bottoms occur throughout the TCP area. The majority however is too small to be 
mapped individually at reconnaissance scale and appears as inclusions in other mapping units.  
Some large valley bottom areas, however, do exist throughout of the TCP research area. The 
total surface of these units is only 1 600 ha. Because of the high ground water table and water 
stagnation, the vegetation structure and composition are very distinct. The soils are typically 
poorly to very poorly drained, are shallow to moderately deep and stratified, i.e. alternation of 
sand and clay. The swamp forest is characterized by the Carapa - Mitragyna (III) community. 
The Ev units appear not to be affected by human activity. 

 
 
75
REFERENCES 
 
Aleva, G.J.J. (ed.), 1994. Laterites.  Concepts, geology, morphology and chemistry. ISRIC, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands. 169 pp. 
 
Anderson, J.M. & Spencer, T., 1991. Carbon, nutrient and water balances of tropical rain forest 
ecosystems subject to disturbance. Management implications and research proposals. MAB 
Digest 7. UNESCO, Paris, France. 95 pp. 
 
Bakkum, A.W.G., 1996. GIS and computer maintenance mission to the Tropenbos-Cameroon 
Programme. SC-DLO mission report. SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
 
Bekhuis, P., 1997. Habitat requirements and potential distribution of some large mammals in 
Southwest Cameroon. MSc thesis. Dept. Terrestrial Ecology and Nature Conservation, 
Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 126 pp. 
 
Bilong, 1992. Caractères des sols ferrallitiques à plinthite et à pétroplinthite développés sur 
roches acides dans la zone forestière du sud du Cameroun. Cah. Orstom, sér. Pédol., vol. XXVII, 
No.2: 203-224. 
 
Braak, C.J.F. ter, 1988. CANOCO - a FORTRAN program for canonical community ordination 
by [partial] [detrended] [canonical] correspondence analysis (version 2.0). TNO Institute of 
Applied Computer Science, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
 
Braun-Blanquet, J., 1964. Planzensoziologie. 3rd ed. Springer Verlag, Vienna, Austria. 
 
Bregt, A.K. & Kekem, A.J. van, 1995. Land inventory and GIS mission to Tropenbos Cameroon. 
International Activities Report 43, SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 43 pp. 
 
Breimer, R.F., Kekem, A.J. van & Reuler, H. van, 1986. Guidelines for soil survey and land 
evaluation in ecological research. MAB Technical Notes 17. UNESCO, Paris, France. 
 
Buckle, C., 1978. Landforms in Africa. An introduction to geomorphology. Longman, Harlow, 
United Kingdom. 249 pp. 
 
CENADEFOR, 1987. Carte forestière, 1 : 50,000, feuilles Edéa 1B, 2A, 2B, Nyabessan 3D, 4A, 
4B. CENADEFOR, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 
 
CGN, 1976. Carte du Cameroun. Feuilles Edéa NA 32-XVIII sur l'échelle 1 ; 200,000. Centre 
Géographique Nationale, Yaoundé, Cameroon.  
 
Champetier de Ribes, G., 1956. Carte géologique de reconnaissance 1 : 500 000 - Notice 
explicative sur la feuille Yaoundé-Est. Direction de Mines et de la Géologie, Yaoundé, 
Cameroon. 
 
CPCS, 1967. Classification des sols. Travaux Commission de Pédologie et de Cartographie des 
Sols (CPCS) 1963-1969. 
 

 
 
76
Dijk, H. van, 1997. Ecological and economical assessment of non-timber forest products in the 
Bipindi - Akom II area, Cameroon. Final report of the first phase. (Draft). Tropenbos-Cameroon 
Programme, Kribi, Cameroon. 
 
Dolman, A.J. & Waterloo, M.J., 1995. Hydrology mission Tropenbos Cameroon Programme. 
International Activities Report 49, SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 29 pp. 
 
Dounias, E. , 1993. Dynamique et gestion différentielles du système de production à dominante 
agricole des Mvae du Sud-Cameroun forestier. Thèse de Doctorat Académie de Montpelier, 
Université de Montpelier II, France. 
 
Driessen, P.M. & Dudal, R. (eds.), 1989. Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. 
Geography, formation properties and use. Wageningen Agricultural University / Katholieke 
Universiteit Leuven, Wageningen, The Netherlands/Leuven, Belgium. 296 pp. 
 
Duivenvoorden, J.F. & Lips, J.M., 1993. Ecologia del paisaje del Medio Caquetá - Landscape 
ecology of the Middle Caquetá Bassin. Estudios en la Amazonia Colombiana IIIa+b. Tropenbos-
Colombia, Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia. 301 pp. + maps. 
 
Duivenvoorden, J.F. & Lips, J.M., 1995. A land - ecological study of soils, vegetation, and plant 
diversity in Colombian Amazonia. Tropenbos Series 12. The Tropenbos Foundation, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands. 438 pp. 
 
Embleton, C. & Thornes, J. (eds.), 1979. Process in Geomorpholgy. Edward Arnold (Publishers) 
Ltd., London, United Kingdom. 
 
Embrechts, J. & Dapper, M. de, 1987. Morphology and genesis of hillslope pediments in the Febe 
area (South-Cameroon). Catena Vol. 14, pp. 31-43. 
 
ESRI, 1990. PC ARC/INFO. Environmental Systems Research Institute, California, USA. 
 
ESRI, 1994. ArcView. Environmental Systems Research Institute, California, USA. 
 
Euroconsult (ed.), 1989. Agricultural Compendium. For rural development in the tropics and 
subtropics. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 740 pp. 
 
FAO, 1988. FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world. World Soil Resources Report 60. FAO, Rome, 
Italy. 
 
FAO, 1990. Guidelines for soil description. 3rd Edition (Revised). FAO, Rome, Italy. 70 pp. 
 
Foahom, B. & Jonkers, W.B.J., 1992. A programme for Tropenbos Research in Cameroon. The 
Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 181 pp. 
 
Franqueville, A., 1973. Atlas Régional Sud-Ouest 1. République du Cameroun. ORSTOM, 
Yaoundé, Cameroon. 93 pp. 
 
Gartlan, J.S., 1989. La conservation des ecosystèmes forestiers du Cameroun. IUCN, Gland, 
Switzerland & Cambridge, United Kingdom. 186 pp.  

 
 
77
 
Gillman, G.P., Sinclair, D.F., Knowlton, R. & Keys, M.G., 1985. The effect on some soil 
chemical properties of selective logging of a North Queensland rainforest. Forest Ecology and 
Management 12, 195-214. 
 
Hennekens, S.M., 1995. TURBO(VEG) - Software package for input, processing, and 
presentation of phytosociological data. IBN-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands, & University 
of Lancaster, Lancaster, United Kingdom. 
 
Hesse, P.R., 1971. A textbook of soil chemical analysis. John Murry, London, United Kingdom. 
 
Hill, M.D., 1979a. TWINSPAN, a Fortran program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered 
two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. Ecology and Systematics. 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. 
 
Hill, M.D., 1979b. DECORANA, a Fortran program for detrended correspondance analysis and 
reciprocal averaging. Ecology and Systematics. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. 
 
Hommel, P.W.F.M., 1987. Landscape-ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia). Doctoral 
thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 206 pp. 
 
Hommel, P.W.F.M., 1990. A phyto-sociological study of a forest area in the humid tropics 
(Ujung Kulon, West Java, Indonesia). Vegetatio 89, pp. 39-54. 
 
Hommel, P.W.F.M., 1995. Vegetation survey on a reconnaissance scale, Tropenbos Cameroon. 
International Activities Report 48. SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 38 pp. 
 
Hommel, P.W.F.M. & Kekem, A.J. van, 1996. Forest land evaluation and land inventory project 
of Tropenbos Cameroon Programme. International Activities Report 60. SC-DLO, Wageningen, 
The Netherlands. 50 pp. 
 
Houba, V.J.G., Lee, J.J., Novozamsky, I. & Wallinga, I., 1989. Soil and Plant analysis, a series 
of syllabi. Part 5, Soil Analysis Procedures (5th edition). Wageningen Agricultural University, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
 
ISRIC, 1994. FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world. Revised legend with corrections. ISRIC, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands. 140 pp. 
 
IUCN, 1988. IUCN Red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 186 pp. 
 
Kekem, A.J. van, Pulles, J.H.M. & Khan, Z., 1997. Soils of the rainforest in Central Guyana. 
Guyana Tropenbos Series 2, the Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Georgetown, Guyana. 
 
Kekem, A.J. van and P.W.F.M. Hommel. Land evaluation approach for the Tropenbos Cameroon 
Programme. Mission April 1997. SC-DLO International Activities Report 68. SC-DLO, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands, 40 pp. 
 
Kent, M. & Coker, P., 1992. Vegetation description and analysis: a practical approach. CRC 
Press, Boca Raton, Florida & Belhaven Press, London, United Kingdom. 363 pp.  

 
 
78
 
Khanna, P.H. & Ulrich, B., 1984. Soil characteristics influencing nutrient supply in forest soils. 
In: Bowen, G.D. & Nambiar, E.K.S. (eds.), Nutrient of forest trees in plantations, 79-117, 
Academic Press Inc., London, United Kingdom. 
 
Köppen, W., 1936. Das geographische System der Klimate. In: Köppen, W. & Geiger,  R. (eds.). 
Handbuch der Klimatologie. Verlag von Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Germany. 44 pp. 
 
Küchler, A.W. & Zonneveld, I.S., 1988. Vegetation mapping. Handbook of Vegetation Science 
Vol. 10. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 635 pp. 
 
Landon, J.R. (ed.), 1991. Booker Tropical Soil Manual. A handbook for soil survey and 
agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and sub tropics. Longman Scientific & Technical, 
Harlow, United Kingdom. 474 pp. 
 
Letouzey, R., 1968. Etude phytogéographique de Cameroun. Ed. P. Lechevalier, Paris, France. 
508 pp. 
 
Letouzey, R., 1985. Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1 : 500 000. Institut 
de la Carte Internationale de la Végétation, Toulouse, France. 142 pp. 
 
Louette, M., 1981. The birds of Cameroon: an annotated checklist. Verhandeling wetenschappen. 
Jaargang 43, no 163. Brussels, Belgium. 
 
Martin, D. & Segalen, P., 1966. Notice explicative. Carte Pédologique du Cameroun Oriental au 
1/1,000,000. ORSTOM, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 
 
Mbatchou, G.P.T., 1995. The vegetation of the proposed Etinde Rainforest Reserve, Mount 
Cameroon and its conservation. MSc thesis, University of Edinburgh, Royal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 94 pp. 
 
Mohr, E.C.J., Baren, F.A. van & Schuylenborgh, J. van, 1972. Tropical Soils. A comprehensive 
study of their genesis. 3rd ed. Geuze, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 481 pp. 
 
MINREST & ORSTOM, 1995. Atlas du Sud Cameroun. MINREST/ORSTOM, Yaoundé, 
Cameroon. 
 
Ndjib, G., 1987. Catenary relationships in tropical forest soils (Mbalmayo area, south 
Cameroon). ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands. 
 
Ngeh, P., Furley, P.A. & Grace, J., 1995. Effect of land clearing methods on soil physical and 
chemical properties in a lowland tropical rainforest at Mbalmayo, Cameroon. 10 pp. 
 
Olivry, J.C., 1986. Fleuves et Rivières du Cameroun. Collection Monographies Hydrologiques 
d'ORSTOM No. 9. MESRES-ORSTOM, Paris, France. 
 
Reeuwijk, L.P., 1995. Procedures for soil analysis, Technical Paper no. 9 (5th edition). 
International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), Wageningen, The Netherlands. 112 
pp. 

 
 
79
 
Reuler, H. van, 1996. Nutrient management over extended cropping periods in the shifting 
cultivation system of south-west Côte d'Ivoire. PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University, 
Wageningen, The Netherlands. 189 pp. 
 
Rodewald, P.G., Dejaifve, P.-A. & Green, A.A., 1994. The birds of Korup national park and 
Korup project area, Southwest Province, Cameroon. Bird conservation International 4: 1-68. 
 
Rouw, A. de, Vellema, H.C. & Blokhuis, W.A., 1990. Land Unit Survey of the Taï region, 
southwest Côte d'Ivoire. Tropenbos Technical Series 7. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, 
The Netherlands. 222 pp. + maps. 
 
Rouw, A. de, 1991. Rice, weeds and shifting cultivation in a tropical rain forest. A study of 
vegetation dynamics. PhD thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The 
Netherlands. 
 
Schroevers, P.J. (ed.), 1982. Landschapstaal.  Een stelsel van basisbegrippen voor 
landschapsecologie. Reeks Landschaps Studies. Centrum voor Landbouw publikaties en 
Landbouw Documentatie, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 109 pp. 
 
Segalen, P., 1957. Atlas du Cameroun. Notice explicative sur les sols du Cameroun. Carte au 1 : 
2, 000,000. ORSTOM, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 
 
Segalen, P., 1967. Les sols et géomorphologie du Cameroun. Cahiers ORSTOM, Série 
Pédologie: 137-187. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 
 
Serle, W. & Morel, G.J., 1977. A field guide to the birds of West Africa. Willam Collins Sons & 
Co. Ltd. London, United Kingdom. 352 pp. 
 
Soil Survey Staff, 1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. SMSS Technical Monograph No. 19, 5th ed., 
Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. 541 pp. 
 
Toteu, S.F., Schmus, W.R. van, Penaye, J. & Nyobé, J.B., 1994. U-Pb and Sm-Nd evidence for 
Eburnian and Pan-African high-grade metamorphism in cratonic rocks of southern Cameroon. 
Precambrian Research 67, 321-347. 
 
Touber, L., 1993a. Air photo interpretation for overall land inventory of the research area (TCP, 
LU1). Explanatory note. Internal document, SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 19 pp. + 
maps. 
 
Touber, L., 1993b. Report on a mission in support of the Land Inventory Project in the 
Tropenbos Cameroon Programme. International Activities Report 32. SC-DLO, Wageningen, 
The Netherlands. 35 pp. 
 
Touber, L., Smaling, E.M.A., Andriesse, W. & Hakkeling, R.T.A., 1989. Inventory and 
evaluation of tropical forest land. Guidelines for a common methodology. Tropenbos Technical 
Series 4. The Tropenbos Foundation, Ede, The Netherlands. 170 pp. 
 
Touber, L., Randen, Y. van & Gijsen, N., 1993. Trofolin database. User manual. Tropenbos 

 
 
80
Documents 4. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 31 pp. + annexes. 
 
UNESCO, 1981. Carte de la végétation d'Amerique du Sud. Recherches sur les resources 
naturelles N. 17. 183 pp. Unesco, Paris, France. 
 
Vivien, J., 1991. Faune du Cameroun: guide des mammifères et poissons. GICAM & Ministère 
de la Coopération et du Développement, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 271 pp. 
 
Waterloo, M.J., Ntonga, J.C., Dolman, A.J. & Ayangma, A.B., 1997. Studies on the impact of 
land use on the hydrology and erosion of rain forest land in South Cameroon. DLO Winand 
Staring Centre Report 134. SC-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
 
Whitmore, T.C., 1984. Tropical rain forests of the far east. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United 
Kingdom. 352 pp. 
Yemefack, M. & Moukam, A., 1995. Biophysical Land Resources Inventory and 
Characterization of ASB Forest Margin Benchmark sites of Cameroon. Report of the field tour 
carried out from 13 to 18 November 1995. IRA/ASB Project, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 
 
Zonneveld, J.I.S., 1981. Vormen in het landschap. Hoofdlijnen van de geomorfologie. Het 
Spectrum, Utrecht/Antwerpen, The Netherlands/Belgium. 515 pp. 
 
Zonneveld, I.S., 1995. Land Ecology. An introduction to landscape ecology as a base for land 
evaluation, land management and conservation. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands. 199 pp. 

 
 
81
 
Annex II List of aerial photographs 1983 - 1985, 1 : 20 000 series covering 
the TCP research area (Photosur Inc.) 
 
 
 
 
Line 
Line Number 
 
Photo Numbers 
 
40 
CAM - 84040 
L-40 
58-  60 
 
38 
CAM - 84044 
L-38 
46-  53 
37 
CAM - 84040 
L-37 
33-  42 
36 
CAM - 84039 
L-36 
74-  87 
35 
CAM - 84040 
L-35 
05-  11 
35 
CAM - 84039 
L-35 
49-  68 
34 
CAM - 84039 
L-34 
171- 198 
33 
CAM - 85007 
L-33 
112- 137 
32 
CAM - 84029 
L-32 
34-  44 
32 
CAM - 85019 
L-32 
58-  65 
32 
CAM - 84046 
L-32 
65-  75 
31 
CAM - 84046 
L-31 
88-  96 
31 
CAM - 85023 
L-31 
57-  62 
31 
CAM - 84046 
L-31 
99- 101 
30 
CAM - 85023 
L-30 
141- 150 
30 
CAM - 58025 
L-30 
142- 154 
29 
CAM - 85023 
L-29 
126- 139 
29 
CAM - 85023 
L-29 
63-  75 
29 
CAM - 85025 
L-29 
163- 167 
28 
CAM - 85008 
L-28 
203- 217 
27 
CAM - 84041 
L-27 
99- 118 
26 
CAM - 84041 
L-26 
163- 180 
24 
CAM - 85010 
L-24 
23-  26 
 

 

 
 
83
Annex III Methods for chemical and physical soil analysis 
 
 
 
 
IIIA  Laboratory of `Institute de la Recherche Agricole pour le Développement', 
station Ekona 
IIIB  Comparison of soil data analysed in duplo (IRAD, Ekona, Cameroon and 
ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands) 
 
 
III
A. Laboratory of `Institut de la Recherche Agricole pour le 
Développement', station Ekona
 
 
The analytical methods used are essentially those described in `Soil and Plant 
Analysis, a series of syllabi. Part 5, Soil Analysis Procedures', published by the 
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (Houba et al., 1989) and in' 
Procedures for soil analysis. Techn. Pap. No. 9 (5th ed.), published by Int. Soil Ref. 
and Info. Centre (ISRIC) (Reeuwijk, 1995). 
 
Texture 
Air-dry samples are sieved through a 2 mm sieve, and the material retained is 
crushed and sieved again. The material > 2 mm is indicated as coarse fraction. 
 
The soil material finer than 2 mm is used for particle size analysis by the sieve and 
pipette method after treatment with H
2



Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   24


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©www.azkurs.org 2019
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə