Aromatic plants in bali botanic garden indonesia



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AROMATIC PLANTS IN BALI BOTANIC GARDEN INDONESIA

Wawan Sujarwo1,2) and Ida Bagus Ketut Arinasa1)

“Eka Karya” Bali Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Candikuning, Baturiti, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia 821911). Department of Science, the University Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446 Rome Italy2) Email: wawan.sujarwo@lipi.go.id; wawan.sujarwo@uniroma3.it

ABSTRACT

The increasing of global demand for aromatic products ensures accelerated cultivation, marketing and conservation of aromatic plants. Hence, the scientific study of aromatic, derivation of essential oil through bioprospecting and systematic conservation of the concerned aromatic plants are of great importance. This study provides an overview and critical discussion of aromatic plants collected by Bali Botanic Garden. The study includes literature available from 1963 to 2009. The information was collected mainly from books that reported any plants used as in aromatic. A total of 56 aromatic plants and 8 condiment plants, distributed into 50 genera and 31 families were reported in literatures. The most frequent families were: Cupresaceae (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl., Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl., Chamaecyparis thyoides (Britton.) Stem & Poggenb, Cupressus chasmeriana Royle ex Carriere, Cupressus benthamii Endl., Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl., Libocedrus formosana Florin, Thuja occidentalis L., Thuja orientalis L), Rutaceae (Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn., Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle, Citrus hystrix DC., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack., Acronychia trifoliata Zoll), Myrtaceae (Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L., Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex. Bl., Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, Eucalyptus deglupta Bl., Leptospermum amboinense Bl.), Lauraceae (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl., Cinnamomum sintoc Bl., Massoi aromatica Becc.), and Lamiaceae (Mentha arvensis L., Pogostemon cablin Bth., Coleus atropurpureus Bth., Ocimum basilicum L., Orthosiphon aristatus (Bl.) Miq.). Several wild species are promising for their potential aromatic properties, such as Amomum cardamomum L., Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Dysoxylum caulostachyum Miq., Pittosporum ferrugineum W. Ait., Protium javanicum Burm. f., and Talauma candollii Bl. Some of them are Indonesia native plants (e.g., Protium javanicum Burm. f., and Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt).
Keywords: Aromatic plants, Bali Botanic Garden, Indonesia

ABSTRAK

Peningkatan permintaan global untuk produk aromatik memerlukan peningkatan budidaya, pemasaran dan konservasi tanaman aromatik. Oleh karena itu, studi ilmiah tanaman aromatik beserta produk turunannya dan upaya konservasi sistematik adalah sangat penting. Penelitian ini memberikan gambaran dan diskusi kritis tanaman aromatik yang dikoleksi Kebun Raya Bali, yang mencakup berbagai pustaka terkait yang tersedia dari 1963 sampai 2009. Informasi yang dikumpulkan terutama dari buku yang melaporkan adanya tanaman yang digunakan untuk keperluan aromatik. Sebanyak 56 tanaman aromatik dan 8 tanaman bumbu masakan, yang termasuk ke dalam 50 marga dan 31 family. Jenis family yang paling banyak digunakan diantaranya Cupresaceae (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl., Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl., Chamaecyparis thyoides (Britton.) Stem & Poggenb, Cupressus chasmeriana Royle ex Carriere, Cupressus benthamii Endl., Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl., Libocedrus formosana Florin, Thuja occidentalis L., Thuja orientalis L), Rutaceae (Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn., Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle, Citrus hystrix DC., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack., Acronychia trifoliata Zoll), Myrtaceae (Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L., Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex. Bl., Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, Eucalyptus deglupta Bl., Leptospermum amboinense Bl.), Lauraceae (Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl., Cinnamomum sintoc Bl., Massoi aromatica Becc.), dan Lamiaceae (Mentha arvensis L., Pogostemon cablin Bth., Coleus atropurpureus Bth., Ocimum basilicum L., Orthosiphon aristatus (Bl.) Miq.). Beberapa spesies liar yang menjanjikan untuk potensi sifat aromatik, seperti Amomum cardamomum L., Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Dysoxylum caulostachyum Miq., Pittosporum ferrugineum W. Ait., Protium javanicum Burm. f., dan Talauma candollii Bl. Beberapa diantaranya adalah tanaman asli Indonesia (misalnya, Protium javanicum Burm. f., dan Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt).


Kata kunci: tanaman aromatik, Kebun Raya Bali, Indonesia

INTRUDUCTION

Aromatic plants have a pleasant, characteristic fragrant smell. The fragrance of these plants is carried in the essential oil fraction. Many aromatic plants are condiment, defined spices as any dried, fragrant, aromatic or pungent vegetables or plant substances in whole, broken or in ground forms that contributes relish or piquancy of foods and beverages.[1,2] Moreover, aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to the aromatic compounds in essential oils and other plant extracts.[3]

Indonesia due to its wide range of geographical, ecological and biological diversities possesses many species that are directly or indirectly used as sources of herbal, allopathic or homeopathic medicines, and aromatic. However, many of these plant species are facing threats of extinction due to over and improper exploitation, habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation of land, urbanization pressure and our ignorance about them. On other hand, the increasing global demand for aromatic and products warrants accelerated cultivation, marketing and conservation of aromatic plants. Hence, the scientific study of aromatic, derivation of essential oil through bioprospecting and systematic conservation of the concerned aromatic plants are of great importance.

The major drawback in this area is scarcity of comprehensive and authoritative information on aromatic plants, which hinders an assessment of their status of availability, implementation activities necessary for preserving their habitat and monitoring the effect of rehabilitative efforts. Further, aromatic plants have considerable potential both in national and international market. Indonesia has to increase its contribution to meet the growing demand by supplying high quality aromatic plant and its products. It will help earning foreign exchange and strengthen the economy of the country and there are tremendous possibilities of increasing the production and trade of aromatic plant, both for internal consumption and export. But it calls for an integrated and continuous effort in conservation, sustainable utilization, cultivation, maintenance and production of aromatic plant resources. In Indonesia, efforts haven’t initiated yet for conservation of aromatic plants, both of in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

Bali Botanic Garden has become one of the conservation centers in Indonesia. The Garden is situated in the mountain tourist resort, Bedugul. It occurs on the east slope of Tapak Hill, at an elevation of 1,250 to 1,400 m, and is in front of Batukau Nature Reserve (15,390 ha). The total area of the Garden of 157.5 ha can be divided into 20 Vak, consist of 94 subVak.[4]

Gathering a comprehensive aromatic plants list is very essential because it will assist in categorizing and understanding the aromatic importance of these plants. These are natural resources that are freely available to us and we need to utilize them. Aromatic plants are named after their aroma. They are not only used for medicinal purposes but also for preservation of food and adding some pleasant flavor.

This study provides an overview and critical discussion of aromatic plants collected by Bali Botanic Garden. A census made in February 2014 noted that the Garden had 2693 species in its collection, consisting of 405 families, 1326 genera and including 336 species of medicinal plant and 216 species of ceremonial flora.[5]
METHODS

All publications available on Java and Bali Flora literatures since 1963 were consulted for reports on aromatic plants. Publications included books.[6-12] This information was carefully screened throughout these publications: it was not just a simple search for specific terms. The collected data (including plants used as condiments, but excluding beverages such as liqueurs and herbal teas) were reported in Table 1 (including the properties attributed to each plant, the plant part, life form, habitat and propagation technique). Scientific nomenclature was updated using databases.[13] In order to check bioactive compounds for each plant, we conducted a search in recent international scientific literature (using scientific names), considering reviews on specific family.[14]


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Plants of Cupressaceae and Rutaceae are important botanical resource of Aromatic. Our study revealed that 56 species were commonly used for aromatic, involving 66 plant species of 50 genera in 31 families: Cupressaceae (9 species), Rutaceae (6 species), Lamiaceae (5 species), Lauraceae (5 species), Myrtaceae (5 species), Magnoliaceae (3 species), Zingiberaceae (3 species), Pandanaceae (2 species), Piperaceae (2 species), Poaceae (2 species), Solanaceae (2 species), Theaceae (2 species), Asteraceae (2 species), Acoraceae (1 species), Annonaceae (1 species), Apiaceae (1 species), Apocynaceae (1 species), Araucariaceae (1 species), Bixaceae (1 species), Burseraceae (1 species), Capparaceae (1 species), Celastraceae (1 species), Clusiaceae (1 species), Malvaceae (1 species), Meliaceae (1 species), Moringaceae (1 species), Oleaceae (1 species), Pittosporaceae (1 species), Rubiaceae (1 species), Sapotaceae (1 species) and Thymelaeaceae (1 species) (Figure 1). Among them, 66 plant species (100%) are documented in the “Lontar Usada Bali.” Lontar Usada is palm leaves manuscript that explains about healing system, medicinal ingredients, and methods in traditional Balinese medicine.[11]


Figure 1. Use frequency of aromatic plant families
Leaves are the most cited parts of plants for aromatic and condiment. Of these 66 plants, leaves of 31 species, flowers of 16 species, stems, rhizomes, seeds, and roots of 4 species, gum or barks of 2 species, and rind of 1 species were used as aromatic and condiment (Figure 2). A total of 66 species was distributed into different life forms, with trees (53%), herbs (24%), shrubs (17%), and woody climber (6%) (Figure 3).


Figure 2. Use frequency of aromatic plant parts
Figure 3. Frequency of aromatic plant taxa arranged by life forms
This study classified 66 taxa of ethno flora, 56 with aromatic properties and 8 with condiment. Table 1 presents the data concerning plants with aromatic and condiment uses mentioned by at least five books.[6-12] A few species, which are not wild in the tropical countries, instead, commercialized, are also included in this table. A comprehensively summarized list is given below (Table 1).
Table 1. Aromatic and condiment Plants in Bali Botanic Garden

Scientific name, botanical family

Local names

Part(s) used

Use

Life form

Habitat

Propagation

Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. (Malvaceae)

Gandapura

Seed

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Acorus calamus L. (Acoraceae)

Jangu

Rhizome

Condiment

Herb

Semi shade

Rhizome

Acronychia trifoliata Zoll. (Rutaceae)

Empag

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Agathis dammara (Lamb.) L. C. Rich (Araucariaceae)

Agatis

Gum

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. (Apocynaceae)

Pulesari

Stem

Aromatic

Woody climber

Semi shade

Seed

Amomum cardamomum L. (Zingiberaceae)

Kapulago

Rhizome

Aromatic

Herb

Semi shade

Rhizome

Aquilaria malacensis Lam. (Thymelaeaceae)

Garu

Gum

Aromatic

Tree

Semi shade

Seed

Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae)

Daun sudamala

Root

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Stolon

Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae)

Kesumba

Leaf, root, seed

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn. (Rutaceae)

Inggu gunung

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Semi shade

Seed

Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl.) D. Don. (Solanaceae)

Kembang pagi sore

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Camellia sinensis (L.) O. K. (Theaceae)

Teh

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Cananga odorata (Lmk) Hook. F. & Thoms. (Annonaceae)

Cananga

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cestrum nocturnum L. (Solanaceae)

Sedap malam

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl. (Cupressaceae)

Keires

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl. (Cupressaceae)

Cemara kipas

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Chamaecyparis thyoides (Britton.) Stem & Poggenb (Cupressaceae)

Cemara kipas

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl. (Lauraceae)

Kayu manis

Bark

Condiment

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. (Lauraceae)

Kamper

Bark

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cinnamomum sintoc Bl. (Lauraceae)

Sintok

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. (Lauraceae)

Sintok lue

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle (Rutaceae)

Jeruk nipis

Fruit

Condiment

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae)

Jeruk Bali

Rind

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Citrus hystrix DC. (Rutaceae)

Jeruk purut

Fruit

Condiment

Shrub

Full sun

Seed

Cleome gynandra L. (Capparaceae)

Boangit

Leaf, flower

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Seed

Coleus atropurpureus Bth. (Lamiaceae)

Miana

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Cutting

Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. (Asteraceae)

Kenikir

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Seed

Cupressus benthamii Endl. (Cupressaceae)

Cemara lilin

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cupressus chasmeriana Royle ex Carriere (Cupressaceae)

Cemara kipas

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae)

See

Leaf

Condiment

Herb

Full sun

Stolon

Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae)

See wangi

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Stolon

Dysoxylum caulostachyum Miq. (Meliaceae)

Majagau

Stem

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex. Bl. (Myrtaceae)

Ampupu

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Eucalyptus deglupta Bl. (Myrtaceae)

Leda

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake (Myrtaceae)

Huek

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae)

Adas

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Seed

Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae)

Jempiring

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Full sun

Cutting

Jasminum sambac (L.) W.Ait. (Oleaceae)

Menuh

Flower

Aromatic

Woody climber

Semi shade

Cutting

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. (Cupressaceae)

Cemara natal

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Leptospermum amboinense Bl. (Myrtaceae)

Mica bolong

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Libocedrus formosana Florin (Cupressaceae)

Kipres pormosa

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Lophopetalum javanicum (Zoll.) Turcz. (Celastraceae)

Tahlan

Stem

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Massoi aromatica Becc. (Lauraceae)

Mesui

Stem

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. (Myrtaceae)

Kayu putih

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae)

Poo

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Stolon

Mesua ferrea L. (Clusiaceae)

Nagasari

Seed

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Michelia champaca L. (Magnoliaceae)

Cempaka

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Michelia montana Bl. (Magnoliaceae)

Kayu base

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Mimosops elengi L. (Sapotaceae)

Tanjung

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. (Moringaceae)

Kelor

Root, leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. (Rutaceae)

Kemuning

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

Kencarum

Flower

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Seed

Orthosiphon aristatus (Bl.) Miq. (Lamiaceae)

Kumis kucing

Flower

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Seed

Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (Pandanaceae)

Pandan arum

Leaf

Aromatic

Shrub

Semi shade

Stolon

Pandanus inermis Reinw. (Pandanaceae)

Pudak

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Semi shade

Stolon

Piper cubeba L.f. (Piperaceae)

Kemukus

Leaf

Aromatic

Woody climber

Semi shade

Cutting

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)

Merica

Seed

Condiment

Woody climber

Semi shade

Seed

Pittosporum ferrugineum W. Ait. (Pittoporaceae)

Belalang puak

Root

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Pogostemon cablin Bth. (Lamiaceae)

Dondelem

Leaf

Aromatic

Herb

Full sun

Cutting

Protium javanicum Burm. f. (Burseraceae)

Tenggulun

Leaf

Condiment

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Theaceae)

Puspa

Flower

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Talauma candollii Bl. (Magnoliaceae)

Cempaka gondok

Flower

Aromatic

Shrub

Semi shade

Seed

Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae)

Cemara kipas

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Thuja orientalis L. (Cupressaceae)

Cemara kipas

Leaf

Aromatic

Tree

Full sun

Seed

Zingiber casummunar Roxb. (Zingiberaceae)

Bangle

Rhizome

Aromatic

Herb

Semi shade

Rhizome

Zingiber officinale Roxb. (Zingiberaceae)

Jahe

Rhizome

Condiment

Herb

Semi shade

Rhizome

All of these species are recorded in Balinese traditional medicine literature as medicinal plant. As aromatic and condiment, they are used to provide fragrance, flavor, color, and even texture. Usages and dosages might be different if they are used for medicinal purposes under the guidance of Balinese traditional medicine theory.

This was the first ethno-botanical review of aromatic and condiment used in Bali. Results gained from the investigation can be severed as useful data of the authenticity and safety of aromatic and condiment. Systematic quality evaluation on these species could be our further research.

Comment on some relevant families

This aromatic plants list has taken into account different families and all the plants that can fall under each family. They include:

Cupressaceae. These plants have perfect expectorant qualities that produce a very effective treatment for a number of respiratory ailments such as coughs and bronchitis. Through inhaling of these plants, the healing process of ulcers and other wounds is sped up. They minimize the chances of appearance of any form of cellulites to their medicinal properties. They also combat insomnia, stress and nervous tension.[14] The aromatic plants list in this category is formed by Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl., Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. & Zucc.) Endl., Chamaecyparis thyoides (Britton.) Stem & Poggenb, Cupressus chasmeriana Royle ex Carriere, Cupressus benthamii Endl., Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl., Libocedrus formosana Florin, Thuja occidentalis L., Thuja orientalis L.

Rutaceae. These plants are very essential for pain relief and also in the improvement of the general blood circulation. They contain properties used to cure any kind of acne problems. It also has some essential oil that reduces chances of cholesterol related ailments.[14] A sample of aromatic plants list in this family comprises of Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn., Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panz.) Swingle, Citrus hystrix DC., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack., Acronychia trifoliata Zoll.

Lauraceae and Myrtaceae. These plants include Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl., Cinnamomum sintoc Bl., Massoi aromatica Becc. They contain several properties such as tonic, stimulant, bactericidal, antiviral and antifungal which assist in keeping off some common forms of ailment. They are known to treat complications in the respiratory tract and the respiratory system at large.[14] They include Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L., Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex. Bl., Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, Eucalyptus deglupta Bl., Leptospermum amboinense Bl.

Lamiaceae. The giant group of plants used in aromatherapy is drawn from this family. They possess some chemical complexities in their leaves that provide aromatherapy properties.[14] Some plants in this family include Mentha arvensis L., Pogostemon cablin Bth., Coleus atropurpureus Bth., Ocimum basilicum L., Orthosiphon aristatus (Bl.) Miq. The therapeutic properties of these plants cure headaches, provide relief in case of nasal congestion and also suppress any muscular pain.


CONCLUSIONS

The study revealed that 66 aromatic plant species belonging to 50 genera in 31 families were used as aromatic and condiment. Several wild species are promising for their potential aromatic properties, such as Amomum cardamomum L., Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook) Rchb. ex Meissn, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Dysoxylum caulostachyum Miq., Pittosporum ferrugineum W. Ait., Protium javanicum Burm. f., and Talauma candollii Bl. Some of them are Indonesia native plants (e.g., Protium javanicum Burm. f., and Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). The consumption of these plants may have beneficial effects on aromatic industry, and the increased attention on healthy condiment make these plants interesting for potential commercialization.


SUGGESTIONS

The industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants should be undertaken with conservation measures in mind. Greater effort should be put in the search for new aromatic products from plants, especially in plants indigenous to the tropical countries.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank all the colleagues who contributed to this study with their knowledge and friendship.


REFERENCES
[1] Okigbo, R.N., C.L. Anuagasi, and J.E. Amadi. 2009. Advances in Selected Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Indigenous to Africa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 3: 86-95.

[2] Chandarana, H., S. Baluja, and S.V. Chand. 2005. Comparison of Antibacterial Activities of Selected Species of Zingiberaceae Family and Some Synthetic Compounds. Turc J.Biol 29: 83-97.


[3] Prabuseenivasan, S., M. Jayakumar, and S. Ignacimuthu. 2006. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils. BMC Complement Altern Med 6:39.




[4] Sumantera, W. 1993. Bali’s Botanic Garden, Indonesia. BGC News.


[5] Bali Botanic Garden. 2014. Updated Collection Number: February 2014. Bali Botanic Garden, Bali, Indonesia.


[6] Backer, T.C.A. and R.C. Van Den Brink. 1963. Flora of Java Vol I. Wolters Noordhoff N.V, Groningen, The Netherlands.
[7] Backer, T.C.A. and R.C. Van Den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java Vol II. Wolters Noordhoff N.V, Groningen, The Netherlands.
[8] Backer, T.C.A. and R.C. Van Den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java Vol III. Wolters Noordhoff N.V, Groningen, The Netherlands.
[9] Ochse, J.J. and R.C. Van Den Brink. 1977. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. A.Asher & Co. B.V, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


[10] Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 2007. Flora Pegunungan Jawa. Pusat Penelitian Biologi LIPI, Cibinong, Jawa Barat.


[11] Tengah, I.G.P., I.W. Arka, N.M. Sritamin, I.B.K. Gotama, and H. Sihombing. 1995. Studi Tentang : Inventarisasi, Determinasi dan Cara Penggunaan Tanaman Obat Pada “Lontar Usada” di Bali. Puslitbang Farmasi Balitbang Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta.



[12] Lugrayasa, I.N., I.W. Warnata, and I.B.K. Arinasa. 2009. An Alphabetical List of Plant Species Cultivated in Eka Karya Bali Botanic Garden Catalogue. LIPI Press, Jakarta.


[13] The Plantlist. 2013. The Plantlist Database. http://www.theplantlist.org. accessed 1 February 2014.


[14] Chauhan, N.S. 1999. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal Pradesh. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi.



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