Bipindi akom II lolodorf region, southwest

part of the South Province of the Republic of Cameroon and is subdivided into the Departments

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part of the South Province of the Republic of Cameroon and is subdivided into the Departments 
Océan and Ntem. The TCP area covers about 1700 km
 which to a large extent coincides with a 
concession of the Dutch logging company of Wijma-Douala S.A.R.L. (GWZ).  
All roads leading to and within the TCP area are dirt roads. Two governmental roads delimit the 
TCP research area, the Kribi-Bipindi-Lolodorf-Ebolowa road in the northwest and the Kribi-
Akom II-Ebolowa road in the south. Within the area three principal roads are present, two of 
which having approximately a W-E direction and one a SW-NE direction. In addition many 
smaller exploitation roads have been constructed. Accessibility of these, however, is variable as 
maintenance is carried out by the logging companies and ceases once their activities are 
transferred to other regions. Footpaths connecting villages are found throughout the area. 
Transport by boat over the rivers is not possible due to the presence of rapids and waterfalls. 
The climate of Southwest Cameroon is equatorial. Although rainfall occurs throughout the year, 
two distinct minima and maxima can be distinguished in the annual pattern which are associated 
with the N-S movements of the Intertropical Convergence Zone over the area. The humid seasons 
extend from September to November and from April to May, whereas the drier seasons extend 
from December to March and from June to August. According to the classification system of 
Köppen (1936), the climate of the area is classified as humid tropical (Aw). Such a climate has a 
mean temperature in the coldest month above 18
°C, an average annual temperature of around 
°C with little variation between years, and at least one distinct dry season. 
Table 2.1 Summary of climatic data for selected stations in Southwest Cameroon (Olivry, 1986) 
Climatic data 
Weather station 
Kribi Lolodorf Ebolowa 
Altitude (m asl) 
Mean annual temperature (
Mean annual relative humidity (%) 
Mean annual vapour pressure (mbar) 
Mean annual rainfall (mm) 
Wind speed below 4 m s
 (% of time) 
Main wind direction 

Kribi n= 45 years; Lolodorf n= 25 years; Ebolowa n= 48 years; n.a. = data not available. 
A summary of climatic data of selected stations in the region is presented in Table 2.1. The long 
term annual mean temperature decreases from West to East, corresponding with an increase in 
altitude (Olivry, 1986). 


Long-term averages of monthly rainfall totals of the Kribi, Lolodorf and Ebolowa stations are 
presented in Figure 2.2. Due to the geographic position of the TCP research area, the rainfall 
pattern in the area is likely to resemble those at Lolodorf and Ebolowa, rather than that at Kribi. 
Wind speeds are generally low and the direction is predominantly W-SW throughout the year 
(Dolman & Waterloo, 1995). 
The duration of bright sunshine has not been measured at any of the weather stations in South 
Cameroon. However, the mean daily value of 3.4 h day
 observed at the weather station in 
Douala is a fair approximation (Dolman & Waterloo, 1995). 
The hydrography of Southwest Cameroon is characterized by a high drainage density as a result 
of a humid climate and the low permeability of the crystalline rock formations (Franqueville, 
1973). The main rivers draining the TCP research area are the Lokoundjé, Tchangué, Kienké, 
Moungué, Biwome, Sonkwé and Messambe. Their flow direction is generally  NNE-SSW, 
following the regional pattern of faulting. Smaller streams have a flow direction essentially 
perpendicular to the main rivers, resulting in a drainage pattern that has both dendritic and 
trellised characteristics. 
Swampy areas are commonly found in the valleys of the smaller rivers. The soils in these areas 
remain waterlogged even during dry periods due to a continuous supply of groundwater from the 
hill slopes and due to relatively thin valley soils underlain by massive rock of low permeability. 
Prior to 1995, hydrological studies have not been carried out at any location within the TCP 
research area. Hydrometric stations of the `Centre de Recherches Hydrologiques' of the `Institute 
de Recherche Géologique et Minière' (CRH-IRGM) were located in Lolodorf in the Lokoundjé 
river (draining the area north of the TCP research area) and in the Kienké river (partly draining 
the TCP research area) and the Lobé river (draining the area south of the TCP research area) at 
Kribi. However, all stations in South Cameroon have been abandoned since 1987 (pers. comm. 
J.C. Ntonga, 1996). 
The discharge patterns of the rivers correspond to the seasonal rainfall pattern with maxima in 
October and May and minima in August and February (Olivry, 1986). Figure 2.2 shows the 
monthly discharges of the Lokoundjé, Kienké and Lobé rivers for the 1953 -1977 period. 
The average annual discharge of the Lokoundjé river (at Lolodorf) amounted to 773 mm, whereas 
those of the Kienké and Lobé rivers amounted to 1082 mm and 1397 mm, respectively. Rainfall 
on the Lokoundjé basin and the Kienké and Lobé basins could be estimated at 1880 mm and 2425 
mm, respectively, resulting in runoff coefficients varying between 41% for the Lokoundjé basin 
and 45% and 58% for the Kienké and Lobé basins (Olivry, 1986).  
Annual evaporation rates obtained with the water balance method varied between 1107 mm for 
the Lokoundjé basin and 1345 mm and 1025 mm for the Kienké and Lobé basins (Olivry, 1986). 
The electric conductivity of stream water in the TCP research area is extremely low and varies 
between 13 
µS cm
 and 28 
µS cm
 in the dry season (Dolman & Waterloo, 1995). On the basis 
of data collected in one rainy season two EC zones can be discerned, the eastern part of  



The Ntem complex is comparable to the Calcium-magnesium complex. The Nyong series 
consist of meta-sedimentary rocks which are composed of migmitates, gneiss, quartzites and 
amphibolites. In addition, in the Lolodorf region, some small lenses of ferro-magnesian 
rocks are found, such as amphibolites, diorites and gabbros, forming discontinuous bands 
with a general NE-SW direction. 
During the present survey, mainly gneisses of various composition were found, as well as 
locally granites, migmatites, amphibolites, diorites and gabbros. Soils developed under a 
humid tropical climate on these metamorphic and igneous rocks will be composed of clay 
minerals (mainly kaolinite) with quartz sand and iron(hydr)oxides. These soils are acid and 
have low nutrient contents. 
The overall tectonic direction in the Basement complex is NNE-SSW. Two synclinal zones 
and one anticlinal zone can be distinguished in South Cameroon. The first synclinal zone 
coincides essentially with the Sanaga valley, the second occupies Cameroon's southern 
border and disappears under the coastal basins. The anticlinal structure is composed of the 
metamorphic complex of Ntem which forms an extension of the Ebolowa-Ambam granite 
zone (Franqueville, 1973). Mineral resources of the geological formations in this part of the 
country are not economically exploitable (Franqueville, 1973 
The Atlantic coast of Southwest Cameroon is characterized by large swampy areas in the 
Douala basin while southwards a rocky coastline is present. Going eastward, the landscape 
changes from low altitude sedimentary plains to erosional plains  and plateaus of the 
Precambrian shield with altitudes between 600 and 1000 m asl. The interface between the 
sedimentary plain and the Precambrian shield is only revealed by a few rapids in the larger 
rivers. Within the Precambrian shield four erosional plateaus, corresponding with 100, 200-
300, 400-500 and 600-800 m asl, can be distinguished. The plateaus at 200-300 and 600-800 
m asl respectively, correspond with the erosion surfaces African II and I (Franqueville, 
Fluvial processes have shaped the landforms in the recent past. Eolian, glacial or periglacial 
processes did not affect the Cameroonian Precambrian shield. 
The TCP research area is on the transition between the coastal plain and the Precambrian 
shield forming the interior plateau (Segalen, 1967). As a result the TCP research area is 
geomorphologically diverse. In the western part plains dominate whereas the eastern part is 
mountainous. The altitude ranges from 40 m asl in the western part to more than 1000 m asl 
in the eastern part. The central area is intermediate in both landform and altitude. A more 
elaborate literature review on landforms in the TCP research area is presented in section 4.1. 
2.6 SOILS  
The soils of Southwest Cameroon have been described and mapped at scale 1 : 2 000 000 
and 1 : 1 000 000 (Segalen, 1957; Martin & Segalen, 1966). Three major soil types are 
distinguished. The deep, moderately well to well drained, yellowish brown tropical clay 
soils; `les sols ferrallitiques jaunes sur les roches acides (gneiss)' in the original French 
denomination, are the most widespread. These soils have high contents of sesquioxides (iron  

and aluminum) and are low in exchangeable bases.  
The deep, well drained, reddish brown tropical clay soils; `les sols ferrallitiques rouges sur les 
roches acides' are restricted to the eastern part of Southwest Cameroon. The gneisses and granites 
of the `Complexe Calco-magnésien' coincide with this soil type (Touber, 1993a). The chemical 
properties are similar to the yellowish brown tropical clay soils. 
The third soil type are the alluvial soils which are restricted to alluvial plains and valley bottoms. 
Although not covering large surfaces, this soil type is very distinct. It is often mapped in 
association with the yellowish brown and reddish brown tropical clay soils. The alluvial soils are 
characterized by greyish colours or mottling due to permanently high or variable groundwater 
levels. Texture varies with depth. 
The soils in Southwest Cameroon are generally acid, have no weatherable minerals and the cation 
retention by the mineral soil fraction is low, leading to chemically poor soils. The soil fertility 
mainly depends on the organic matter that is concentrated in the upper 50 cm of the profile. 
Removal of the biomass and erosion of the topsoil seriously reduces the fertility (Driessen & 
Dudal, 1989). The soils are prone to strong phosphorus fixation and aluminum toxicity. 
The physical properties of the soils are favourable for agriculture: deep soils with high 
permeability and a stable microstructure. With exception of the shallow and sandy soil types the 
soils are hardly susceptible to erosion. Their friable consistence under most conditions makes 
them easy to work. The well-drained tropical clay soils may in times be droughty because of their 
low water storage capacity (Driessen & Dudal, 1989). The physical characteristics, i.e. soil 
structure, permeability and infiltration, deteriorate by forest exploitation (e.g. on account of the 
use of heavy machinery). 
A more elaborate literature review on soils in the TCP research area is presented in section 5.1. 
Southwest Cameroon forms part of the Guineo-Congolian domain which consists of dense humid 
evergreen forests. The area forms a belt along the Bay of Biafra. The width of the belt increases 
from 100-150 km in the north to 200-250 km in the south (Letouzey, 1985). The Guineo-
Congolian domain is divided by altitude in a submontane zone (altitudes between 800 and 2200 
m asl) and a zone with low and medium altitudes (between sea level and 800 m asl).  
The submontane part of the Guineo-Congolian domain is almost completely restricted to the 
Mount Cameroon area and only very small surfaces are found scattered throughout Southwest 
Cameroon on individual upheavals surpassing 800 m asl. Most submontane forests have been 
degraded as a result of shifting cultivation and logging activities. 
In Southwest Cameroon, the lower part of the Guineo-Congolian domain can be divided into four 
districts; the Littoral Atlantic district, the Biafran Atlantic district and the Central-oriental 
Atlantic district with humid evergreen forests, and one district with semi-deciduous humid forests 
(Letouzey 1968; 1985). In Figure 2.5 the location of the different districts is roughly indicated. 


Because of the various human activities mentioned above, the vegetation in large parts of 
Southwest Cameroon has changed drastically. Forests in different stages of degradation are found 
close to towns and villages, along access roads, and in logged forest. The floristic composition of 
the secondary vegetation is very distinct and incorporates many species which can be 
characterized as `pioneer species' and which are found in disturbed vegetation throughout the 
Guineo-Congolian domain, e.g. Musanga cecropioides, Myrianthus arboreus and Homalium 
species. Large recent clearings are typically overgrown with the stout herb Chromolaena 
odorata. Moreover, depending on the intensity of clearing, many relicts of the previous forests 
are found reflecting the characteristics of each of the phytogeographic districts. 
A more elaborate literature review on vegetation in the TCP research area is given in section 6.1. 
The tropical moist forest area of Cameroon possesses high levels of endemic fauna and flora. The 
Lower Guinea centre of endemism (Gartlan, 1989) stretches from SE Nigeria in the north to 
Gabon in the south. A subdivision is made into the Cameroon refuge, centring around Mount 
Cameroon, and the West Equatorial refuge south of the Sanaga river. The two refuges are 
important with respect to the conservation of biodiversity.  
Approximately 132 species of mammals are found in the humid forests of Cameroon (Vivien, 
1991), among which endangered species like elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis), western 
lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), mandrill 
(Mandrillus sphinx), African leopard (Panthera pardus), forest buffalo (Synceras caffer nanus) 
and bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) (IUCN, 1988). No systematic census of the mammals of the 
TCP area has taken place. Van Dijk (1997), in her study on non-timber forest products, 
interviewed villagers on the use and presence of `bush meat'. Her survey reveals that, although 
the elephant has become extinct, the TCP research area still harbours gorillas, chimpanzees and 
mandrills. Bekhuis (1997) studied, within the framework of the Lu1 project, the habitat 
requirements of some larger mammal species. 
Some 849 species of birds are found in Cameroon (Louette, 1981). A total of 390 bird species are 
known to occur in the Korup National park and its surroundings in the South-West Province, 
Cameroon. Although the avifauna of this area is still incompletely known, it is already among the 
ornithologically most diverse lowland forest sites in Africa (Rodewald et al., 1994). Some 48 of 
these species are considered globally threatened or near-threatened. The avifauna of the TCP 
research area has neither been studied intensively nor systematically. The legacy of a few 
individuals has resulted in the drafting of a preliminary species list of the TCP research area. The 
total of identified species is at present 96. In Annex VI all recorded species are listed.  
The human population of Southwest Cameroon is concentrated in a few urban centres like Edéa, 
Kribi and Ebolowa, and in numerous villages along the main access roads. Population density in 
the rural forest areas averages 5 habitants per km
 (Foahom & Jonkers, 1992). 
The ethnic composition of the population of the TCP research area is diverse. Approximately 
90% of the population are Bantus, belonging to the Bulu, Fang, Bassa and Ngumba tribes. They 
live in villages along the roads. The Bantus practice shifting cultivation, but other activities such  

as hunting, fishing and gathering of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are also 
important. Approximately five percent of the population are Bakola (or Bagyeli) pygmies. 
They are mainly forest dwelling hunters and gatherers, although they seem to be in the 
process of sedentarization. Shifting cultivation is practised by Bakola but is not widespread. 
The life style of the Bakola is seriously threatened by the ongoing logging and shifting 
cultivation activities in the area. 
Traditionally Bantu and Bakola have all sorts of socio-economic relationships. Bakola 
groups have kinship ties with certain villages which arranges the mutual use of forest areas 
and protects it from outsiders. Bakola provide agricultural labour and bush meat to the Bantu 
farmers in return for agricultural products, like cassava and bananas, and increasingly for 
money. Bakola traditional doctors are regularly consulted by the Bantu villagers. In recent 
years the relation of the Bakola with their Bantu kin is becoming less exclusive and Bakola 
are now known to sell NTFPs directly to traders outside the region (pers. comm., F. Tiayon, 
Traditionally men and women of rural communities of Southwest Cameroon have specific 
tasks with regard to land use. In Bantu villages, the women are responsible for the 
cultivation of crops, the preparation of food and the general housekeeping. Men are 
responsible for the clearing of forest and old forest fallow for agricultural fields, hunting and 
the cultivation of cash crops. Labour provision to logging and other  companies is restricted 
to men. The collection of NTFPs in the vicinity of the village and fields is done by women
whereas those from the virgin forest are gathered by men.  
A gradual transformation of the rural communities from subsistence to (partially) market 
oriented economy, is taking place in the last decade and is strongly influenced by the 
improved infrastructure. This will trigger changes in the relation between men and women 
and as a result the dynamics of land utilization by the local population may change (pers. 
comm., I. Hijman, 1996). 
2.10 LAND USE 
The main economic activity in the area is timber exploitation. Most of the forest within the 
TCP research area has at least twice been selectively logged by national and international 
companies, among them the Dutch GWZ. Logging concessions are granted for a one to three 
year period. The logging of the forest involves the construction of logging roads with 
bulldozers and graders. Log extraction from the forest is done by wheeled skidders and 
crawler tractors. Present logging activities focus on three species; Azobé (Lophira alata), 
60% of the extracted volume), Tali (Erythrophleum ivorense) and Padouk (Pterocarpus 
soyauxii). Only trees with diameters at breast height (dbh) 
≥ 80 cm and straight boles of at 
least six meters are considered worthwhile. The resulting average logging intensity is low, 
i.e. 10 m

 representing 0.7 trees, compared with regions like Malaysia where on average 
15 trees per hectare are removed. The felling and extraction of the logs from the stand are 
estimated to affect less than 15% of the surface (pers. comm. G.J.R. van Leersum, 1996).  
Agriculture is an important land use in the TCP research area. The traditional shifting 
cultivation system involves the clearing and burning of primary and old secondary forest just 
before the rainy season and the planting of cucumber, maize, cassava, coco-yam and  

plantain. With decreasing soil fertility, the tending and harvesting of a field gradually stops and 
the land is left fallow after a maximum of five years. The former agricultural fields are then 
colonized by a forest vegetation. The biomass accumulation of the secondary vegetation restores 
soil fertility. The traditional shifting cultivation cycle is gradually being transformed by the 
introduction of the chain saw, the limited amount of available labour and the scarcity of new land 
within reach of the village. More and more farmers are clearing young fallows for agricultural 
fields. They plant groundnut and cucumber in association with coco-yam, cassava and maize. The 
total surface of this rotational fallow system  is less than ten hectares per farmer (pers. comm., M. 
Yemefack, 1996). 
NTFPs are a major source of food, construction materials, agricultural and household utensils, 
medicines and cash for the local population of Southwest Cameroon. The gathering of NTFPs is 
for the Bantu population supplementary to agriculture. For Bakola it is the mainstay. Surveys on 
NTFP collection have been carried out in the neighbouring Campo-Ma'an area and in the TCP 
research area. Some 500 plant species were recorded in the TCP area alone that provided a total 
of nearly 1200 different uses. The trade in NTFPs is an important source of income for the local 
population. The most traded NTFPs in the TCP area are for the Bantu population: oil palm 
(Elaeis guineensis), bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) and the almond-like `Njansang' 
(Ricinodendron heudelotti). The Bakola collect and trade the fruits of the liana (Strophanthus 
gratus), honey and several oil containing nuts (e.g. Panda oleosa and Poga oleosa) (Dounias, 
1993; pers. comm. H. van Dijk, 1996).    
Next to subsistence agriculture, cacao is cultivated for cash revenues by mainly Bantu farmers 

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