Bipindi akom II lolodorf region, southwest

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slopes has not been affected by shifting cultivation practices.  
7.3.11 Du2: hilly uplands below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
The western lowlands of the TCP area are predominately covered by hilly uplands, which 
cover a total area of 23 950 ha. The uplands are strongly dissected and an estimated 5 to 
10% of them is covered by valley bottoms. The predominating soils of the slope and summit 
areas are of the Ebimimbang type, i.e. moderately well drained with sandy topsoils and less 
than 40% clay in the subsoils. The valley bottoms are typically poorly to very poorly 
drained. The vegetation of the moderately well drained parts of the units is Diospyros - 
Polyalthia forest (IIc). The swamp forest of the Carapa -Mitragyna community (III) covers 
the valley bottoms.  
Shifting cultivation has affected the hilly uplands only to a limited extent and appears to be 
restricted to those areas bordering the high intensity shifting cultivation areas of the rolling  
uplands and dissected erosional plains units. The vegetation in the shifting cultivation areas is 
a mosaic of forest of the Diospyros - Polyalthia community (IIc), with young secondary 
vegetation of the Xylopia - Musanga community (IV), and the Macaranga - Chromolaena 
community (V). Field observations suggest that most of the forest in these units have suffered 
commercial logging activities in the recent past.  
7.3.12 Du1: rolling uplands below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
Rolling uplands below 350 m asl are restricted to the western part of the TCP area, where they 
cover a surface area of 11,620 ha. Some 10 to 15% of the rolling uplands are occupied by valley 
bottoms. The slope and summit areas of the rolling uplands have predominately Ebimimbang soils, 
whereas those of the valley bottoms are typically poorly to very poorly drained. The vegetation in 

the moderately well drained areas is primary and old secondary lowland forest of the Diospyros 
- Polyalthia community (IIc), whereas the vegetation of the valley bottoms belongs to the 
Carapa - Mitragyna community (III).  
The units Du1 and Dpd contain the main shifting cultivation areas of the TCP area. Favorable 
soils and landforms have resulted in a long tradition of agricultural practice, especially near the 
village of Bipindi. Moreover, repeated logging for commercial timber has taken place in the 
last decennia. As a result the primary forest vegetation in these units is mostly disturbed, 
leaving only small patches of relatively undisturbed forest. Based on the air photographs of 
1984-85 and field observations both high and low intensity shifting cultivation areas have been 
designated. Field observations, however, show that neither the surface of these areas nor their 
boundaries are static. 
Within the shifting cultivation areas the vegetation is a mosaic of actual fields, thickets of the 
Macaranga - Chromolaena community (V) on recently abandoned fields, young secondary forest 
of the Xylopia - Musanga community (IV), and patches of lowland forest of the Diospyros - 
Polyalthia community (IIc).  
7.3.13 Dpd: dissected erosional plains below 350 m asl; moderately well drained soils 
The dissected erosional plains are found in the northwest of the TCP area. The low relief 
intensity and low altitude (40 to 200 m asl) are a characteristic features of the landscape. These 
units cover a surface area of 11,260 ha and an estimated 10-15% of them are valley bottoms. The 
soils are an association of Ebimimbang and Valley Bottom soils.  
No significant stretch of natural forest is found within these units which are the core of the 
shifting cultivation area of the TCP area. These units have at least three times been logged for 
commercial timber. The units have been identified as high intensity shifting cultivation areas and 
the vegetation is a mosaic of actual fields, recently abandoned fields with the Macaranga - 
Chromolaena community (V), young secondary forest (Xylopia - Musanga community (IV)) and 
obviously disturbed lowland forest (Diospyros - Polyalthia community (IIc)). 
7.3.14 Ev: valley bottom; poorly to very poorly drained soils 
Valley bottoms occur throughout the TCP area. The majority however is too small to be 
mapped individually at reconnaissance scale and appears as inclusions in other mapping units.  
Some large valley bottom areas, however, do exist throughout of the TCP research area. The 
total surface of these units is only 1 600 ha. Because of the high ground water table and water 
stagnation, the vegetation structure and composition are very distinct. The soils are typically 
poorly to very poorly drained, are shallow to moderately deep and stratified, i.e. alternation of 
sand and clay. The swamp forest is characterized by the Carapa - Mitragyna (III) community. 
The Ev units appear not to be affected by human activity. 

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Annex II List of aerial photographs 1983 - 1985, 1 : 20 000 series covering 
the TCP research area (Photosur Inc.) 
Line Number 
Photo Numbers 
CAM - 84040 
58-  60 
CAM - 84044 
46-  53 
CAM - 84040 
33-  42 
CAM - 84039 
74-  87 
CAM - 84040 
05-  11 
CAM - 84039 
49-  68 
CAM - 84039 
171- 198 
CAM - 85007 
112- 137 
CAM - 84029 
34-  44 
CAM - 85019 
58-  65 
CAM - 84046 
65-  75 
CAM - 84046 
88-  96 
CAM - 85023 
57-  62 
CAM - 84046 
99- 101 
CAM - 85023 
141- 150 
CAM - 58025 
142- 154 
CAM - 85023 
126- 139 
CAM - 85023 
63-  75 
CAM - 85025 
163- 167 
CAM - 85008 
203- 217 
CAM - 84041 
99- 118 
CAM - 84041 
163- 180 
CAM - 85010 
23-  26 


Annex III Methods for chemical and physical soil analysis 
IIIA  Laboratory of `Institute de la Recherche Agricole pour le Développement', 
station Ekona 
IIIB  Comparison of soil data analysed in duplo (IRAD, Ekona, Cameroon and 
ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands) 
A. Laboratory of `Institut de la Recherche Agricole pour le 
Développement', station Ekona
The analytical methods used are essentially those described in `Soil and Plant 
Analysis, a series of syllabi. Part 5, Soil Analysis Procedures', published by the 
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (Houba et al., 1989) and in' 
Procedures for soil analysis. Techn. Pap. No. 9 (5th ed.), published by Int. Soil Ref. 
and Info. Centre (ISRIC) (Reeuwijk, 1995). 
Air-dry samples are sieved through a 2 mm sieve, and the material retained is 
crushed and sieved again. The material > 2 mm is indicated as coarse fraction. 
The soil material finer than 2 mm is used for particle size analysis by the sieve and 
pipette method after treatment with H

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